Researcher Database

Toru Katoh
Faculty of Science Biological Sciences Biodiversity
Associate Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings


  • Faculty of Science Biological Sciences Biodiversity

Job Title

  • Associate Professor


  • Ph.D

J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • 分子系統解析   アジア地域   DNA解析   マダラテントウ類   東・東南アジア   ショウジョウバエ   食植性昆虫   マイクロサテライト   種分化   分子進化   食性   遺伝学   進化   昆虫   DNA   分子系統   

Research Areas

  • Life sciences / Biodiversity and systematics

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2016/10 - Today Hokkaido University Faculty of Science
  • 2009/04 - 2016/09 Hokkaido University Faculty of Science

Association Memberships


Research Activities

Published Papers

    Zootaxa 4789 (1) 1 - 54 1175-5326 2020/06/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The taxonomy of the subgenus Ashima of the genus Phortica is revised. A cladistic analysis of 66 morphological characters is conducted, covering 35 species (28 known and 7 new species: Phortica efragmentata sp. nov., P. andreagigoni sp. nov., P. watabei sp. nov., P. halimunensis sp. nov., P. akutsui sp. nov., P. kerinciensis sp. nov., and P. takehiroi sp. nov.) which correspond to 71.4% of 49 total spp. of Ashima. The resulting cladogram shows that the studied species are separated into several clades/subclades/cluster each highly supported with specific synapomorphies. Those clades/subclades/cluster are newly defined as the following species groups, subgroups or complex: the afoliolata, foliiseta, nigrifoliiseta and angulata species groups; the foliiseta, tanabei, nigrifoliiseta and glabra species subgroups; and the foliiseta species complex. The subgenus Ashima is peculiar in having the asymmetric male genitalia as the ground plan and showing the antisymmetry (i.e. intraspecific mirror-image variation) in some species but the directional asymmetry (i.e. side-fixed asymmetry) in others. The evolution of genital asymmetry in this subgenus is estimated by mapping the states (symmetry, directional asymmetry and antisymmetry) of bilateral structures of male genitalia on the cladogram. This ancestral state reconstruction estimates that the directional asymmetry of male genitalia has evolved at the ancestor of this subgenus and then changed to the antisymmetric state independently in two lineages, the angulata + nigrifoliiseta species groups and the foliiseta species complex. In this study, a standardized terminology recently proposed for the male terminalia of Drosophila melanogaster is extendedly adopted to describe the morphology of male terminalia in the subgenus Ashima, one group of the subfamily Steganinae.
  • Chen AL, Chen CC, Katoh T, Katoh TK, Watada M, Toda MJ, Ritchie MG, Wen SY
    Journal of Evolutionary Biology 32 (10) 1124 - 1140 2019/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Phylogeny of the genus Scaptomyza Hardy (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
    Toru Katoh
    Japanese Journal of Entomology (New Series) 22 (2) 56 - 65 2019/06 [Refereed][Invited]
  • Katoh T, Mitsuhashi K, Izumitani H, Toda MJ
    The Nature & Insects 54 (1) 30 - 33 0023-3218 2019/01 [Not refereed][Invited]
  • Shimpei F. Hiruta, Maho Ikoma, Toru Katoh, Hiroshi Kajihara, Matthew H. Dick
    HYDROBIOLOGIA 799 (1) 151 - 179 0018-8158 2017/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The expansion-contraction (EC) model of Pleistocene biogeography and the concept of refugia are of dubious applicability for rocky-shore marine species along the northwest Pacific coast, which was not glaciated at the last glacial maximum (LGM) and likely remained largely habitable by marine communities. We examined the population structure and historical demography of two ecologically similar rocky-intertidal idoteid isopods, Idotea ochotensis and Cleantiella isopus, in northern Japan based on mitochondrial COI and (for I. ochotensis) nuclear ITS nucleotide sequences. We concluded that I. ochotensis persisted in northern Japan across one or more glacial cycles, whereas C. isopus recolonized northern Japan after the LGM. We present an alternative general model for Pleistocene biogeography in temperate to subtropical, non-glaciated coastal regions, wherein species tend to retain large population size and high genetic diversity across glacial cycles in a zone of persistence, with flanking zones of expansion and contraction where the geographical range cyclically expands and contracts (i.e., undergoes latitudinal displacements) with climatic oscillations. We also found that local sea straits had less effect in determining phylogeographic boundaries than a long stretch of unfavorable shore habitat, and that late Holocene sea current patterns appear to have affected fine-scale phylogeographic patterns.
  • Izumitani HF, Mitsuhashi K, Terada T, Katoh T
    Japanese Journal of Entomology (New Series) 20 (3) 109 - 119 1343-8794 2017/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Toru Katoh, Hiroyuki F. Izumitani, Shinji Yamashita, Masayoshi Watada
    ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE 20 (1) 33 - 44 1343-8786 2017/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Scaptomyza is a highly diversified genus in the family Drosophilidae, having undergone an explosive radiation, along with the Hawaiian-endemic genus Idiomyia in the Hawaiian Islands: about 60% of 269 Scaptomyza species so far described are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Two hypotheses have been proposed for the origin and diversification of Hawaiian drosophilids. One is the "single Hawaiian origin" hypothesis: Scaptomyza and Idiomyia diverged from a single common ancestor that had once colonized the Hawaiian Islands, and then non-Hawaiian Scaptomyza migrated back to continents. The other is the "multiple origins" hypothesis: Hawaiian Scaptomyza and Idiomyia derived from different ancestors that independently colonized the Hawaiian Islands. A key issue for testing these two hypotheses is to clarify the phylogenetic relationships between Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian species in Scaptomyza. Toward this goal, we sampled additional non-Hawaiian Scaptomyza species, particularly in the Old World, and determined the nucleotide sequences of four mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes for these species. Combining these sequence data with published data for 79 species, we reconstructed the phylogeny and estimated ancestral distributions and divergence times. In the resulting phylogenetic trees, non-Hawaiian Scaptomyza species were interspersed in two Hawaiian clades. From a reconstruction of ancestral biogeography, we inferred that Idiomyia and Scaptomyza diverged outside the Hawaiian Islands and then independently colonized the Hawaiian Islands, twice in Scaptomyza, thus supporting the "multiple origins" hypothesis.
  • Hiroyuki F. Izumitani, Yohei Kusaka, Shigeyuki Koshikawa, Masanori J. Toda, Toru Katoh
    PLOS ONE 11 (7) e0160051  1932-6203 2016/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The current subgenus Drosophila (the traditional immigrans-tripunctata radiation) includes major elements of temperate drosophilid faunas in the northern hemisphere. Despite previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, the phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila has not fully been resolved: the resulting trees have more or less varied in topology. One possible factor for such ambiguous results is taxon-sampling that has been biased towards New World species in previous studies. In this study, taxon sampling was balanced between Old and New World species, and phylogenetic relationships among 45 ingroup species selected from ten core species groups of the subgenus Drosophila were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of three nuclear and two mitochondrial genes. Based on the resulting phylogenetic tree, ancestral distributions and divergence times were estimated for each clade to test Throckmorton's hypothesis that there was a primary, early-Oligocene disjunction of tropical faunas and a subsequent mid-Miocene disjunction of temperate faunas between the Old and the New Worlds that occurred in parallel in separate lineages of the Drosophilidae. Our results substantially support Throckmorton's hypothesis of ancestral migrations via the Bering Land Bridge mainly from the Old to the New World, and subsequent vicariant divergence of descendants between the two Worlds occurred in parallel among different lineages of the subgenus Drosophila. However, our results also indicate that these events took place multiple times over a wider time range than Throckmorton proposed, from the late Oligocene to the Pliocene.
  • Shimpei F. Hiruta, Norio Kobayashi, Toru Katoh, Hiroshi Kajihara
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 33 (2) 179 - 185 0289-0003 2016/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
    With the aim of exploring phylogenetic relationships within Cypridoidea, the most species-rich superfamily among the podocopidan ostracods, we sequenced nearly the entire 18S rRNA gene (18S) and part of the 28S rRNA gene (28S) for 22 species in the order Podocopida, with representatives from all the major cypridoid families. We conducted phylogenetic analyses using the methods of maximum likelihood, minimum evolution, and Bayesian analysis. Our analyses showed monophyly for Cyprididae, one of the four families currently recognized in Cypridoidea. Candonidae turned out to be paraphyletic, and included three clades corresponding to the subfamilies Candoninae, Paracypridinae, and Cyclocypridinae. We propose restricting the name Candonidae s. str. to comprise what is now Candoninae, and raising Paracypridinae and Cyclocyprininae to family rank within the superfamily Cypridoidea.
  • Hiromu Suga, Wataru Hirano, Toru Katoh, Kei W. Matsubayashi, Haruo Katakura
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 33 (6) 603 - 610 0289-0003 2016 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The ladybird beetles Propylea quatuordecimpunctata and P. japonica have largely overlapping distributions in northern Japan, and in the laboratory produce fertile hybrids. In this study, we surveyed the distribution and morphological differentiation of these species and the hybrids in natural populations, with a focus on western Hokkaido, northern Japan. Phenotypic analyses were conducted for 987 individuals collected at 90 localities. In addition, the nuclear internal transcribed spacer-II (ITS2) region (549 bp) and part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (700 bp) were sequenced for 620 individuals from 53 localities. Analyses of both phenotypic and genotypic features discriminated two distinct entities assignable to P. quatuordecimpunctataand P. japonica. However, individuals with intermediate phenotypes and/or genotypes also occurred extensively, indicating natural hybridization. Putative P. quatuordecimpunctata individuals were collected across a wide range of altitudes (30-600 m), whereas those of P. japonica were found mostly lower than 300 m alt. In addition, P. quatuordecimpunctata was dominant in semi-open habitats shaded by canopy foliage, whereas P. japonica was frequent in more open habitats. The perceived altitudinal difference in the distributions may thus in part be a consequence of this different habitat preference, as open habitats are more common at lower altitudes in the study area.
  • Toru Katoh, Shinsaku Koji, Takahide A. Ishida, Kei W. Matsubayashi, Sih Kahono, Norio Kobayashi, Kota Furukawa, Bui Tuan Viet, Joao Vasconcellos-Neto, Charles N. Lange, Georg Goergen, Susumu Nakano, Nan-Nan Li, Guo-Yue Yu, Haruo Katakura
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 31 (12) 820 - 830 0289-0003 2014/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Ladybird beetles in the tribe Epilachnini include notorious crop pests and model species studied intensively in various fields of evolutionary biology. From a combined dataset of mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear (28S) DNA sequences, we reconstructed the phylogeny of 46 species of Epilachnini from Asia, Africa, America, and the Australian region: 16 species in Epilachna, 24 species in Henosepilachna, and one species each in Adira, Afidenta, Afidentula, Afissula, Chnootriba, and Epiverta. In our phylogenetic trees, both Epilachna and Henosepilachna were reciprocally polyphyletic. Asian Epilachna species were monophyletic, except for the inclusion of Afissula sp. Asian and Australian Henosepilachna species likewise formed a monophyletic group, excluding H. boisduvali. African Epilachna and Henosepilachna species did not group with their respective Asian and American congeners, but were paraphyletic to other clades (Epilachna species) or formed a separate monophyletic group (Henosepilachna species) together with Chnootriba similis. The American Epilachna species were monophyletic and formed a clade with American Adira clarkii and Asian Afidentula manderstjernae bielawskii; this clade was the sister group to Asian and Australian Henosepilachna, but was distant from Asian Epilachna. Chnootriba was embedded in the African Henosepilachna clade, and Afissula in the Asian Epilachna clade. Epiverta, which is morphologically unique, was the sister group to Asian Epilachna, although with weak support. From reconstructions of biogeographical distribution and host-plant utilization at ancestral nodes, we inferred an African origin for the common ancestor of the species studied, and found the frequency of host shifts to differ greatly between the two major lineages of Epilachnini examined.
  • Yoshio Tateno, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Toru Katoh, Batmunkh Munkhbat, Akira Oka, Yuko Haida, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Gen Tamiya, Hidetoshi Inoko
    GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 6 (3) 466 - 473 1759-6653 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
    To study the male and female lineages of East Asian and European humans, we have sequenced 25 short tandem repeat markers on 453 Y-chromosomes and collected sequences of 72 complete mitochondrial genomes to construct independent phylogenetic trees for male and female lineages. The results indicate that East Asian individuals fall into two clades, one that includes East Asian individuals only and a second that contains East Asian and European individuals. Surprisingly, the European individuals did not form an independent clade, but branched within in the East Asians. We then estimated the divergence time of the root of the European clade as similar to 41,000 years ago. These data indicate that, contrary to traditional views, Europeans diverged from East Asians around that time. We also address the origin of the Ainu lineage in northern Japan.
  • Masato Hirose, Ryuma Fukiage, Toru Katoh, Hiroshi Kajihara
    ZOOKEYS 398 (398) 1 - 31 1313-2989 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
    We describe Phoronis emigi sp. n. as the eighth member of the genus based on specimens collected from a sandy bottom at 33.2 m depth in Tomioka Bay, Amakusa, Japan. The new species is morphologically similar to P. psammophila Cori, 1889, but can be distinguished from the latter by the number of longitudinal muscle bundles in the body wall (56-72 vs. 25-50 in P. psammophila) and the position of the nephridiopores (situated level with the anus vs. lower than the anus in P. psammophila). Using sequences of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, we inferred the relationship of P. emigi to other phoronids by the maximum likelihood method and Bayesian analysis. The analyses showed that P. emigi is closely related to P. hippocrepia Wright, 1856 and P. psammophila Cori, 1889. We describe the morphology of the topotypes and additional material for P. ijimai Oka, 1897. Neither our morphological observations of P. ijimai, nor the phylogenetic analyses based on 18S and COI sequences, contradicts that P. vancouverensis Pixell, 1912 is conspecific with P. ijimai, a synonymy that has long been disputed.
  • Rajendra S. Fartyal, Jian-Jun Gao, Masanori J. Toda, Yao-Guang Hu, Kohei Takenaka Takano, Awit Suwito, Toru Katoh, Tomohiro Takigahira, Jian-Tao Yin
    SYSTEMATIC ENTOMOLOGY 38 (4) 763 - 782 0307-6970 2013/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The phylogeny of Colocasiomyia (Drosophilidae) is analysed using data for 70 morphological characters, many of which are re-evaluated from or added to those used previously, for an expanded taxon sample of 24 Colocasiomyia ingroup species. A special focus is put on three species, of which two have remained unresolved for their relationships to other Colocasiomyia species, and the other is a newly discovered species. The analysis results in a single, most parsimonious cladogram, in which a clade comprising the three focal species is recognized along with other clades recovered for the known species groups of Colocasiomyia. Based on this, a new species groupthe gigantea groupis established, including Colocasiomyia gigantea (Okada), C. rhaphidophoraeGao & Toda, n.sp. and C. scindapsaeFartyal & Toda, n.sp. These species of the gigantea group breed on inflorescences/infructescences of the subfamily Monsteroideae (Araceae) exceptionally among Colocasiomyia species, most of which use plants of the subfamily Aroideae as their hosts. Colocasiomyia gigantea uses Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engler, C. rhaphidophorae uses Rhaphidophora hookeriSchott and C. scindapsae uses Scindapsus coriaceusEngler as their hosts. The host plants of the gigantea group are epiphytes and differ in the structure of spadix and the fruiting process from those of the Aroideae. To understand how the species of the gigantea group adapt to properties of their host plants, their reproductive ecologymost intensively that of C. giganteais investigated. The lifecycle of C. gigantea is characterized by its relatively slow embryonic development (taking approximately 6 days), the very long duration of the full-grown first instar within the egg capsule (approximately three months) until dehiscence of host infructescence, and its relatively fast larval and pupal development (taking approximately 11 or 12 days). Some morphological adaptations and the reproductive strategy in terms of egg size vs. number' trade-off are discussed in relation to their reproductive habits and peculiar lifecycles.
  • Taiki Yoshihara, Shimpei F. Hiruta, Toru Katoh, Hiroshi Kajihara
    ZOOKEYS 187 (187) 45 - 62 1313-2989 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
    We describe two new species and redescribe one in the polychaete genus Amphicorina Claparede, 1864 (Sabellidae) from Hokkaido, Japan. Amphicorina ascidicola sp. n. differs from its 38 congeners chiefly in the reduction of the collar, but also in having three pairs of radioles, one pair of ventral radiolar appendages, a bifurcate ventral lobe on the anterior peristomial ring, six abdominal chaetigers, and a large anterior tooth on the abdominal uncini. Amphicorina ezoensis sp. n. has a crenulated collar, three pairs of radioles, and more than eight (12) abdominal chaetigers; A. ezoensis sp. n. shares these character states with A. anneae (Rouse, 1994), A. eimeri (Langerhans, 1880), and A. persinosa (Ben-Eliahu, 1975), but differs from them in having two pairs of ventral radiolar appendages and a non-oblique collar. Amphicorina mobilis (Rouse, 1990) was previously known only from the type locality (New South Wales, Australia), but we identify our Japanese material as conspecific on the basis of morphological and molecular similarity.
  • Keiichi Kakui, Toru Katoh, Shimpei F. Hiruta, Norio Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kajihara
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 28 (10) 749 - 757 0289-0003 2011/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Phylogenetic relationships within Tanaidacea were analyzed based on sequence data for the 18S rRNA gene. Our results strongly supported a monophyletic group composed of Neotanaidae, Tanaoidea, and Paratanaoidea, with the first two taxa forming a clade. These results contradict three previously suggested hypotheses of relationships. Based on the molecular results, and considering morphological similarities/differences between Neotanaidomorpha and Tanaidomorpha, we demoted Suborder Neotanaidomorpha to Superfamily Neotanaoidea within Tanaidomorpha; with this change, the classification of extant tanaidaceans becomes a two-suborder, four-superfamily system. This revision required revision of the diagnoses for Tanaidomorpha and its three superfamilies. The results for Apseudomorpha were ambiguous: this taxon was monophyletic in the maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses, but paraphyletic in the maximum parsimony and minimum evolution analyses.
  • Jian-jun Gao, Yao-guang Hu, Masanori J. Toda, Toru Katoh, Koichiro Tamura
    MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION 60 (1) 98 - 107 1055-7903 2011/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Despite many studies on the phylogeny of the subgenus Sophophora, its monophyly has not been established, especially in relation to its putative relative, the genus Lordiphosa. We analyzed their phylogenetic relationships using DNA sequence data of two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and CO11)and two nuclear genes (Adh and 28SrRNA). In constructing phylogenetic trees, we accounted for the problem of among-taxa nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, and took a sequence-partitioning approach to allow multiple substitution models for nucleotide sequences that have evolved under different evolutionary processes, particularly developing a novel, sequence-partitioning procedure for Neighbor Joining (NJ) tree construction. Trees constructed by different methods showed an almost identical and strongly supported topology in which Sophophora was paraphyletic: Lordiphosa was placed as the sister to the Neotropical Sophophora consisting of the saltans and willistoni groups, and Sophophora was divided into the clade of Lordiphosa + Neotropical Sophophora and the clade of the obscura + melanogaster groups. Based on the estimated time, 45.9 Mya, of divergence between the Old World Lordiphosa and the Neotropical Sophophora and evidence from paleontology, paleo-geography and -climatology, we propose a hypothesis that this vicariant divergence should have occurred when the North Atlantic Land Bridge between Europe and North America broke in the middle Eocene Epoch. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hiroshi Kajihara, Minerva Olympia, Norio Kobayashi, Toru Katoh, Hai-Xia Chen, Malin Strand, Per Sundberg
    ZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY 161 (4) 695 - 722 0024-4082 2011/04 [Not refereed][Not invited]
    We provide a redescription of the poorly known distromatonemertean, Diplomma serpentina ( Stimpson, 1855), a species that has not been reported since its original description. One of the freshly obtained topotypes is designated as a neotype. Based on examination of the new material, as well as the type specimens of three known species, we present a taxonomic revision of the so-far monotypic genus Diplomma Stimpson, 1857, which has been regarded as a dubious taxon since 1904. The following three nominal species are transferred to Diplomma: Paramphiporus albimarginatus Kirsteuer, 1965, Poseidonemertes bothwellae Gibson, 1982, and Correanemertes polyophthalma Gibson & Sundberg, 2001. The genus Paramphiporus Kirsteuer, 1965 is regarded as a junior synonym of Diplomma. Comparison of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene ( COI) sequences indicates that D. serpentina is distributed in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of nuclear 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, as well as COI, from a selected number of distromatonemerteans fail to specify the sister relation to Diplomma, although it is suggested that the genus is more closely related to Antarctonemertes, Gononemertes, Nemertellina, Tetraneuronemertes, Oerstedia, and Vulcanonemertes, than to Amphiporus, Cyanophthalma, Geonemertes, Malacobdella, Paranemertes, Poseidonemertes, Prostoma, Tetrastemma, and Zygonemertes. (C) 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 161, 695-722.
  • Hiroshi Kajihara, Toru Katoh, Dhugal J. Lindsay
    Marine Biodiversity Records 4 (e13) 1 - 8 2011/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Two specimens of the pelagic nemertean Protopelagonemertes beebei Coe, 1936 were collected in Sagami Bay, Japan. Kimura-2-parameter distance based on the partial sequences (616 base pairs) of cytochrome c oxidase gene between the present material and that previously reported as an unidentified specimen of the genus Protopelagonemertes collected from off California, USA was 5.6%, implying that these are closely related, and may belong to the same species. A description of the internal morphology based on serial transverse sections of the body is provided. The material showed an intermediate character state in the number of proboscis nerves between what had formerly been reported as P. beebei and P. hubrechti (Brinkmann, 1917), posing a question on the species delimitation. © 2011 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
  • 加藤 徹
    Low temperature science 北海道大学低温科学研究所 = Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University 69 (0) 1 - 9 1880-7593 2011 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Noritaka Ito, Toru Katoh, Norio Kobayashi, Haruo Katakura
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 27 (4) 313 - 319 0289-0003 2010/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Population genetic analyses were conducted for the flightless beetle Silpha perforata in northern Japan to evaluate effects of straits as dispersal barriers. In all, 19 populations on the Hokkaido mainland and one population on each of seven adjacent islands were included in the study. Based on partial sequences (853 bp) of the mitochondrial ND2 gene from 365 individuals, we calculated haplotype diversity (h), nucleotide diversity (pi), Tajima's D, and Fu's F(S) statistics for each population. The genetic distance d(A) and fixation index F(ST) were then estimated between populations, excluding two mainland and two island populations with small sample sizes. The results showed that four island populations (Rebun, Rishiri, Yagishiri, and Teuri) were genetically diverged and isolated from mainland populations, including the closest ones, consistent with the assumption that the straits separating these islands from the mainland have functioned as strong barriers against beetle dispersal. However, some factors other than sea barriers may have resulted in the observed divergence of these island populations, since the straits might be too young to permit such divergence (all are estimated to have been finally established approximately 11,000 to 13,000 years BP). On the other hand, the population on Okushiri Island showed little genetic divergence from the nearest mainland population, suggesting current overseas dispersal across the strait (estimated to have been formed more than 200,000 years BP). The present study thus demonstrated that the effects of straits on dispersal can be diverse, even for species of terrestrial invertebrates with limited dispersal ability.
  • Masakazu Kuwajima, Norio Kobayashi, Toru Katoh, Haruo Katakura
    ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA 134 (3) 280 - 286 0013-8703 2010/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
    Ecological speciation is a process by which reproductive isolation evolves as the result of divergent natural selection between populations inhabiting distinct environments or exploiting alternative resources. Ecological hybrid inviability provides direct evidence for ecological speciation. To detect ecological hybrid inviability, we examined survival rates to the second instar of F1 hybrids and backcross hybrids in a pair of sympatric phytophagous ladybird beetles, Henosepilachna niponica Lewis and Henosepilachna yasutomii Katakura (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Epilachninae), reared on their respective host plants, thistle [Cirsium alpicola Nakai (Asteraceae)] and blue cohosh [Caulophyllum robustum Maxim. (Berberidaceae)], and on a common food plant, Japanese nightshade [Solanum japonense Nakai (Solanaceae)]. Hybrid larvae reared on leaves of the Japanese nightshade always had high rates of survival, irrespective of the crossing type of their parents, suggesting a lack of intrinsic hybrid inviability between the two species. In contrast, survival rates on thistle and blue cohosh varied greatly. On blue cohosh, the survival rate of F1 hybrids was nearly as high as that of H. yasutomii, but on thistle, survival was significantly lower than of H. niponica. Survival rates of backcross hybrids on the two host plants were intermediate between those of the parents, showing a reversed rank order of different types of backcross hybrids on the two food plant species. These results suggest that ecological hybrid inviability exists between H. niponica and H. yasutomii, although the two species do not show intrinsic hybrid inviability. Thus, our study supports the hypothesis that H. niponica and H. yasutomii underwent ecological speciation by divergent selection.
  • Norio Kobayashi, Yuri Ohta, Toru Katoh, Sih Kahono, Sri Hartini, Haruo Katakura
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL HISTORY 43 (27-28) 1637 - 1649 0022-2933 2009 [Refereed][Not invited]
    We determined partial sequences of the nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA gene (717 base pairs) and mitochondrial DNA NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (535 base pairs) of 25 species of phytophagous ladybird beetles from Asia that comprise 16 species of the genus Henosepilachna and nine species of the genus Epilachna, and reconstructed the phylogenetic trees for each gene by the maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The estimated phylogenetic relationships were consistent with those obtained by the mode of sperm transfer and female internal reproductive system, and supported an earlier assumption that very similar elytral spot patterns of some sympatric members of epilachnine beetles evolved independently.
  • van der Linde K, Bächli G, Toda MJ, Zhang WX, Katoh T, Hu YG, Spicer GS
    Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 65 (4) 304 - 307 2008/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Japanese journal of entomology. New series 日本昆虫学会 11 (1) 25 - 31 1343-8794 2008/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • van der Linde K, Bächli G, Toda MJ, Zhang WX, Katoh T, Hu YG, Spicer GS
    Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 64 (4) 238 - 242 2007/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Toru Katoh, Daisuke Nakaya, Koichiro Tamura, Tadashi Aotsuka
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 24 (9) 913 - 921 0289-0003 2007/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The immigrans species group in the Drosophilinae is one of the representative species groups of Drosophila in East Asia. Although this group constitutes a significant part of the drosophilid fauna in the Old World, only a few species have been analyzed in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. To study the phylogeny of the immigrans group, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of two nuclear genes, alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpdh), for 36 drosophilid species, including 12 species of the immigrans group. In the resultant phylogenetic trees, 10 species of the immigrans group (D. immigrans, D. formosana, D. ruberrima, D. albomicans, D. nasuta, D. neonasuta, D. pailidifrons, D. hypocausta, D. neohypocausta, D. siamana) consistently formed a clade (the immigrans group proper), although the phylogeny within this clade did not exactly correspond to the classification of species subgroups. However, D. annulipes and D. quadrilineata, both of which belong to the quadrilineata subgroup of the immigrans group, were not included in the immigrans group proper. Furthermore, we obtained the unexpected result that D. annulipes was included in a clade comprising Scaptomyza and Hawaiian Drosophila, together with D. maculinotata of the funebris group, although the phylogenetic relationships within this clade remain uncertain and need to be substantiated with further studies. Thus, according to the present study, the immigrans group is polyphyletic.
  • T Katoh, S Mano, B Munkhbat, K Tounai, G Oyungerel, GT Chae, H Han, GJ Jia, K Tokunaga, N Munkhtuvshin, G Tamiya, H Inoko
    GENE 357 (2) 95 - 102 0378-1119 2005/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The Khoton Mongolian population is a small and relatively isolated ethnic group residing predominantly in the northwestern part of Mongolia. A recent genetic study of the Y chromosome revealed that the major Mongolian ethnic groups have a relatively close genetic affinity to populations in the northern part of East Asia, while the Khoton population reflected an apparent genetic differentiation from the other Mongolian populations. To further investigate the genetic features of the Khoton and the other Mongolian populations, we analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Xq13.3 region, which is thought to have an extremely low, level of recombination in the human X chromosome. We found that the frequency distribution of Xq13.3 haplotypes in the Khoton population was substantially different from those in three other Mongolian populations (Khalkh, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin). The same relationship was also revealed by the results from the population tree and principal-component (PC) analysis based on the allele frequencies. These results are largely consistent with the hypothesis that the Khoton population descended from a nomadic tribe of Turkish origin, which has been supported by previous anthropological, historical, and Y-chromosome studies. However, the population structure analysis produced an additional finding, namely, that the Khoton population is likely to be an admixed population. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Toru Katoh, Anton Chichvarkhin, Takashi Yagi, Keiichi Moto
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 22 (3) 343 - 351 0289-0003 2005/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Parnassius and its related taxa were analyzed by comparing nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (504 sites) and NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 1 (469 sites). In the phylogenetic trees, Parnassius was found to be most closely related to Hypermnestra helios, whereas Archon apollinus, which has been classified in the tribe Parnassiini together with Parnassius and Hypermnestra, was more closely related to members of the tribe Zerynthiini. Within the Parnassius clade, six major clades corresponding to species groups were well supported, although the phylogenetic relationships among them were not clear. Although the results of the present study were in agreement with those of a previous phylogenetic study based on mitochondrial NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 5 sequences, our study strongly supported a close relationship between Parnassius and Hypermnestra, which was not well supported in the previous study.
  • T Katoh, B Munkhbat, K Tounai, S Mano, H Ando, G Oyungerel, GT Chae, H Han, GJ Jia, K Tokunaga, N Munkhtuvshin, G Tamiya, H Inoko
    GENE 346 63 - 70 0378-1119 2005/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
    About 20 ethnic groups reside in Mongolia. On the basis of genetic and anthropological studies, it is believed that Mongolians have played a pivotal role in the peopling of Central and East Asia. However, the genetic relationships among these ethnic groups have remained obscure, as have their detailed relationships with adjacent populations. We analyzed 16 binary and 17 STR polymorphisms of human Y chromosome in 669 individuals from nine populations, including four indigenous ethnic groups in Mongolia (Khalkh, Uriankhai, Zakhchin, and Khoton). Among these four Mongolian populations, the Khalkh, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin populations showed relatively close genetic affinities to each other and to Siberian populations, while the Khoton population showed a closer relationship to Central Asian populations than to even the other Mongolian populations. These findings suggest that the major Mongolian ethnic groups have a close genetic affinity to populations in northern East Asia, although the genetic link between Mongolia and Central Asia is not negligible. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • S Mano, N Yasuda, T Katoh, K Tounai, H Inoko, T Imanishi, G Tamiya, T Gojobori
    ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS 68 257 - 264 0003-4800 2004/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is one of the most popular ways to estimate haplotype frequencies of a population with genotype data whose linkage phases are unknown. The MLE is commonly implemented in the use of the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. It is known that the EM algorithm carries the risk that an estimator may converge erroneously to one of the local maxima or saddle points of the likelihood surface, resulting in serious errors in the MLE of haplotype frequencies. In this note, by theoretical treatments we present the necessary and sufficient conditions that the local maxima or saddle points on the likelihood surface appear. As a rule of thumb, that the difference between the coupling and repulsive haplotype frequencies in phase known individuals is 3/2 times larger than the frequency of phase ambiguous individuals is the sufficient condition that the likelihood surface is unimodal. Moreover, we present the analytic solution to the biallelic two-locus problem, and construct a general algorithm to obtain the global maximum.
  • K Omoto, T Katoh, A Chichvarkhin, T Yagi
    GENE 326 141 - 147 0378-1119 2004/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Sequences of 777 bp of mtDNA-ND5 locus were determined in order to shed light on the molecular systematics and evolution of the "Apollo" butterflies. Examined were nearly all of about 50 species of the genus Parnassius, together with seven species of the allied genera in the subfamily Parnassiinae (Papilionidae). The NJ and the MP phylogenetic trees show that the "Apollos" constitute a monophyletic group, comprising a number of cluster groups probably reflecting a relatively rapid radiation in evolution. The clusters of species-groups denoted I-VIII correspond to those species-groups recognized on the basis of morphological characters. Our findings will also help understand the biological relationships among several species or subspecies on which the classical taxonomy is in dispute. The unexpected finding is that among the samples of allied genera compared, Hypermnestra helios appears to be the most closely related to the "Apollos", despite morphological and behavioral dissimilarity. Furthermore, in contrast to the previous higher taxonomy, Archon apollinus which is classified in the tribe Parnassiini was found genetically closer to the tribe Zerynthiini, raising a taxonomic controversy. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • T Katoh, S Mano, T Ikuta, B Munkhbat, K Tounai, H Ando, N Munkhtuvshin, T Imanishi, H Inoko, G Tamiya
    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS 71 (2) 395 - 400 0002-9297 2002/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The background linkage disequilibrium (LD) in genetic isolates is of great interest in human genetics. Although many empirical studies have evaluated the background LD in European isolates, such as the Finnish and Sardinians, few data from other regions, such as Asia, have been reported. To evaluate the extent of background LD in East Asian genetic isolates, we analyzed the X chromosome in the Japanese population and in four Mongolian populations (Khalkh, Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin), the demographic histories of which are quite different from one another. Fisher's exact test revealed that the Japanese and Khalkh, which are the expanded populations, had the same or a relatively higher level of LD than did the Finnish, European American, and Sardinian populations. In contrast, the Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin populations, which have kept their population size constant, had a higher background LD. These results were consistent with previous genetic anthropological studies in European isolates and indicate that the Japanese and Khalkh populations could be utilized in the fine mapping of both complex and monogenic diseases, whereas the Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin populations could play an important role in the initial mapping of complex disease genes.
  • T Yagi, T Katoh, A Chichvarkhin, T Shinkawa, K Omoto
    GENES & GENETIC SYSTEMS 76 (4) 229 - 234 1341-7568 2001/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The phylogeny of butterflies, Parnassius stubbendorfii and R glacialis, collected at various localities in the Japan archipelago and the eastern part of the Asian continent was analyzed using mitochondrial DNA sequences coding for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (805 bp). The molecular phylogenetic trees revealed that R glacialis and R stubbendorfii diverged from a common ancestor, and then the populations inhabiting the Japan archipelago and the Asian continent diverged in each species. The reliability of these divergences was supported by high bootstrap values. The divergences within the Japan archipelago and within the Asian continent in each species were unclear because of low bootstrap values. The genetic distance and a rough time-estimation in the UPGMA tree suggest that the both populations of R glacialis and R stubbendorfii may have been isolated in the Japan archipelago at the early time (about 1.7-2.0 Mya) of the glacial period in the Pleistocene. The genetic distance between the Japanese and the continental subspecies may be large enough that they can be classified as different species, in comparison with the genetic distances among some other parnassian species.
  • T Katoh, K Tamura, T Aotsuka
    JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION 51 (2) 122 - 130 0022-2844 2000/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
    We analyzed the phylogenetic relationship between the species of Lordiphosa and other Drosophilidae using alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene sequences. The phylogenetic trees consistently show that the four species Drosophila kurokawai, D. collinella, D. stackelbergi, and D. clarofinis, which include three species groups of Lordiphosa, form a monophyletic clade. This clade is placed as a sister group to the willistoni and saltans groups of Sophophora. On the other hand, three species of Lordiphosa, D. tenuicauda, D. pseudotenuicauda, and D. acutissima, all of which belong to the tenuicauda group, are not shown to be related to the major Lordiphosa lineage. In the phylogenetic toes, these species are included into the clade comprised of Drosophila and Hirtodrosophila, although it remains uncertain whether the tenuicauda group is a monophyletic group or not. These results indicate that Lordiphosa is polyphyletic and that most of the members of the subgenus have a close relationship to the neotropical groups of Sophophora. The above conclusion is compatible with the hypothesis of Okada (Mushi [1963] 37:79-100) and Lastovka and Maca (Acta Ent Bohemoslov [1978] 75:404-420) that Lordiphosa is most closely related to Sophophora; in contrast, our results contradict the hypothesis of Grimaldi (Bull Am Mus Nat Hist [1990] 197:1-139) that Lordiphosa is a sister group to the genus Scaptomyza.


Awards & Honors

  • 2018/09 The Entomological Society of Japan 2018 Entomological Science Award
     Multiple origins of Hawaiian drosophilids: Phylogeography of Scaptomyza Hardy (Diptera: Drosophilidae). 
    受賞者: Toru Katoh;Hiroyuki Izumitani;Shinji Yamasita;Masayoshi Watada

Research Grants & Projects

  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2016/04 -2019/03 
    Author : Toru Katoh
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2012/04 -2016/03 
    Author : Masanori Toda
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2011/04 -2016/03 
    Author : Matthew H. Dick
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2012/04 -2015/03 
    Author : Toru Katoh
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2011/04 -2014/03 
    Author : Haruo Katakura
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Scientists (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2010/04 -2012/03 
    Author : Toru Katoh
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2008/04 -2011/03 
    Author : Yao-Gang Hu
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2007/04 -2010/03 
    Author : Toru Katoh
    Extent of genetic differentiation between two sympatric ladybird beetles, Henosepilachna niponica and H. yasutomii, which are thought to be reproductively isolated from each other by their host preferences alone, was assessed using microsatellite markers established in this project. The analyzed data revealed that the genetic variation both within and between species were very low. These results suggest that the speciation of two species would have occurred so recently with short time that there is little genetic differentiation between them, except for a number of genes associated with the...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2007/04 -2010/03 
    Author : Tadashi Aotsuka, Masanori TODA, Hideaki WATABE, Masahito KIMURA, Hisaki TAKAMORI, Masako YAFUSO, Toru KATOH
    This project aims to develop a new cooperative study on the evolutionary biology of drosophilids in the Asian region. During the term of this project, field surveys at many nature reserves in southeastern China, Indonesia, Vietnam and Malaysia were performed. By studying phylogenetic relationships of some Asian drosophilid groups, it was revealed that the largest genus Drosophila in the family Drosophilidae and its subgenus Sophophora including Drosophila melanogaster are paraphyletic, suggesting the necessity of revising the classification system of the whole family. Moreover, many new kno...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2006/04 -2010/03 
    Author : Haruo Katakura, Tadashi AOTSUKA, Susumu NAKANO, Naoyuki FUJIYAMA, Toru KATOH
    Effects of host change on the reproductive isolation of phytophagous specialists were studied using phytophagous ladybird beetles and leaf beetles. Host shift has resulted in nearly complete reproductive isolation between two pairs of specialist species/populations by ecological isolation. In addition, in temperate regions, phenological differences between two potential host plants affected oviposition and/or diapause schedules of phytophages. Examples were also given for parallel host shift, rapid host shift, beetle plasticity in ability to utilize various potential host plants, and effect...

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