Researcher Database

Masaki EDA
Hokkaido University Museum
Associate Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings

Affiliation

  • Hokkaido University Museum

Job Title

  • Associate Professor

Research funding number

  • 60452546

J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • Phylogeography   Zooarchaeozlogy   考古動物学   アホウドリ   骨髄骨   ニワトリ   家禽   ガチョウ   家畜化   古代DNA   Zooarchaeology   Archaeozoology   

Research Areas

  • Life sciences / Physical anthropology
  • Life sciences / Anatomy
  • Life sciences / Biodiversity and systematics
  • Humanities & social sciences / Archaeology
  • Humanities & social sciences / Museology
  • Humanities & social sciences / Cultural properties

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2019/06 - Today Hokkaido University The Hokkaido University Museum
  • 2012/04 - 2018/05 Hokkaido University, The Hokkaido University Museum Lecturer
  • 2009/04 - 2012/03 YMCA米子医療福祉専門学校 非常勤講師
  • 2007/04 - 2012/03 鳥取県立倉吉総合看護専門学校 非常勤講師
  • 2007/04 - 2012/03 Medical Department, Tottori University Assistant professor
  • 2004 - 2006 日本学術振興会 特別研究員(PD)

Education

  •        - 2000  東京大学大学院
  •        - 1998  University of Tsukuba

Association Memberships

  • THE SOCIETY OF BIOSOPHIA STUDIES   JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR SCIENTIFIC STUDIES ON CULTURAL PROPERTY   International Council for Archaeozoology   日本動物考古学会   日本鳥学会   

Research Activities

Published Papers

  • Masaki Eda, Hiroki Kikuchi, Guoping Sun, Akira Matsui
    Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 11 (12) 6423 - 6430 1866-9557 2019/12/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. The origins of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) domestication have remained debatable for over a century. China, and particularly northern China, has been claimed as one of the early centers for the domestication of chickens, because many alleged chicken bones have been discovered at a number of archeological sites. However, the identification of archeological domestic chicken bones from early Holocene sites in northern China remains contentious. The Neolithic chicken exploitation in southern China close to modern distribution area of wild red junglefowl (G. gallus) remained unclear, since analyses of bird bones were scarce in the region. To reveal the birds, especially chicken, exploitation in Neolithic southern China, we analyzed bird remains from Tianluoshan site which is located in the lower Yangtze River and is a ruin of large village in the Neolithic early rice cultivation society. Ducks (Anatinae), rails (Rallidae), and geese/swans (Anserinae) were dominant, suggesting that peoples in the Tianluoshan site got birds at inland and brackish waters environments near the site. Although two G. gallus size bones were found at the site, it is also included in the size range of five indigenous pheasants in the region and further studies are required for the species identification of the bones. Phasianidae bones occupied only 0.4% of NISP, suggesting Phasianidae birds, including domestic chickens and red junglefowls, were rarely exploited in the Tianluoshan site. The results did not support the north-word expanded wild distribution of red junglefowl nor early Holocene chicken exploitation in the lower Yangtze River.
  • Masaki Eda, Takeshi Yamasaki, Masato Sakai
    Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 26 2352-409X 2019/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2019 Elsevier Ltd The lines and geoglyphs of Nasca are a series of drawings etched into the surface of the so-called Pampas of Southern Peru. Of these geoglyphs, there are 16 that depict birds. The bird geoglyphs mainly created during the Late Paracas and the Nasca Period (c. 2400 to 1300 years ago) and account for the largest number of geoglyphs in the Nasca pampas that depict plants and animals. Bird geoglyphs are identified using general impressions or a few notable morphological traits. However, little consideration has been given to whether bird geoglyphs contain traits similar to those of other taxa or if the traits depicted by each figure match the taxon to which they have been attributed. In this study, we identified the Nasca bird geoglyphs from an ornithological perspective. In doing so, we revealed several discrepancies between their geoglyphic characteristics and those of the taxonomic groups to which they were attributed by previous research. In addition, we determined that some of the geoglyphs depicted a number of specific birds, including hermit, pelicans, and what is most likely an immature parrot. Each of these birds is regionally exotic. For instance, hermits and parrots are found in tropical rain forests whereas pelicans live in coastal areas. The reason exotic birds were depicted in the geoglyphs instead of indigenous birds is closely related to the purpose of the etching process. Further studies involving bird figures depicted on pottery and sacrificed bird remains would be useful when attempting to identify the geoglyphic birds further.
  • M. Eda, R. Shoocongdej, P. Auetrakulvit, J. Kachajiwa
    International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 29 (2) 231 - 237 1047-482X 2019/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The origin of the domestication of chicken Gallus gallus domesticus is still a subject of debate. It principally originates from the red junglefowl G. gallus, which is distributed throughout Southeast Asia and South China. However, the prehistoric exploitation of chicken and red junglefowl in Southeast Asia has remained unclear due to a small number of samples for bone analysis. In this study, we analysed bird remains from four archaeological sites in Thailand: Ban Hua Ud (4,000–3,000 bp), Long Long Rak (1,900–1,600 bp), Ban Non Wat (3,750–1,500 bp), and Keed Kin (fifth–11th Century A.D.). Bones from pheasants/fowls (Phasianidae), storks (Ciconiidae), cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae), crows (Corvidae), and passerines (Passeriformes) were found. A small number of stork bones were found at three lowland sites, with none found at Long Long Rak. Cormorant bones were dominant at Ban Hua Ud but were only found at that site. Pheasant/fowl bones were found at all sites except Ban Hua Ud and dominated the number of identified specimens, suggesting that they were the most commonly used bird, at least after the Iron Age. Morphological bone identification criteria for the 24 Phasianidae species in Thailand have not been established; ancient DNA analysis is required to differentiate chicken/red junglefowl bone from other indigenous pheasants/fowls. It is obvious that mitochondrial DNA remained unchanged in the early stages of the domestication process. Further studies combining ancient DNA and morphological analyses are required to judge whether all of the candidate chicken bones are indeed from red junglefowl or chicken. Although these results are regionally and temporally restricted, they give important quantitative information on bird exploitation during the Neolithic and early historic Dvaravadi periods in Thailand.
  • Natasha L. Vokhshoori, Matthew D. McCarthy, Paul W. Collins, Michael A. Etnier, Torben Rick, Masaki Eda, Jessie Beck, Seth D. Newsome
    Marine Ecology Progress Series 610 1 - 13 0171-8630 2019/02/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © The authors 2019. The short-tailed albatross Phoebastria albatrus was nearly driven to extinction in the early 20 th century, but is one of the most common seabirds found in coastal archaeological sites in Japan, the Aleutian Islands, and the Channel Islands off southern California. Today, this species nests on only 2 islands off southern Japan and spends the majority of its time foraging in waters west of the Aleutians. We used carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bulk tissue (bone collagen) and its constituent amino acids from modern samples of all 3 North Pacific albatross species as well as ancient short-tailed albatross to show that ancient short-tailed albatross foraged east of the Aleutian Islands more frequently than their modern counterparts. Isotope mixing models correctly assigned each species to its known foraging habitats, validating our approach on ancient short-tailed albatross. Mixing models also showed that ancient short-tailed albatross from both western and eastern North Pacific archaeological sites spent more time in the California Current than their modern congeners. However, ancient albatross remains from archaeological sites off southern California are isotopically distinct from those found in sites from the western North Pacific, suggesting this species previously had a more complex population structure. We found that modern short-tailed albatross occupy a higher trophic level than their ancient counterparts, which may be due to their consumption of bait and offal from longline fisheries. As extant short-tailed albatross recover from historical over-exploitation, the reconstruction of their historical ecology helps in identifying likely areas for foraging and possible breeding range expansion.
  • 川上和人, 江田真毅, 泉洋江, 堀越和夫, 鈴木創
    日本鳥学会誌 68 (1) 95‐98(J‐STAGE)  0913-400X 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 江田 真毅
    季刊考古学 雄山閣 (144) 43 - 46 0288-5956 2018/08 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 江田真毅
    野鳥 83 (6) 14‐15  0910-4488 2018/07/01 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 江田真毅
    生物の科学 遺伝 エヌ・ティー・エス 72 (2) 171 - 176 0387-0022 2018/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • EDA Masaki, KAWAKAMI Kazuto
    Japanese Journal of Ornithology 日本鳥学会 67 (1) 3 - 5 0913-400X 2018 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • KAWAKAMI Kazuto, EDA Masaki
    Japanese Journal of Ornithology 日本鳥学会 67 (1) 7 - 23 0913-400X 2018 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The origin of birds has been a fundamental and challenging subject in ornithology since the discovery of Archaeopteryx. Although the phylogenetic relationship between birds and crocodiles has been recognized since the beginning of discussion, researchers were unable to reached a consensus as to which was the ancestor of modern birds. Pterosauria, Crocodilia, Thecodont, Ornithischia, and Theropoda have all been put forward as the ancestors of birds. Recent paleontological studies have clarified that birds are derived from a clade of Maniraptora in the clade Coelurosauria among the Theropod dinosaurs. Fossil evidence has demonstrated that birds share several features with Coelurosauria dinosaurs, such as bipedal locomotion, fork-shaped furcula, air sacs, and laterally flexing wrists. Embryological and molecular biological evidence correspond with this view. Today, birds are phylogenetically defined as avian dinosaurs, and other dinosaurs are defined as non-avian dinosaurs. This implies that dinosaurs did not become extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period, 66 million years ago. Feathered dinosaurs represent one of the most remarkable topics of recent paleontology. Various dinosaurs with contour feathers have been found among the Coelurosauria, while simple filament-like protofeathers have been detected in an even wider range of taxa, including the Ornithischia. Furthermore, flightless Ornithomimus edmontonicus has been shown to have possessed pennaceous wings. These findings imply that non-avian dinosaurs evolved feathers and wings for reasons unrelated to flight, perhaps for display. While toothless beaks, the pygostyle, shortened tails, and keeled sternums are considered to have evolved for flight, bipedalism, air sacs, and furcula are considered to be cases of exaptation. The fields of ornithology and paleontology may contribute to each other based on the close relationships between birds and dinosaurs. Collaboration between these two fields is essential for their future development.
  • Kazuto Kawakami, Masaki Eda, Hiroe Izumi, Kazuo Horikoshi, Hajime Suzuki
    Ornithological Science 17 (1) 11 - 18 1347-0558 2018 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © The Ornithological Society of Japan 2018. Puffinus lherminieri bannermani is a small black-and-white shearwater, which is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. The taxonomic position of this shearwater is contentious. It is treated as a subspecies of Audubon's Shearwater P. lherminieri or the Tropical Shearwater P. bailloni in some checklists, while it is as considered monotypic, as Bannerman's Shearwater P. bannermani, in others. We examined the mitochondrial cytochrome b region to determine the taxon's phylogenetic position. While on the one hand the results showed that it was not genetically related to either P. lherminieri or P. bailloni, but formed a clade with P. myrtae, P. newelli, and P. auricularis, on the other hand, bannermani has diverged substantially from the other three taxa in both genetic and morphological features. This shearwater was first described as Bannerman's Shearwater, and our results confirm that P. lherminieri bannermani should be split from Audubon's Shearwater, and the monotypic Bannerman's Shearwater is recommended to be restored as a distinct species.
  • 江田 真毅, 山本 順司
    博物館研究 = Museum studies 日本博物館協会 52 (9) 30 - 33 0911-9892 2017/09 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • T. Deguchi, F. Sato, M. Eda, H. Izumi, H. Suzuki, R. M. Suryan, E. W. Lance, H. Hasegawa, K. Ozaki
    Animal Conservation 20 (4) 341 - 349 1367-9430 2017/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2016 The Zoological Society of London Restoration or establishment of colonies using translocation and hand-rearing can be an effective tool for conserving birds. However, well-designed post-release evaluation studies for long-lived species are rarely implemented. We investigated the attendance and breeding attempts of hand-reared short-tailed albatross (STAL) Phoebastria albatrus chicks (n = 69) translocated to a historic breeding island in the Ogasawara Islands, 350 km from the source colony, for 8 consecutive years after the first translocation. Thirty-nine percent of hand-reared birds (n = 27) returned to the translocation site at least once per breeding season, of which 67% (n = 18) also visited the natal island. The number of hand-reared birds returning each year was lower at the translocation site (mean: 0.3–2.3 birds per day) versus the natal island (0.4–3.5 birds per day). The first breeding attempt occurred 5 years after the first translocation. Three pairs (producing three chicks) recruited to the translocation site or neighboring islands and five pairs (producing nine chicks) recruited to the natal island by 8 years after the first translocation. Every hand-reared bird that raised a chick paired with a naturally reared bird. At the translocation site and neighboring islands, two hand-reared birds paired with a mate from the natal island and a breeding colony 1850 km away, respectively, while the parents of the third chick were unknown. Their breeding at the translocation region was observed among conspecific social attractants (decoys, audio playback; one pair) or congeners (two pairs). Our preliminary results suggest that even though more translocated and hand-reared albatrosses visited and recruited to their natal island compared to the translocation site, the early re-establishment of breeding by short-tailed albatrosses in the Ogasawara Islands 80 years after extirpation would not have occurred without the initial translocation effort. Further study is needed, however, to fully understand formation of breeding colonies beyond conspecific attraction and philopatry.
  • 岩波 連, 江田 真毅
    動物考古学 = Zoo-archaeology 日本動物考古学会 (34) 75 - 83 1342-100X 2017/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Masaki Eda, Hiroko Koike, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
    Quaternary International 419 159 - 164 1040-6182 2016/10/17 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA Prehistoric hunter–gatherers in Northeast Asia lived along coastlines and made abundant use of coastal resources in their subsistence strategies. However, the extent to which they operated only along the coastline or sailed out into deeper waters for hunting and fishing remains rather uncertain. In this case-study, we reconstruct past subsistence strategies through analysis of albatross (Diomedeidae) remains recovered from two hunter–gatherer archaeological sites in Hokkaido, Northern Japan (the Funadomari site, from the late Jomon period on Rebun Island and the Bentenjima site, from the Okhotsk period on Bentenjima Island). Three questions are examined: (1) were the birds hunted for meat or for feathers; (2) were the birds procured at coastal breeding grounds or out on the open water; (3) was hunting conducted in the shallow waters of the continental shelf or out in the deeper ocean? Analysis of the bone assemblages, and species determination by ancient DNA, indicate that people must have been hunting the bird in the open waters at the edge of the continental shelf. This provides strong, although indirect, evidence that Jomon and Okhotsk Culture communities must have possessed ocean-going boats and suitable sea-faring skills in order to undertake these kinds of operations. These insights, in turn, hint at the existence of sophisticated maritime traditions in prehistoric Northeast Asia.
  • Masaki Eda, Hiroe Izumi, Satoshi Konno, Miwa Konno, Fumio Sato
    Ibis 158 (4) 868 - 875 0019-1019 2016/10/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2016 British Ornithologists’ Union Assortative mating is an important pre-mating isolation mechanism that has been observed in some wild populations of seabirds. The Short-tailed Albatross Phoebastria albatrus is a globally Vulnerable seabird that breeds mainly on Torishima and the Senkaku Islands in the north-western Pacific Ocean. Our previous studies suggested that two genetically distinct populations exist, one on Torishima and the other on the Senkaku Islands. Recently, however, several un-ringed birds in subadult plumage have been observed breeding on Torishima in the Hatsunezaki colony. As almost all birds hatched on Torishima since 1979 have been ringed, the natal site of the un-ringed birds was suspected to be the Senkaku Islands. Genetic differences between the two populations would reveal the natal sites of un-ringed birds. By observing the ring status (ringed or un-ringed) of mating pairs and analysing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region 2 of un-ringed birds, we assessed whether birds that originated from Torishima and the Senkaku Islands achieved pre-mating isolation. There was a small number of pairs on Torishima that consisted of one ringed and one un-ringed bird, but the observed number was significantly lower than that expected if ringed and un-ringed birds mated randomly. Furthermore, mtDNA analyses of nine un-ringed birds demonstrated that all belonged to a particular haplotype clade from the Senkaku Islands. These results show that birds from Torishima and the Senkaku Islands mate assortatively but that there is incomplete pre-mating isolation between birds from the two island groups. The pre-mating isolation of these two populations of Short-tailed Albatross could arise from differences in the timing of breeding and incompatibility in mating displays. As the divergence between the two populations is unlikely to be sufficient to achieve complete post-mating isolation, the two groups are likely to be hybridizing. Further studies using molecular and/or behavioural analyses would be required to reveal the evolutionary significance of hybridization between these two populations.
  • 江田 真毅
    動物考古学 = Zoo-archaeology 日本動物考古学会 (33) 49 - 61 1342-100X 2016/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 良渚遺跡群美人地遺跡出土の動物遺存体(初報)
    松井 章, 菊地 大樹, 松崎 哲也, 江田 真毅, 丸山 真史, 劉 斌, 王 寧遠
    中国新石器時代における家畜・家禽の起源と、東アジアへの拡散の動物考古学的研究平成26年度~平成27年度 基盤研究A 研究成果報告書 43 - 53 2016/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Masaki Eda, Peng Lu, Hiroki Kikuchi, Zhipeng Li, Fan Li, Jing Yuan
    Journal of Archaeological Science 67 25 - 31 0305-4403 2016/03/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is the most widespread domestic animal in the world. However, the timings and locations of their domestication have remained debatable for over a century. China, and particularly northern China, has been claimed as one of the early centers for the domestication of chickens, because many chicken remains have been discovered at a number of archaeological sites. However, the identification of archaeological domestic chicken bones from early Holocene sites in China remains contentious. In this study, we analyzed 1831 bird bones, which included 429 bones previously recorded as "domestic chicken" from 18 Neolithic and early Bronze Age sites in central and northern China. Although morphological species identification criteria for the bones of 55 modern Chinese Phasianidae species, including the domestic chicken and wild red junglefowls, have not yet been fully established, upon reanalysis none of the "domestic chicken" bones were derived from chickens. In addition, bones determined to be candidate chicken bones were found at only 2 of the 18 sites, suggesting that chickens were neither widely kept nor distributed in central and northern China during the early and middle Holocene period. Further studies that combine analyses of morphology, ancient DNA, and radiocarbon dating are required to fully reveal the origin and history of the domestic chicken in northern China.
  • Cyler Conrad, Charles Higham, Masaki Eda, Ben Marwick
    Asian Perspectives 55 (1) 1 - 27 0066-8435 2016 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2016 by the University of Hawai’i Press. This reanalysis uses the zooarchaeological assemblage recovered from Spirit Cave to understand hunter-gatherer use and occupation at the site during the Pleistocene - Holocene transition. We analyze bone fragmentation, sample size, and relative abundance to establish the preservation and overall composition of the remaining fauna. Identification of several new taxa, including roundleaf bats (Hipposideros larvatus and bicolor), elongated tortoise (Indotestudo elongata), black marsh turtle (Siebenrockiella crassicollis), Burmese hare (Lepus cf. peguensis) and a potential red junglefowl (Phasianidae - ?Gallus gallus) provide insights into hunter-gatherer occupation, palaeoecology, and subsistence strategies between 12,000 and 7000 years b.p. Our results indicate that Spirit Cave was occupied more sporadically than originally suggested; additionally, we identify new evidence for landscape disturbance during the early Holocene. Although this Spirit Cave zooarchaeological assemblage is incomplete, it remains an important component of Southeast Asian prehistory, providing evidence for human adaptations during a period of climatic change and instability. Keywords: Spirit Cave, zooarchaeology, NISP, MNI, Thailand, Pleistocene - Holocene transition, Hipposideros larvatus, Lepus peguensis, Siebenrockiella crassicollis.
  • M. Eda, S. Yashima, T. Inoué
    International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 25 (6) 849 - 854 1047-482X 2015/11/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The ideal indicator of domestic individuals is the presence of traits that must appear in the first generation of the domestic lineage. Most wild geese are migratory, breeding in the subarctic zone and wintering in the temperate zone. If goose remains from archaeological sites in a non-breeding region are from individuals shown to have died during the breeding season, the bones are likely to be from domestic birds. Medullary bone is secondary woven bony tissue formed in the marrow cavity of breeding female birds. It develops 1 or 2weeks before the first egg is produced and disappears 1 or 2weeks after egg production. As wild geese remain in their breeding regions for about 3months after egg production, medullary bone would be expected to disappear before birds arrive at the stopover and wintering areas. Therefore, the presence of medullary bone in goose remains found in non-breeding regions would be a reliable indicator of domestic birds. In this study, we examined goose (Anserini spp.) remains from 15 archaeological sites in Japan (3400 bc to 1912 ad) using binocular observation and histological analysis. We found medullary bone in two femora from the Oranda-shokan-ato site (1650-1850 ad). The results indicate that the two femora were from domestic geese. By using secondary bone as an indicator of the domesticity of geese, knowledge regarding the origins of domestic geese can be expanded, and the morphological and/or genetic changes, as well as the domestication process, can be revealed. According to the literature, domestic geese were kept in Japan from the early eight century ad and were popular after the 17th century ad. The scarcity of medullary bone in the samples can be explained by the small number of domestic geese in Japan and/or by butchering practices that excluded the eating of breeding female geese.
  • 滕家岗遗址鸟类遗存研究-兼述中国鸟类遗存动物考古学研究的回顾与展望
    李凡・吕鹏, 江田真毅, 袁靖, 朱延平
    華夏考古 2015 (1) 34 - 40 2015 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 中国古代家鸡的再研究
    袁靖・吕鹏, 李志鹏, 邓惠, 江田真毅
    南方文物 2015 (3) 53 - 57 2015 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 江田 真毅, 別所 秀高, 井上 貴央
    動物考古学 = Zoo-archaeology 日本動物考古学会 (31) 21 - 32 1342-100X 2014/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • EDA Masaki, TORIKAI Hisahiro, KIMURA Ken-ichi, ABE Shintaro, KOIKE Hiroko
    Japanese Journal of Ornithology 日本鳥学会 63 (1) 15 - 21 0913-400X 2014 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Amami Woodcock Scolopax mira is endemic to the islands of Amami-oshima (and its surrounding islands) and Tokunoshima, in the Nansei Shoto archipelago of southwestern Japan. The species is designated as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List and is under conservation management. Knowledge of behavioural sexual differences is essential to design an effective conservation plan for this species. However, because neither morphological sexual differences nor field criteria for sex determination are known for the Amami Woodcock, behavioural sexual differences remain mostly unknown. In the hope of revealing behavioural and morphological sexual differences, we banded and measured Amami Woodcock and determined the gender of banded birds using molecular sexing of sampled feathers. On Amami-oshima, adult females were found to be larger than adult males in six of nine external parameters (exposed culmen length, nalospi, bill width, bill height, total head length and weight), whereas males had longer tails than females. Using these data, a linear discriminant formula for sex determination was derived and it correctly designated approximately 86% of the birds banded on Amami-oshima. The formula was similarly valid for adults on Tokunoshima, but invalid for juveniles. During the mating period and in the early breeding season (March/April), adult males were more frequently captured than adult females. This difference in capture rate was considered to be associated with behavioural differences, in particular because males frequently display during this period, whereas females are incubating. This result suggests a likely male-biased risk of mortality on roads during March and April, the period when such mortality is most abundant. Among juveniles, a female bias in trapping was found during the late breeding season (May/June) and during the dispersal period of juvenile birds (November/December). The latter is likely to be associated with female-biased long-range dispersion, although the reason for the former is unknown.
  • M. Eda, Y. Kodama, E. Ishimaru, M. Yoneda
    International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 24 (3) 265 - 271 1047-482X 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Lead pollution has increased over the past four centuries with industrialisation, urbanisation, and the use of motor vehicles. In Japan, lead concentrations in human bones of the Edo period (AD 1603-1867) from urban areas were found to be higher than those from suburban areas. Because most wild geese breed in the subarctic zone and winter in the temperate zone, it is to be expected that lead concentrations in archaeological goose bones from domestic individuals would be higher than those from wild individuals because of the difference in their life cycle. In this study, we measured and compared lead concentrations in bones of geese, other birds (duck, chicken, heron, and crow), mammals (dog, cat, pig/wild boar, and deer), and in a human tooth, all from the Kenmin-kan Atochi site, Japan (Edo period). We found that lead pollution affected not only humans but also animals and that environmental lead pollution was widespread in the town.One of the goose bones analysed, a broken and healed ulna, showed a lead concentration approximately twice as high as the other goose bones. In addition, the lead concentration in a duck bone was much higher than in those of wild birds or mammals, which suggests that the duck had lived in an urban environment for a long time. The results suggest that analysis of lead concentrations can detect potential domestic animals that were exposed to environmental lead pollution, such as in the Roman period in Europe and in the Edo period in Japan. By accumulating comparative studies, the analysis of lead concentrations in archaeological goose bones is expected to become a reliable indicator of domestic geese under conditions of environmental lead contamination. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Masaki Fujita, Shinji Yamasaki, Hiroshi Sugawara, Masaki Eda
    Quaternary International 339-340 289 - 299 1040-6182 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Late Pleistocene to Holocene terrestrial vertebrate fossils were excavated at a newly-found fossil locality, Maehira Fissure Site, Itoman City, Okinawa-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Location F1 in this site can be divided into three beds characterized by dominance of extinct deer (Cervus astylodon and Mutiacinae sp.), birds, and wild boar in ascending order. 14C dating indicated approximately 23-20kaBP from a snail shell collected from the deer bed and a charcoal from the boar bed. It has been considered that deer and boar lived together in the Okinawa-jima Island. However, the results indicate that deer extinction occurred before wild boar increase. The molar teeth of the late Pleistocene boar excavated from Location F1 of this site were larger than those of the Holocene boar from Location F2. This is the first report to demonstrate that the molar size of late Pleistocene boar is larger than that of Holocene boar from the same site. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.
  • 岩波 連, 江田 真毅
    勇魚 勇魚会 (59) 2 - 4 1347-6378 2013/12 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 江田 真毅, 天野 哲也
    北海道大学総合博物館研究報告 北海道大学総合博物館 (6) 1348-169X 2013/03/31 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 江田 真毅
    動物考古学 動物考古学研究会 (30) 337 - 359 1342-100X 2013/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Masaki Eda, Tetsuo Shimada, Tatsuya Amano, Katsumi Ushiyama, Chitoshi Mizota, Hiroko Koike
    Ornithological Science 12 (1) 35 - 42 1347-0558 2013 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons has a holarctic breeding distribution and is polymorphic. Three subspecies winter in the Palaearctic region, one of which also winters in the Nearctic region: European White-fronted Goose A. a. albifrons breeds in the far north of Europe and Asia and winters in the south and west of Europe; Pacific White-fronted Goose A. a. frontalis breeds in east Siberia and Arctic Canada and winters in East Asia and United States; and Greenland Whitefronted Goose A. a. flavirostris breeds in Greenland and winters in Ireland and western Scotland. The phylogenetic relationships among these three subspecies are unclear. We determined the mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of Pacific Whitefronted Goose, using 66 shed feathers collected from wintering sites in Japan, and compared the sequences with those previously published for Greater White-fronted Goose subspecies. Phylogenetic trees and networks revealed that there are three clades within the species. The sequence divergence among the clades corresponds to divergence long before the last glacial maximum (15 25 thousand years ago), which suggests the existence of at least three ancient refugia for the species. However, all three subspecies consist of haplotypes from two of the three clades. This suggests that they originated from individuals that survived in two refugia during the last glacial period. © The Ornithological Society of Japan 2013.
  • The reexamination of the domestic chicken in ancient China
    邓惠・袁靖, 宋国定, 王昌燧, 江田真毅
    考古 2013 (6) 83 - 96 2013 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Yuichi Takanashi, Masaki Eda, Toshiyuki Kaidoh, Takao Inoué
    Yonago Acta Medica 55 (4) 75 - 80 0513-5710 2012/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The palmaris longus muscle is one of the most variable muscles in human anatomy. During a routine anatomical dissection for medical students at Tottori University, we found duplicate palmaris longus muscles in the bilateral forearms together with the palmaris profundus muscle in the right forearm. The bilateral aberrant palmaris longus muscles were observed at the ulnar side of the palmaris longus muscle and their distal tendons were attached to the flexor retinaculum. The palmaris profundus muscle found in the right forearm was located at the radial side of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. The proximal tendon was originated from the anterior surface in the middle of the radius, while the distal tendon coursed radial to the median nerve through the carpal tunnel, finally inserting into the distal part of the flexor retinaculum. Both the palmaris longus and aberrant palmaris longus muscles were innervated by the median nerve. The palmaris profundus muscle was presumably supplied by the median nerve.
  • Masaki Eda, Toshiyuki Kaidoh, Yuichi Takanashi, Takao Inoué
    Pathology International 62 (11) 771 - 773 1320-5463 2012/11 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • EDA Masaki, HIGUCHI Hiroyoshi
    Japanese Journal of Ornithology 日本鳥学会 61 (2) 263 - 272 0913-400X 2012/10/22 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Short-tailed Albatross Phoebastria albatrus is a vulnerable seabird species that breeds in two island groups in the western part of the North Pacific Ocean. In the 2006/07 breeding season, the world population was estimated at around 2,360 individuals: 80% of them breeding on Torishima, and 20% on two islets of the Senkaku Islands. The species is tacitly regarded as a single management unit and international conservation efforts consider its population structure to be of low concern. However, our previous study showed that two populations of the Short-tailed Albatross existed about 1,000 years ago. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the species was exterminated at most breeding colonies, with descendents of each population surviving only on Torishima and the Senkaku Islands. Recently, descendents of the two populations are breeding sympatrically on Torishima. However, it is not known whether they mix or not. Because the mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies clearly differ between the Torishima and Senkaku Island birds, each population meets different Management Unit (MU) criteria. These two MUs should be managed as different entities, since the emigration rate from the Senkaku Islands to Torishima may have been reinforced by extensive fowling in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The sequence divergence between the two clades of the Short-tailed Albatross is greater than that recognized between other sister species of albatrosses. Furthermore, ecological and morphological differences between the Torishima and Senkaku Island albatrosses are indicated. A taxonomic re-examination of the Torishima and Senkaku Island albatross taxa is required through comparative studies of ecological and ethological traits.
  • 江田 真毅, 樋口 広芳
    Japanese journal of ornithology 日本鳥学会 61 (2) 263 - 272 0913-400X 2012/10 [Refereed][Invited]
  • Kazuto Kawakami, Masaki Eda, Kazuo Horikoshi, Hajime Suzuki, Hayato Chiba, Takashi Hiraoka
    Condor 114 (3) 507 - 512 0010-5422 2012/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Bryan's Shearwater (Puffinus bryani) was described in 2011 on the basis of a specimen collected on the Midway Atoll in 1963. This specimen and another recorded on Midway in the early 1990s are the sole reliable rec ords to date. Since 1997, we have found six specimens of a remarkably small Puffinus shearwater morphologically similar to Bryan's Shearwater on the Bonin Islands, northwestern Pacific. In this study, we examined the Bonin samples genetically and confirm that they are of Bryan's Shearwater. A morphological analysis suggests that the small body size and relatively long tail are characteristics of this species. Because the most rec ent individual was found on an islet to the north of Chichijima Island in 2011, the species has evidently survived in the Bonin Islands, where it may breed, although the exact location remains unclear. Three of the individuals found on an islet off Chichijima Island were carcasses preyed upon by black rats (Rattus rattus). Attempts were made to eradicate rats from this island in 2008, and rats may pose a problem on other islands where the shearwaters may breed. Regardless, Bryan's Shearwater appears to be very rare and threatened on the Bonin Islands. To conserve this species effectively, its breeding sites must be identified and the infesting rats eradicated. © The Cooper Ornithological Society 2012.
  • Masaki Eda, Hiroko Koike, Masaki Kuro-o, Shozo Mihara, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
    Conservation Genetics 13 (1) 143 - 151 1566-0621 2012/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The history of population structure is a key to effective wildlife management and conservation. However, inferring the history of population structure using present genetic structures is problematic when the method is applied to species that have experienced severe population bottlenecks. Ancient DNA analysis seemed to be a promising, direct method for inferring ancient population structures. However, the usual methods for inferring modern population structure, i. e. the phylogeographic approach using mitochondrial DNA and the Bayesian approach using microsatellite DNA, are often unsuitable for ancient samples. In this study, we combined ancient DNA obtained from zooarchaeological bones with carbon/nitrogen stable isotope ratios and morphological variations to infer ancient population structure of the short-tailed albatross Phoebastria albatrus. The results showed that the bird existed in two populations, between which the genetic distance was greater than that of distinct sister albatross species, although no subspecies of P. albatrus have been proposed. Our results suggest that the birds at the present two breeding regions (Torishima in the Izu Islands and two islets of the Senkaku Islands) are descended from these two ancient populations, and that reevaluation of the status and conservation strategy for the species is required. Our results also indicate that lineage breeding on the Senkaku Islands has drastically reduced genetic diversity, while that on Torishima has not. The approach proposed in this study would be useful for inferring ancient population structure, using samples of highly mobile animals and/or samples from archaeological sites, and the reconstructed ancient population structure would be useful for conservation and management recommendations. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
  • Masaki Eda, Takao Inoué
    Zoo-archaeology 動物考古学研究会 28 (28) 23 - 33 1342-100X 2011/05 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • EDA Masaki, SHIMADA Tetsuo, MIZOTA Chitoshi, KOIKE Hiroko
    Japanese Journal of Ornithology 日本鳥学会 60 (1) 100 - 104 0913-400X 2011/04/28 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Bean Goose Anser fabalis, breeds in the northern Palaearctic region during summer and winters in the temperature zone, including in Japan. Based on morphological criteria, A. f. serrirostris winters in the Tohoku region along the Pacific coast, while A. f. middendorffii winters in the Hokuriku region along the Japan Sea coast and around Lake Kasumigaura. However, identification of the subspecies of birds wintering in the Izumo region has been uncertain due to morphological variation in the population. We sampled fallen feathers from four wintering sites (Lake Kejonuma, Miyagi Prefecture; Asahi pond, Niigata Prefecture; Sakai plain, Fukui Prefecture, and Izumo plain, Shimane Prefecture), determined nucleotide sequence in the mitochondrial DNA control region, and compared the results with those from previous studies. Feathers sampled from Lake Kejonuma were found to fall within a clade including A. f. serrirostris, while those sampled from the Asahi pond were included in a clade including A. f. middendorffii. These results were concordant with the subspecies allocations based on morphological criteria. The feathers sampled from the Izumo plain fell within the clade including A. f. middendorffii, which suggests that the population in the region mostly consists maternally of A. f. middendorffii. In addition, a control region sequence belonging to A. f. serrirostris was found in the Sakai plain where few A. f. serrirostris were observed.
  • 松山城跡内・県民館跡地出土の鳥類遺体からみた松山藩における鳥類の利用
    江田真毅
    東温史談 6 99 - 106 2011 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Eda Masaki, Koike Hiroko, Sato Fumio, Higuchi Hiroyoshi
    Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology 公益財団法人 山階鳥類研究所 43 (1) 57 - 64 1348-5032 2011 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Short-tailed Albatross Diomedea albatrus is a vulnerable seabird that breeds on Torishima, one of the Izu Islands, and on Minami- and Kita-kojima islands in the Senkaku Islands. An unringed bird has been observed at the Hatsunezaki colony on Torishima every year since 1996, even though since 1979 almost all birds hatched on Torishima have been ringed on both legs. This unringed individual was named Deko-chan as, until the 2005/06 breeding season, it made a nest every year near a decoy that was set to attract the birds to Hatsunezaki. Given that losing the rings from both legs while still having sub-adult plumage is unlikely, the natal site of the bird was suspected to be the Senkaku Islands. The identification of Deko-chan's natal site is important to assess whether birds from the Senkaku Islands are coming to Torishima and whether birds from the two islands are pairing. Our previous studies using control region 2 (CR2) of the mitochondrial DNA sequence suggested that the species includes two distinct populations (clades 1 and 2), with birds breeding on Torishima mostly consisting of descendants of clade 1 individuals, and those sampled in the Senkaku Islands comprised of descendants of clade 2 individuals. In this study, we analysed CR2 obtained from down collected from the nest of Deko-chan. The results reveal that Deko-chan has a CR2 sequence that differs from any reported to date, but indicates that it belongs to clade 2, supporting the suggestion that the natal site of the bird is the Senkaku Islands, not Torishima. Although the bird had paired with a ringed bird and reared two young by the 2009/10 breeding season, further studies using bisexually transmitted molecular markers are required to confirm whether the two lineages are able to mix.
  • Masaki Eda, Hiroko Koike, Fumio Sato, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
    Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology 43 (1) 57 - 64 1348-5032 2011 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Short-tailed Albatross Diomedea albatrus is a vulnerable seabird that breeds on Torishima, one of the Izu Islands, and on Minami- and Kita-kojima islands in the Senkaku Islands. An unringed bird has been observed at the Hatsunezaki colony on Torishima every year since 1996, even though since 1979 almost all birds hatched on Torishima have been ringed on both legs. This unringed individual was named Deko-chan as, until the 2005/06 breeding season, it made a nest every year near a decoy that was set to attract the birds to Hatsunezaki. Given that losing the rings from both legs while still having sub-adult plumage is unlikely, the natal site of the bird was suspected to be the Senkaku Islands. The identification of Deko-chan's natal site is important to assess whether birds from the Senkaku Islands are coming to Torishima and whether birds from the two islands are pairing. Our previous studies using control region 2 (CR2) of the mitochondrial DNA sequence suggested that the species includes two distinct populations (clades 1 and 2), with birds breeding on Torishima mostly consisting of descendants of clade 1 individuals, and those sampled in the Senkaku Islands comprised of descendants of clade 2 individuals. In this study, we analysed CR2 obtained from down collected from the nest of Deko-chan. The results reveal that Deko-chan has a CR2 sequence that di#ers from any reported to date, but indicates that it belongs to clade 2, supporting the suggestion that the natal site of the bird is the Senkaku Islands, not Torishima. Although the bird had paired with a ringed bird and reared two young by the 2009/10 breeding season, further studies using bisexually transmitted molecular markers are required to confirm whether the two lineages are able to mix. © Yamashina Institute for Ornithology.
  • Masaki Kuro-o, Hiromichi Yonekawa, Shigeru Saito, Masaki Eda, Hiroyoshi Higuchi, Hiroko Koike, Hiroshi Hasegawa
    Conservation Genetics 11 (1) 127 - 137 1566-0621 2010/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In the late part of the nineteenth century and the early part of the last century, the short-tailed albatross Phoebastria albatrus was in danger of extinction owing to feather hunting. In the middle of the last century, the total number of this species was inferred to be approximately 50-60 with breeding occurring only on Torishima Island of the Izu Islands. Recently, the number of individuals has increased to more than 2,000 and that of their breeding islands to three, namely, Torishima Island, and Minami-and Kita-kojima Islands of the Senkaku Islands. Here, we show that the 44 short-tailed albatrosses we examined represent 29 haplotypes in the control region of mitochondrial DNA, and have a considerably higher genetic diversity than most avian species, but not very high in albatross species; the h and π were 0.96 and 0.013, respectively. However, the parsimony network clearly showed that many intermediate haplotypes were lost. It was concluded that the majority of the haplotypes in the founder population have been maintained. Judging from these findings and the exponential increase in the number of individuals, the present population of the short-tailed albatross seems not to be affected by inbreeding depression through a severe bottleneck. The conservation and expansion of their breeding grounds, and effective protection from bycatch mortality in foraging areas are important for the future survival of this species. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.
  • Histological analysis of medullary bones from archaeological sites in Japan
    Masaki Eda, Shoji Yashima, Seiji Kusuhara, Takao Inoue
    Birds in Archaeology, Proceedings of the 6th Meeting of the ICAZ Bird Working Group in Groningen (23.8-27.8.2008) (eds. W. Prummel, J.T. Zeiler and D.C. Brinkhuizens) 255 - 260 2010 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Masaki Eda, Masaki Kuro-o, Hiroyoshi Higuchi, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Hiroko Koike
    Genes and Genetic Systems 85 (2) 129 - 139 1341-7568 2010 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Although the tandem duplication of mitochondrial (mt) sequences, especially those of the control region (CR), has been detected in metazoan species, few studies have focused on the features of the duplicated sequence itself, such as the gene conversion rate, distribution patterns of the variation, and relative rates of evolu- tion between the copies. To investigate the features of duplicated mt sequences, we partially sequenced the mt genome of 16 Phoebastria albatrosses belonging to three species (P. albatrus, P. nigripes, and P. immutabilis). More than 2,300 base pairs of tandemly-duplicated sequence were shared by all three species. The observed gene arrangement was shared in the three Phoebastria albatrosses and suggests that the duplication event occurred in the common ancestor of the three species. Most of the copies in each individual were identical or nearly identical, and were maintained through frequent gene conversions. By contrast, portions of CR domains I and III had different phylogenetic signals, suggesting that gene conversion had not occurred in those sections after the speciation of the three species. Several lines of data, including the heterogeneity of the rate of molecular evolution, nucleotide differences, and putative secondary structures, suggests that the two sequences in CR domain I are maintained through selection; however, additional studies into the mechanisms of gene conversion and mtDNA synthesis are required to confirm this hypothesis.
  • 人と動物の関わりあい⑥ 鳥類
    江田真毅
    『縄文時代の考古学 4巻』(小杉康・谷口康浩・西田泰民・水ノ江和同・矢野健一編、同成社) 198 - 205 2010 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 組織学的分析による骨髄骨の同定―雑司ヶ谷遺跡・営団13号線地点出土資料を対象に―
    江田真毅, 楠原征治
    『雑司が谷III』豊島区遺跡調査会 989 - 992 2010 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Hyong Ju Cho, Masaki Eda, Shin Nishida, Yoshiki Yasukochi, Jong Ryol Chong, Hiroko Koike
    Genes and Genetic Systems 84 (4) 297 - 305 1341-7568 2009 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Mitochondrial (mt) heteroplasmy in the control region (CR) of the black-faced spoonbill was investigated using LA-PCR. To avoid amplification of transpositioned nuclear genome fragment from mtDNA (numt), PCR product of the almost-complete mitochondrial genome was amplified using primers designed to anneal on the COIII gene. Then nested LA-PCR product was amplified between the cyt b and 12S rRNA genes using the almost-complete mitochondrial genome PCR product as a template. Nucleotide sequencing revealed tandem duplication composed of two units. The first contains cyt b-1, tRNAThr-1, tRNAPro-1, ND6-1, tRNAGlu-1 and CR1, and the second consists of cyt b-2, tRNAThr-2, tRNAPro-2, ND6-2, tRNAGlu-2 and CR2, followed by tRNAPhe and 12S rRNA. The duplicated cyt b-2 sequence coincided with 499 bp at the 3′ end of cyt b-1. With the exception of the CR, the other genes in the duplicated sequence were identical to the original corresponding gene. Even though both CR1 and CR2 contain functional blocks, such as a poly-C site, a goose hairpin and a TAS structure in Domain I, the 3′ end of CR1 was followed by a 112 bp sequence (non-coding region) that was not found in CR2 or in sequence homology analysis of similar genes. Meanwhile, CR2 ended in a complicated repeat sequence. The 5′ franking region in the Domain I (Region A) and the 3' franking region in the Domain I (Region B) of the two CRs evolve in quite different manners: Region A was highly variable between CR1 and CR2 in the same individuals, while Region B was almost identical between them, which indicates concerted evolution.
  • A zooarchaeological and ethnographic study of frigatebird remains from Tobi Island in Micronesia
    Michiko Intoh, Masaki Eda
    People and Culture in Oceania 24 67 - 79 2008 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Masaki Eda, Kazuto Kawakami, Hayato Chiba, Hajime Suzuki, Kazuo Horikoshi, Hiroko Koike
    Ornithological Science 7 109 - 116 2008 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Masaki Eda, Yoshiyuki Baba, Hiroko Koike, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
    Journal of Archaeological Science 33 (3) 349 - 359 0305-4403 2006/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Zooarchaeological remains have been identified to species, using identification criteria based on specific morphological variations among modern specimens. However, temporal size changes in bones, due to micro-evolution and/or phenotypic plasticity, could distort identification of archaeological remains according to these criteria. We developed species identification criteria for North Pacific albatrosses (Short-tailed, Laysan and Black-footed Albatrosses) using both mensural- and DNA-based analysis and actually identified many archaeological remains from a site using these criteria. Our mensural-based criteria could accurately discriminate the modern Short-tailed Albatross from modern Laysan and Black-footed Albatrosses and indicated that the archaeological remains included both Short-tailed and Laysan or Black-footed Albatrosses. DNA-based criteria, however, suggested that all remains were Short-tailed Albatross. The most plausible explanation for this inconsistency would be misidentification using mensural-based analysis, due to temporal size changes in bones or existence of birds from extinct population(s) or breeding region(s) with mensurally different bones from recent birds. This is the first study that suggests temporal size changes in bones may distort the species identification of archaeological remains according to modern size variations. Further studies are required to judge if this pattern is unusual or not. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • 遺構一括出土遺体からみた江戸時代の鳥類の利用形態-東京大学本郷構内の遺跡を中心に-
    江田真毅
    東京大学構内遺跡調査研究年報 5 296 - 314 2006 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 青森県下北郡・尻労安部洞窟遺跡の鳥類遺体について
    江田真毅, 吉冨えりか, 佐藤孝雄
    動物考古学 (22) 137  1342-100X 2005/05/18 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 生活復原資料としての鳥類遺体の研究-カモ亜科遺体の同定とその考古学的意義-
    江田真毅
    『海と考古学』(海交史研究会考古学論集刊行会編、六一書房) 387 - 406 2005 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Why were so many albatross remains found in northern Japan?
    Masaki Eda, Hiroko Koike, Fumio Sato, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
    Feathers, Grit and Symbolism: Birds and Humans in the Old and New Worlds, Proceedings of the 5th Meeting of the ICAZ Bird Working Group in Munich (26.7.-28.7.2004). (eds. G. Grupe and J. Peters) 131 - 140 2005 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Masaki Eda, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
    Zoological Science 21 (7) 771 - 783 0289-0003 2004/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.
  • 2000年度間宮海峡沿岸部(ソビエツカヤ・ガバン周辺)考古学的調査
    福田正宏, デリューギン、B, 熊木俊朗, 江田真毅
    北方探求 4 38 - 63 2002 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 特定研究 アイヌ文化の成立過程について 浜中2遺跡発掘調査報告書・鳥管骨製品
    江田真毅
    国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 85 204 - 213 2000 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 特定研究 アイヌ文化の成立過程について 浜中2遺跡発掘調査報告書・鳥類
    江田真毅, 西本豊弘
    国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 85 221 - 230 2000 [Not refereed][Not invited]

Books etc

Conference Activities & Talks

  • 江田真毅, 泉洋江, 川上和人, 沖田絵麻
    日本文化財科学会大会研究発表要旨集  2019/06
  • 田中望羽, 小林快次, 江田真毅
    日本進化学会大会プログラム・講演要旨集(Web)  2018/08
  • 江田真毅, 泉洋江, 川上和人, 沖田絵麻
    日本文化財科学会大会研究発表要旨集  2018/07
  • 佐藤文男, 富田直樹, THIEBOT Jean‐Baptiste, 西沢文吾, 江田真毅, 泉洋江, 綿貫豊
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2017/09
  • 江田真毅
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2017/09
  • 江田真毅, 泉洋江
    日本文化財科学会大会研究発表要旨集  2017/06
  • 出口智広, 佐藤文男, 江田真毅, 泉洋江, 鈴木創, SURYAN Robert M, LANCE Ellen W, 長谷川博, 尾崎清明
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2016/09
  • 江田真毅
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2016/09
  • Were chicken exploited in the Neolithic early rice cultivation society in the lower Yangtze River? A preliminary study of bird remains from Tianluoshan Site, Zhejiang  [Not invited]
    Masaki EDA, Hiroki KIKUCHI, Guoping SUN, Akira MATSUI
    ICAZ BWG  2016/01
  • 江田真毅
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2015/09
  • 泉洋江, 江田真毅, 渡辺ユキ, 今野怜, 今野美和, 佐藤文男
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2015/09
  • 江田真毅, 泉洋江, 渡辺ユキ, 今野怜, 今野美和, 佐藤文男
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2015/09
  • 稲田薫, 江田真毅
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2015/09
  • Drawn birds and dedicated birds in the Nasca culture: comparing birds in the Nasca Geoglyph with birds from the temples of Cahuachi, Nasca  [Not invited]
    Masaki EDA, Masato SAKAI, Giuseppe OREFICI
    Congreso Internacional de Americanistas  2015/07
  • 中国新石器時代の初期稲作集落における鳥類利用-浙江省・田螺山遺跡の事例研究-  [Not invited]
    江田真毅, 孫国平
    動物考古学会  2015/07
  • 不都合な真実?-北大総合博物館における来館者数と企画展示の関係-  [Not invited]
    江田真毅, 山本順司
    」博物科学会  2015/06
  • 「鵜を抱く女」再考  [Not invited]
    江田真毅, 沖田絵麻, 鵜澤和宏
    日本動物考古学会  2014/11
  • コラーゲンタンパクによる遺跡出土動物骨の種同定-キジ科鳥類を対象とした事例研究-  [Invited]
    江田真毅, 永田克己, 森本 稔, 水田敏史, 井上貴央
    日本人類学会  2014/11
  • Evaluation of chicken bones from the Neolithic and early Bronze Age of China  [Not invited]
    Masaki Eda, Hiroki Kikuchi, Peng Lu, Zhipeng Li, Hui Deng, Fan Li, Jing Yuan
    International Council for Archaeozoology 12th Conference,  2014/09
  • Translocation and ceremonial practices of the Nasca culture based on “standard” analysis of bird remains from the temples of Cahuachi, Nasca (4th–5th century AD)  [Not invited]
    Masaki Eda, Masato Sakai, Giuseppe Oreffici
    International Council for Archaeozoology 12th Conference  2014/09
  • Let’s identify birds in the Nasca lines!  [Not invited]
    Masaki Eda, Takeshi Yamasaki, Masato Sakai
    26th International Ornithological Congress  2014/08
  • 千葉勇人, 鈴木創, 堀越和夫, 江田真毅, 泉洋江, 田巻芳則
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2014/08
  • 動物考古学からみた中近世日本におけるニワトリの利用-中世大友府内町跡資料を中心に-  [Not invited]
    江田 真毅
    日本文化財科学会  2014/07
  • 『鵜を抱く女』と共伴した鳥骨の再検討  [Invited]
    江田 真毅
    第18回土井ヶ浜シンポジウム  2014/03
  • 中国磁山遺跡出土のニワトリの再検討  [Not invited]
    江田真毅, 菊地大樹, 袁靖
    日本動物考古学会  2013/11
  • 泉洋江, 江田真毅, 出口智広, 尾崎清明
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2013/09
  • 江田真毅, 泉洋江, 今野怜, 今野美和, 佐藤文男
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2013/09
  • Maritime adaption of hunter–gatherers in Japan based on ancient DNA identification of the exploited albatross (Aves: Diomedeidae) species  [Not invited]
    Masaki Eda, Hiroko Koike, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
    19th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists  2013/09
  • 中国湖北省襄陽・菜越遺跡出土のニワトリについて  [Not invited]
    江田真毅, 羅運兵, 袁靖
    動物考古学研究集会  2012/11
  • 「列島へのニワトリの導入とその意図に関する一考察  [Invited]
    江田 真毅
    日本人類学会大会  2012/11
  • 江田真毅, 小玉悠平, 石丸恵利子, 米田穣
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2012/09
  • 川上和人, 鈴木創, 堀越和夫, 千葉勇人, 江田真毅, 平岡考
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2012/09
  • Is the analysis of lead concentration in archaeological goose bone a reliable indicator of domestic bird?  [Not invited]
    Masaki Eda, Yuhei Kodama, Eriko Ishimaru, Minoru Yoneda
    Seventh Meeting of the Bird Working Group of ICAZ  2012/08
  • 江田真毅, 山崎剛史, 坂井正人
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2011/09
  • 江田真毅, 海藤俊行, 井上貴央
    解剖学雑誌  2011/03
  • Case report of a large stone-like structure in the lesser pelvis  [Not invited]
    The 116th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists  2011
  • Case report of a large stone-like structure in the lesser pelvis  [Not invited]
    The 116th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists  2011
  • 海藤俊行, 江田真毅, 井上貴央
    解剖学雑誌  2010/03
  • Chickens in the Yayoi period: a living gift from Imperial China?  [Not invited]
    ESF-JSPS Frontier Science Conference Series for Young Researchers, Contact Zones of Empires in Asia and Europe: Complexity, Contingency, Causality  2010
  • Mitochondrial DNA sequence duplication in the Black-faced spoonbill, Platalea minor  [Not invited]
    International Symposium on Ecology, Migration and Conservation of the Black-faced Spoonbill  2010
  • Genetic structure of Black-faced spoonbill by mtDNA analysis  [Not invited]
    International Symposium on Ecology, Migration and Conservation of the Black-faced Spoonbill  2010
  • Genetic structure of Greater White-fronted Geese in wintering and stopover sites in Japan and Korea  [Not invited]
    25th International Ornithological Congress  2010
  • Medullary bones in goose remains: A reliable indicator of domestic individual in the Temperate Zone  [Not invited]
    International Council for Archaeozoology 11th Conference  2010
  • 小骨盤腔の巨大結石の一例  [Not invited]
    日本解剖学会第65回中国・四国支部学術集会  2010
  • 沖縄における更新世/完新世移行期の人類学・考古学的調査  [Not invited]
    第76回日本考古学協会  2010
  • キジ科遺存体の同定基準の検討と弥生時代のニワトリの再評価  [Not invited]
    第14回動物考古学研究集会  2010
  • Chickens in the Yayoi period: a living gift from Imperial China?  [Not invited]
    ESF-JSPS Frontier Science Conference Series for Young Researchers, Contact Zones of Empires in Asia and Europe: Complexity, Contingency, Causality  2010
  • Mitochondrial DNA sequence duplication in the Black-faced spoonbill, Platalea minor  [Not invited]
    International Symposium on Ecology, Migration and Conservation of the Black-faced Spoonbill  2010
  • Genetic structure of Black-faced spoonbill by mtDNA analysis  [Not invited]
    International Symposium on Ecology, Migration and Conservation of the Black-faced Spoonbill  2010
  • Genetic structure of Greater White-fronted Geese in wintering and stopover sites in Japan and Korea  [Not invited]
    25th International Ornithological Congress  2010
  • Medullary bones in goose remains: A reliable indicator of domestic individual in the Temperate Zone  [Not invited]
    International Council for Archaeozoology 11th Conference  2010
  • 沖縄県糸満市真栄平における新発見の更新世化石産出地とその動物化石群集  [Not invited]
    第63回日本人類学会大会  2009
  • セキショクヤケイの家禽化にともなう骨形態の変化と弥生時代のニワトリ  [Not invited]
    第13回動物考古学研究集会  2009
  • 森口紗千子, 内山憲太郎, 江田真毅, 天野達也, 牛山克巳, 藤田剛, 樋口広芳
    日本鳥学会大会講演要旨集  2008/09
  • そう炯柱, 江田真毅, 鄭鐘烈, 小池裕子
    日本生態学会大会講演要旨集  2008/03
  • クロツラヘラサギ(Platalea minor)における脱落羽毛等を用いたミトコンドリアDNAの多型解析  [Not invited]
    日本生態学会第55回大会  2008
  • Histological analysis of medullary bones from archaeological sites in Japan  [Not invited]
    Sixth Meeting of the Bird Working Group of ICAZ  2008
  • 越冬地と中継地におけるマガン個体群の遺伝的構造  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2008年度大会  2008
  • ミクロネシア・トビ島(パラオ)出土のグンカンドリ骨について  [Not invited]
    第62回日本人類学会大会  2008
  • 骨髄骨の組織学的分析によるガン亜科家禽(ガチョウ)の同定  [Not invited]
    第12回動物考古学研究集会  2008
  • 山陰の横穴墓から報告されている“鳥骨”の再検討  [Not invited]
    第12回動物考古学研究集会  2008
  • Histological analysis of medullary bones from archaeological sites in Japan  [Not invited]
    Sixth Meeting of the Bird Working Group of ICAZ  2008
  • 越冬地におけるマガンの遺伝的構造  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2007年度大会  2007
  • クロツラヘラサギ(Platalea minor)において検出されたmtDNAコントロール領域の重複  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2007年度大会  2007
  • 古代DNA分析による江戸時代の大名屋敷で供された希少鳥類の同定  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2007年度大会  2007
  • 鳥取県鳥取市・青谷上寺地遺跡の鳥類遺体について  [Not invited]
    第11回動物考古学研究集会  2007
  • DNA分析と安定同位体比分析によるアマミヤマシギの集団構造の解析  [Not invited]
    日本生態学会第53回大会  2006
  • Speciation of Scolopax woodcocks in East Asia, using mtDNA and stable isotope analyses: a preliminary study  [Not invited]
    Genetics of Speciation: American Genetics Association Annual Symposium  2006
  • Were they wild?: traditional bone observations and ancient DNA and stable isotope analyses for goose (Anserinae) archaeological remains from Japan  [Not invited]
    International Council for Archaeozoology 10th Conference  2006
  • ミトコンドリアDNAの重複を考慮したアホウドリの集団構造の再検討  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2006年度大会  2006
  • 薄板スプライン法によるカモ科上腕骨の同定  [Not invited]
    第10回動物考古学研究集会  2006
  • Were they wild?: traditional bone observations and ancient DNA and stable isotope analyses for goose (Anserinae) archaeological remains from Japan  [Not invited]
    International Council for Archaeozoology 10th Conference  2006
  • クロツラヘラサギのDNA解析  [Not invited]
    クロツラヘラサギ保全国際シンポジウム  2005
  • 遺跡出土カモ科鳥類における家畜個体識別の試み  [Not invited]
    第59回日本人類学会大会  2005
  • Eda Masaki, Koike Hiroko, Mihara Shozo, Hasegawa Hiroshi, Kuroo Masaki, Higuchi Hiroyoshi
    Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of Japan  2005 
    19世紀以降の商業的漁業の発達は,海鳥の食物を大きく変えた可能性が指摘されている.流し網にかかる大型の魚類やイカ類など,通常海鳥が利用できない高栄養段階の食物が供給されるようになった可能性や,逆に漁業活動の結果,採食できる高栄養段階の魚種が減少した可能性などである.本研究では,主に海面に浮上したイカ類や魚類を採食する大型海鳥であるアホウドリ(Phoebastria albatrus)を対象に,完新世後期における窒素と炭素の安定同位体比の変化を調べた.試料として,約60年前,500年前,1000年前,3500年前の遺跡から出土した骨と,繁殖地で採集された死体の骨を用いた.各試料から骨中のコラーゲンを抽出し,窒素と炭素の安定同位体比(δ15Nとδ13C)を測定した.骨コラーゲンはターンオーバーが遅く,その同位体比は数年の平均的な食性の情報をもつとされる.測定の結果,アホウドリの骨コラーゲンのδ15Nは約16—19‰,δ13Cは約-16—-12‰で,この種が海洋食物連鎖の高次栄養段階にあることが示された.各試料のミトコンドリアDNAの制御領域とチトクロームb領域を調べ,種内の系統ごと,時代ごとに安定同位体比を比較した結果,1)各時代の試料の安定同位体比は系統に関わらず比較的集中した値をとること,2)同一の時代でも異なるミトコンドリアDNAの系統では安定同位体比に差のある傾向があること,3)完新世の他の時代に比べ,現在のアホウドリでは平均値でδ15N値が約1‰,δ13C値が約2‰減少したことが明らかになった.3)の傾向のうち,δ13C値の約1‰の減少は海洋スエズ効果に由来すると考えられるが,観察された変動はそれよりも大きい.また,δ15N値の減少は栄養段階の低下を示す可能性がある.
  • Admixture of two populations or a large population?: combining Ancient DNA with stable isotope analyses to reconstruct original population structure for the Short-tailed Albatross  [Not invited]
    Second Meeting of the Archaeozoology and Genetics ICAZ Working Group  2005
  • 幾何学的形態測定の考古学への応用:薄板スプライン法による遺跡出土鳥類骨同定の試み  [Not invited]
    2005年度統計関連学会連合大会  2005
  • アマミヤマシギ(Scolopax mira)のmtDNA制御領域による遺伝的構造の解析  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2005年度大会  2005
  • Admixture of two populations or a large population?: combining Ancient DNA with stable isotope analyses to reconstruct original population structure for the Short-tailed Albatross  [Not invited]
    Second Meeting of the Archaeozoology and Genetics ICAZ Working Group  2005
  • Reconstructing Original Population Structure of a Nearly Extinct Seabird, the Short-tailed Albatross, from Zooarchaeological Remains  [Not invited]
    First Okazaki Biology Conference  2004
  • 遺跡試料による鳥類相復原の現状と課題  [Not invited]
    2004年三学会合同九州大会  2004
  • Why did Prehistoric Man Capture so Many Short-tailed Albatrosses in Northern Japan?  [Not invited]
    Fifth Meeting of the ICAZ Bird Working Group  2004
  • 完新世最温暖期における鳥類相と縄文人の鳥類利用  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2004年度大会  2004
  • 古代DNAを用いたアホウドリの集団構造の復原  [Not invited]
    DNA考古学研究会  2004
  • 青森県下北郡・尻労安部洞窟遺跡の鳥類遺体について  [Not invited]
    第8回動物考古学研究集会  2004
  • Reconstructing Original Population Structure of a Nearly Extinct Seabird, the Short-tailed Albatross, from Zooarchaeological Remains  [Not invited]
    First Okazaki Biology Conference  2004
  • Why did Prehistoric Man Capture so Many Short-tailed Albatrosses in Northern Japan?  [Not invited]
    Fifth Meeting of the ICAZ Bird Working Group  2004
  • 江田 真毅, 小池 裕子, 黒尾 正樹, 三原 正三, 長谷川 博, 樋口 広芳
    日本生態学会大会講演要旨集  2003  日本生態学会
  • 遺跡資料を用いたアホウドリの集団構造の復元-DNA解析、安定同位体分析、形態測定からの検討-  [Not invited]
    日本生態学会第50回大会  2003
  • Haneo, the Faunal Analysis of an Early Jomon Wet Site  [Not invited]
    10th International Wetland Archaeology Research Project Conference  2003
  • アホウドリの集団構造の過去・現在・未来  [Not invited]
    第5回日本進化学会大会  2003
  • なぜオホーツク人はアホウドリを採取したのか?  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2003年度大会  2003
  • Haneo, the Faunal Analysis of an Early Jomon Wet Site  [Not invited]
    10th International Wetland Archaeology Research Project Conference  2003
  • 完新世後期におけるアホウドリの骨形態の変化  [Not invited]
    日本生態学会第49回大会  2002
  • Ancient DNA analysis for species identification of albatross bones: short-tailed albatrosses disappeared from the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk  [Not invited]
    International Council for Archaeozoology 9th Conference  2002
  • 遺跡試料から抽出した古代DNAによる完新世後期におけるアホウドリの遺伝的構造の復元  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2002年度大会  2002
  • カモ科鳥類の属を単位とした同定とその考古学的意義  [Not invited]
    第6回動物考古学研究集会  2002
  • Ancient DNA analysis for species identification of albatross bones: short-tailed albatrosses disappeared from the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk  [Not invited]
    International Council for Archaeozoology 9th Conference  2002
  • 遺跡から出土するアホウドリ科の骨の同定  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会2001年度大会  2001
  • 遺跡出土鳥類遺体の鳥類学的研究-ツル科鳥類の分布を題材に-  [Not invited]
    第5回動物考古学研究集会  2001
  • 遺跡試料からみた完新世の鳥類の分布  [Not invited]
    日本鳥学会1999年度大会  1999

Awards & Honors

  • 2015/09 日本鳥学会 日本鳥学会黒田賞
     
    受賞者: 江田 真毅
  • 2014/08 UniBio Press 2014 UniBio Press Award for Ornithological Science
     
    受賞者: 江田 真毅
  • 2010/08 ICAZ 2010 Poster Competition, Poster prize for the quality of the research protocols (International Council for Archaeozoology 11th Conference, Paris)
  • 2006/08 ICAZ 2006 Poster Competition, Open Category, Runner-Up (International Council for Archaeozoology 10th Conference, Mexico City)
  • 2002/08 ICAZ 2002 Poster Competition, Studen Category, Winner (International Council for Archaeozoology 9th Conference, Durhram)

Research Grants & Projects

  • 東アジアにおける家禽飼育の起源と拡散の解明
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2020/04 -2024/03 
    Author : 江田 真毅
  • Northern Expansion and Adaptation Limitations of Temperate Neolithic Culture in Northeast Asia
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2018/04 -2022/03 
    Author : 福田 正宏, 江田 真毅
     
    今年度に実施した主な調査研究は、以下の通りである。 1)ユダヤ自治州における遺跡発掘調査:ハバロフスク地方郷土誌博物館と共同で、ロシア連邦ユダヤ自治州西部に所在するビジャン4遺跡とルチェイキ1遺跡で発掘調査を実施した。ビジャン4遺跡では、新石器時代中期前半コンドン文化の土器・石器からなる遺物集中が検出されたため、調査区を拡張して調査を行い、遺物を回収した。ルチェイキ1遺跡では、新石器時代中期マルィシェボ文化、同晩期リブノエ湖段階、古金属器時代前半期ウリル・ポリツェ文化の活動が重複する地点に所在する竪穴住居を完掘した。調査区内で詳細調査を行い、新しい方から順に、第Ⅰ段階:現代に近い時期(ソ連時代の入植期)、第Ⅱ段階:中世・靺鞨文化期、第Ⅲ段階:古金属器時代:ウリル・ポリツェ期、第Ⅳ段階:新石器時代晩期・リブノエ湖段階という遺跡形成・埋没過程があることを明らかにした。 2)サハリン北部・千島出土新石器時代前期遺物の資料調査:サハリン国立大学考古学教育博物館において、サハリン北部レブィルチェイ2遺跡、南千島マロクリリスコエ・ルィバキ3・ヤンキト2遺跡出土遺物の観察・分析を行った。 3)北海道オホーツク海沿岸における更新世末/完新世初頭の遺跡立地環境調査:猿払町~門別町にかけて、更新世末~完新世初頭の遺跡立地環境に関する現地調査と遺跡の保存状況確認調査を行った。 4)韓半島における新石器時代前半期土器の調査:東北アジアにおける新石器化のプロセスを考える上で看過できない韓半島南部における出現期土器の調査を行った。
  • コラーゲン分析による日本の遺跡出土の「同定不能骨片」同定のための基礎的研究
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Challenging Research (Exploratory)
    Date (from‐to) : 2018/06 -2021/03 
    Author : 江田 真毅, 田島 木綿子, 藤田 祐樹
     
    コラーゲンタンパクのアミノ酸配列の違いに基づく遺跡出土動物骨の同定は、ヨーロッパを中心に近年急速に発達している。一方で、ヨーロッパと日本では生息する種が異なるため、ヨーロッパで作成された同定基準は日本で直ちに適用できるものとはならない。そこで、本研究では日本の遺跡から出土した「同定不能骨片」の同定のために、日本産哺乳類を対象としたコラーゲンタンパク分析による骨の同定基準を作成し、実際に遺跡出土資料を同定するために研究を進めている。今年度は以下の実験をおこなった。
    1.北海道大学総合博物館および国立科学博物館に収蔵されている現生の日本産哺乳類を中心にコラーゲンタンパクの抽出とトリプシン切断断片のピークリストの作成をおこなった。その結果、ニホンザルやタヌキ、ニホンカモシカなど、これまでコラーゲンタンパク分析がなされたことのない日本産哺乳類も含む、11科17種について良好なトリプシン切断断片のピークリストが得られた。得られたピークには特定の科あるいは特定の複数の科に特徴的に出現するものが含まれていた。今後、分析標本の数を増やしていくことで、これらのピークを利用して科あるいはより低次の分類群を単位とした遺跡資料の同定に利用できると考えられる。 2.沖縄県糸満市の真栄平洞窟から出土したリュウキュウジカのコラーゲンタンパク分析を実施した。しかし、コラーゲンの劣化のためか、トリプシンの切断断片のピークはほとんど得られなかった。利用するサンプル量を増やす、コラーゲンタンパクの抽出方法を改良する、濃縮や脱塩の方法を改善するなどの対応が必要と考えられる。
  • 稲作農耕社会の発展を背景とした家禽利用の変化の解明
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)
    Date (from‐to) : 2018/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 江田 真毅
  • 土器出現期の日本列島人類を探る:日向洞窟出土縄文草創期人骨の考古科学的研究
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 澤田 純明, 米田 穣, 安達 登, 江田 真毅
     
    (1)山形県高畠町に所在する日向洞窟は、隆起線文土器や爪形文土器など縄文時代草創期の土器が出土したことで著名であり、同町内の複数の草創期洞窟遺跡とともに国史跡に指定されている。日向洞窟では、1955年以降数次にわたり発掘調査が実施され、草創期の土器のほか、縄文時代早期から弥生時代にかけての土器や石器、多量の動物骨、そして複数個体分の散乱人骨が得られている。人骨については、出土層位の情報が曖昧なこともあって長らく確定的な年代評価が与えられていなかったが、本研究(本科研の予備的調査を含む)において、複数個体の人骨標本から縄文草創期および縄文早期に相当する放射性炭素年代が得られ、またmtDNAの分析によりハプログループを確認することができた。現在、これらの人骨についての年代測定結果、mtDNA分析結果、および形態学的検討結果を論文にまとめ、国際学術雑誌への投稿準備を進めている。また、本科研の調査の過程において、これまで公にされていなかった未同定の人骨・動物骨資料が多数存在することを確認し、その同定・整理作業も進行中である。(2)本科研に関連して、日本列島(琉球列島を除く)で動物資料が出土した更新世人類遺跡を集成し、書籍『東北日本の旧石器時代』(東北日本の旧石器文化を語る会編、六一書房、2018年)にて「旧石器時代の動物考古学をめぐる諸問題」として発表した。同論文において、後期旧石器時代の日本列島で小・中型哺乳類狩猟が行われていたことを、動物考古学的成果に基づいて指摘した。
  • ニホンライチョウの分布変遷の解明と気候変化への脆弱性評価
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2016/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 津山 幾太郎, 松井 哲哉, 江田 真毅, 比嘉 基紀, 西海 功
     
    生息状況および生息環境に関する調査については、長野県環境保全研の堀田氏を中心に、北アルプス、南アルプスなどの山岳において、予定通り実施した。高山植生の分布とニホンライチョウの潜在生息域の推定については、高山植生帯の分布を気候変数で説明するモデルを構築し、現在と過去(約6000年前のヒプシサーマル期、約21000年前の最終氷期最寒冷期(LGM期))について、高山植生帯の潜在的な成立域(潜在成立域)を予測した。その結果、LGM期は現在より、高山植生帯の成立に好適な環境が広く、北海道から本州にかけてより連続的に分布していた。一方で、現在よりやや温暖だったとされるヒプシサーマル期は、現在と同等かやや縮小していたことが示唆された。 遺跡資料の収集と化石の遺伝解析については、日本列島の遺跡として唯一ライチョウの骨が報告されていた草刈遺跡(千葉県市原市・縄文時代後期)および、エゾライチョウの骨が報告されていたテンネル1遺跡(北海道釧路町・縄文時代後期)から出土した資料を調査し、標本がライチョウのものかどうかを検討した。既存報告書の調査では、東北地方と関東地方の遺跡を中心に約100遺跡を調べた。 遺伝解析については、ライチョウのミトコンドリアDNA調節領域(CR)の分析によって、南アルプス集団の他集団からの分岐年代推定を試みた。これまで226個体のCR分析によって6つのハプロタイプが知られているが、新たに6個体のCR全領域を分析した。その結果、南アルプス集団は他集団と5,400~13,000年前に分岐したことが推定された。
  • An Archaeological Study on the Origin and Economic History of the Kuril Ainu
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 高瀬 克範, 内山 幸子, 手塚 薫, 江田 真毅, 増田 隆一
     
    本プロジェクトで2015・2016年にカムチャツカ・北千島から回収した木炭試料や,島嶼生物地理学的な比較研究に役立つシベリアの木炭・動物骨試料の放射性炭素年代測定,炭素・窒素の同位体分析を実施した。これにより,2015年に調査した遺跡の年代や,2016調査で発掘された貝塚群のなかに千島アイヌの時期の遺跡が含まれていることが特定できた。また,千島列島出土イヌの計測,出土哺乳類のDNA分析,ZooMSによる分析を実施した。DNA分析は複数回試みたものの,試料の保存状況が悪く成果を得ることができなかった。しかし,ZooMSによる同試料の分析は成功し,この分析方法の有効性を確認することができた。このほか,千島列島,カムチャツカ半島出土の動物骨の情報は集計・分析段階に入っており,カムチャツカ出土資料については論文化に着手している。 本研究によってこれまで得られた成果の一部を,国際研究集会,一般向けの講演会,学会のプロシーディングスなどで公表している。本研究では,生物地理学的に島嶼部と対照的な環境にある大陸部の資源利用との比較も本研究の射程に入っているが,典型的な大陸環境における文化変遷と資源利用を理解するためにロシア・サハ共和国の研究者を招聘し,国際ワークショップを東京大学(2019年3月21日)・北海道大学(2019年3月26日)で実施した。 ロシア・マガダンに保管されているカムチャツカ出土の考古資料のうち,土器・石器・骨角器・ガラス製品などの人工遺物に関しては,共同研究者とともに資料カタログを作成・刊行した。これにより,他の研究者にとっても本コレクションを利用しやすい環境を整えることができた。なお,本コレクション中の動物骨については,別途論文化を予定している。
  • 東南アジア大陸部における家畜化プロセスの総合的解明
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 澤田 純明, 佐藤 孝雄, 本郷 一美, 米田 穣, 高橋 遼平, 江田 真毅
     
    (1)本科研でこれまでに得られた研究成果をまとめ、トルコのアンカラで2018年9月2日-7日に開催された「13th ICAZ International Conference」で発表した(発表タイトル:The hunting strategy in the Hoabinhian period of northern Vietnam、発表者:Junmei Sawada ほか共同研究者9名)。(2)日本・ベトナムの共同研究者とともに、ベトナムのホアビン省に所在するハンチョー洞穴などホアビン文化期の洞窟遺跡を踏査した。また、ホアビン省石灰岩山岳地帯の景観調査を実施した。今回の踏査で、ホアビン文化期の洞窟利用を解明するために有望と思われる洞窟遺跡を確認したので、次年度以降にベトナム・日本の共同調査として発掘を実施することを検討中である。(3)ハノイのベトナム考古学院を訪問し、ベトナム北部カッドバ島カイベオ遺跡出土動物骨の動物考古学的調査を実施した(前年度の継続研究)。カイベオ遺跡は、約4000-3500年前のハロン文化期の先史遺跡で、本科研の動物資料の調査対象としているマンバック遺跡(フングエン文化並行期、約3800~3500年前)の比較遺跡として好適である。現在までの調査により、マンバック遺跡からは家畜のブタが多く見つかったのに対し、カイベオ遺跡の動物骨にはブタがほとんど(もしくは、全く)みられず、イルカなどの海生哺乳類や沿岸性の魚類を主体的に利用していた様相が確認されている。地理的・時代的に近い両遺跡の動物相が大きく異なることは、農耕・家畜導入期の北部ベトナムの社会の構造を探る上で興味深く、両遺跡の出土動物資料の調査を次年度も引き続き実施する予定である。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2019/03 
    Author : Eda Masaki, OKITA Ema
     
    The identification of the bird bones found with the female corpse named “a woman holding a baby cormorant” (human skeleton No. 1) at the Doigahama site is important for understanding religious ceremonies of the Yayoi culture. However, as these bones are fragmented, identification based on bone morphology is difficult. In the present study, identification based on the amino acid sequence of the collagen peptide was applied to birds for the first time. Peaks of amino acid sequences were used in the identification of bones of birds currently living in Japan, and they were then compared with sequences of the bird bones found with the female corpse. This analysis revealed that these bird bones were from an owl. Nonetheless, whether these bird bones were buried together with the human bones needs further examination.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/07 -2019/03 
    Author : SAKAI MASASTO, AKOJIMA Isao, YONEDA Minoru, WATANABE Yoichi, Monma Tadasuke
     
    In this study, we realized interdisciplinary research on the Nasca Pampa at the southern coast of Peru, where the lines and geoglyphs of Nasca, the World Heritage Site, are distributed extensively. As a result, we found about 90 new geoglyphs of animals, and clarified the distribution and period of about 1000 lines. Furthermore, we made it clear through interdisciplinary research that the above geoglyphs of animals had been guideposts on the routes to cut across the Nasca Pampa, and that they later played a role as ritual places. In addition, in order to preserve these geoglyphs, we established a method to get their high visibility in the original condition.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/04 -2019/03 
    Author : Ishimaru Eriko, ISHIGAKI toshiyuki, EDA masaki, OOKITA kazumi, KOYAMA taisei, TAKEUCHI yuki, YAMAMOTO motoko, WAKASHIMA kazunori
     
    In this study we considered the aspect of various food resource utilization and relationship between specific animals such as dogs and cattle and humans by analysis of animal remains excavated from the early modern castle town area of Chugoku-Shikoku region. We also examined the difference of the food environment, utilization of shellfish resources, bone work production and utilization of dogs from the difference of the fauna of each house site. Additionally, isotopic analysis of animal bones reveals carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio values of animal resources used at that time, we pointed out the difference in dietary environment of mammalian resources during the Jomon period and the early modern period and the possibility of human influence on domestic species.
  • 稲作農耕社会の発展を背景とした人とカモ科鳥類の関係史
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)
    Date (from‐to) : 2016/04 -2018/03 
    Author : 江田 真毅
     
    長江下流域において、稲作農耕の発展を背景にカモ科鳥類と人のかかわりがどのように変化したかを明らかにするために以下の調査・研究をおこなった。 1.跨湖橋遺跡(約8,000-7,000年前)出土の鳥骨を肉眼比較により同定した。8目9科を確認し,ガン族が約47%ともっとも主体的であり,これにツル科(約21%)とカモ亜科(約14%)が続くことが分かった。昨年度までに調査した田螺山遺跡,良渚遺跡と比較すると,跨湖橋遺跡ではツル科の利用がとくに顕著であったことが読み取れる。田螺山遺跡や良渚遺跡で認められたガン族の幼鳥や若鳥と考えられる骨は検出されなかった。 2.コペンハーゲン大学自然史博物館(デンマーク),ヒストリックイングランドおよびサザンプトン大学(ともにイギリス)でガン類の幼鳥の骨を調査した。その結果,少なくとも田螺山遺跡と良渚遺跡から出土した各1点のガン類の骨は4週齢~8週齢の幼鳥に由来し,越冬地に渡る以前に死亡した個体のものと考えられた。現在のガン類の生態から野生のガン類が長江下流域で繁殖するとは考えにくいことから,これらの個体は家畜個体(ガチョウ)に由来するものと考えられる。 3.田螺山遺跡から出土したガン族の骨(成鳥と前述の幼鳥3点を含む)の酸素同位体比を測定した。その結果,ガン族の成鳥の骨に田螺山の哺乳類の酸素同位体比の範囲に含まれる資料群(A群)、哺乳類よりも低い資料群(B群)、それらの資料群よりさらに値の低い資料群(C群)が認められた。この結果はA群が周年長江下流域周辺に生息した個体、C群が初年に繁殖地から飛来した個体、B群が何度か渡りをした個体と解釈できた。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2018/03 
    Author : Watanuki Yutaka
     
    Individuals of seabirds breeding at the same colony often use separate areas during the non-breeding period and they sometimes diverse genetically. Short-tailed albatrosses Phoebastria albatrus is endemic and threatened species in Japan. Its population consists of two genetically diverse types (Torishima and Senkaku). We tracked the annual movements of individual birds breeding at Torishima using biologging technique. We found that during their non-breeding period all Torishima type used Bering Sea while Senkaku type mainly used the Okhotsk Sea. We did not detect difference in the timing of arrival to the colony from non-breeding areas between these two types. Thus these two types may be under the different natural and anthropogenic stresses during non-breeding period thus should be carefly treated as separate conservation units.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2012/10 -2016/03 
    Author : KATO Hirofumi, ISHIDA Hajime, YOSHIDA Kunio, SATO Takao, YONENOBU Hitoshi, HUDSON Mark, YONEDA Minoru, ADACHI Noboru, MASUDA Ryuichi, KIYAMA Katsuhiko, EDA Masaki, OKADA Mayumi, NAGANUMA Masaki
     
    In this research project, we can provide a rich resource to suggest the strong influence of the Marine Hunter-Gatherer cultural tradition in the social-cultural context into the formation process of Ainu and their cultural traditions. Our archaeological investigation at Hamanaka 2 site, in Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan, has been clearly shown that the tradition of Sea-mammal worship tradition continuously inherited from the preceded prehistoric culture into the historical Ainu culture. In the field of genetics, we have got a valuable resource for further progress. So far, presented complexity of the formation process of Ainu, we have to consider the need for the social, economic, political aspect and influence in the formation process of ethnic identity and its variability. We would like to continue for further accumulation and deepening of collected research resources in this project.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2012/04 -2016/03 
    Author : Eda Masaki
     
    Farming of domestic birds (including domestic chicken, goose and duck) is thought to have begun in the Neolithic Age in northern China, and domestic chicken farming is considered the oldest poultry farming practice, with its origin tracing back to approximately 10,000 BP. To investigate the domestication process of birds in China, we analyzed bird bones collected from 23 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in central and northern China. No candidate chicken bones were found at any of the early and middle Neolithic sites, whereas a small number of them were found in the late Neolithic and Bronze Age sites. These observations suggest that chickens were not farmed in central and northern China during the early and middle Neolithic Age and that they were not popular even in the Bronze Age.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2009 -2011 
    Author : EDA Masaki
     
    Morphological characteristics of domestic chicken bones in the Yayoi period were similar to ones of red-jungle fowls kept in cage and not fully domesticated. Then I tried to find out nonmetric osteological characters that are useful for the discrimination of chicken and indigenous wild fowls in Japan. Referring to the osteological characteristics, I reanalyzed and reconfirmed zooarchaeological chicken bones from the Yayoi period. In addition, I studied bird remains from 20 archaeological sites in Japan(Early Jomon to Edo Period) and tried to find out domescit chicken and goose bones.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (Start-up)
    Date (from‐to) : 2007 -2008 
    Author : EDA Masaki
     
    ガン亜科とキジ科の遺跡出土試料を対象に、組織切片を用いた骨髄骨の観察、骨の発達段階や形態の観察・測定、古代DNA分析をおこない、野生集団と家畜化の各段階にある集団との識別方法を確立した。特に骨髄骨の分析では、日本ではじめてガン亜科家禽を同定した。今後、本研究で得られた知見に基づいてガン亜科やキジ科の遺跡出土試料を分析することで、日本における家禽の歴史をより鮮明に描けるようになると期待される。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research
    Date (from‐to) : 2006 -2008 
    Author : 井上 貴央, 江田 真毅, 小川 敏英, 井上 仁, 川久保 善智
     
    本研究は、現代日本人の解剖体やCT画像のデータをもとにして、顔面における皮膚の厚みを計測し、最新のコンピュータグラフィックス技術を用いて、古人骨の三次元的な復顔を行う方法を検討するものである。本年度は、最終年度に当たるので、これまで得られたCT画像、古人骨の三次元データ、解剖体の皮膚の厚みおよび鼻根部の形態の基礎的データについて整理した。また、現代人を標準的な縄文系のグループと標準的な渡来系弥生人系のグループに分け、それぞれの顔面画像を撮影し、眼、眉毛、耳、鼻、口唇などの顔面部品を作製した。実物の古人骨から得られたUVWファイノレの三次元データにっいては、ウェブなどで公開するには充分の解搬を撒ていた。 昨年度からの検討課題であった正確なポリゴンデータ収集については、撮影方法等にも工夫をこらしたところ、やや改善したものの、歪みのない三次元ファイルを作製することは困難であった。したがって、読み込んだ頭蓋骨の三次元データに皮膚の厚みデータを付加することはできず、復顔の立体造型には至らなかった。しかしながら、今回の研究を通じて、鼻根部の詳細な形態が得られたこと、三次元データをOBJファイルに変換することによって現代人の顔面部品のJPG画像がコンピュータ上で貼り付けできることが分かったことは、三次元ソフトの進歩によるところが大きい。このことは、将来、より正確な復顔像を作製する上で、大きな進歩であったと考えられ、バーチャル復顔像の作製に関する現時点での問題点を抽出することができた。将来、ソフト面の開発が進めば、本研究を基礎として、容易に三次元復顔ができる可能性を示唆したものと言える。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows
    Date (from‐to) : 2004 -2006 
    Author : 江田 真毅
     
    古代DNAを用いた遺跡出土コウノトリ科、トキ科、ツル科の同定法の確立、ミトコンドリアDNAの重複を考慮した古代DNAに基づくアホウドリの集団構造の再検討、遺跡出土ガン亜科の種同定と家畜個体の識別の3つをテーマに研究した。コウノトリ科、トキ科、ツル科の同定は、汐留遺跡(東京都港区・江戸時代)の出土試料を対象とした。Eda et al.(2006)のプライマーを用いて分析した結果、同遺跡のコウノトリ科はコウノトリ(Ciconia boyciana)を、トキ科はトキ(Nipponia nippon)を、ツル科はナベヅル(Grus monacha)あるいはクロヅル(Grus Grus)を含むことが明らかになった。アホウドリの集団構造の再検討では、まずアホウドリ科のThalassarche属で近年発見されたミトコンドリアDNA配列の重複(Abbott et al.2005)がアホウドリ属(Phoebastria)にも共通することを確認した。次に、浜中2遺跡(北海道礼文町・オホーツク文化期)出土のアホウドリ(P.albatrus)遺体のDNA解析の結果(Eda,2005,Dr's thesis)を再検討した。その結果、認識されていた3つのクレードのうち、1つのクレードは異なる制御領域のコピーに由来することが示唆されたものの、配列の再解析の結果、当時アホウドリに2つの集団があったことが支持された。ガン亜科の種同定と家畜個体の識別については、解析領域が少ないことによる誤判別の可能性を減少するために新たなプライマーを設計し、同定法をより頑健にした。また、出島和蘭商館跡遺跡のガン亜科遺体を分析し、骨髄骨を含むガン亜科の骨を検出した。骨髄骨は産卵期の雌の骨中にのみ二次的に形成される骨である一方、現在野生のガン亜科は日本で繁殖しない。このことから同遺跡ではガン亜科の家畜個体が利用されていたことが示唆された。

Educational Activities

Teaching Experience

  • Evolutionary Biology
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 理学院
    キーワード : 遺伝子系統樹,ネットワーク,遺伝的多型,遺伝分化,突然変異,遺伝的不動,自然選択,集団サイズ,集団構造,分散と分断,生物地理区
  • Inter-Graduate School Classes(Educational Program):Museology
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 学術標本・資料、博物館、学芸員、アドバンストコース
  • Methods in Biodiversity Studies
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 理学院
    キーワード : 生物多様性,分類,系統,古生物,進化発生学,動物,植物,海藻,原生生物,系統地理学
  • Environment and People
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 博物館、標本、資料、展示、実証的教育・研究、地球科学、生物学、獣医学、考古学、建築学、情報学、教育学
  • Theory of Museum Exhibitions
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 文学部
    キーワード : 博物館、展示、学芸員
  • Museum IIb
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 文学部
    キーワード : 博物館,情報,メディア,ドキュメンテーション,データベース,アーカイブ,映像,知的財産
  • Theory of Museum Mediation and Communication
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 文学部
    キーワード : 博物館,情報,メディア,ドキュメンテーション,データベース,アーカイブ,映像,知的財産


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