Researcher Database

Toshiyuki Hirata
Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere Agro-Ecosystem Research Station Experiment Farm
Assistant Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings


  • Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere Agro-Ecosystem Research Station Experiment Farm

Job Title

  • Assistant Professor


  • Doctor(Agriculture)(Hokkaido University)


Research funding number

  • 60281797


J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • 近縁野生種   進化   コムギ   土壌窒素   畑作・園芸   カバークロップ   ヘアリーベッチ   土壌生物性   ダイズ   持続的農業   窒素供給   イネ科マメ科の比率   土壌特性の圃場内変異   耕起体系   遺伝資源   環境保全   

Research Areas

  • Environmental science/Agricultural science / Crop production science
  • Life sciences / Ecology and environmental science
  • Environmental science/Agricultural science / Plant genetics and breeding

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2012 Hokkaido University

Association Memberships

  • CROP SCIENCE SOCIETY OF JAPAN   日本農作業学会   日本生態学会   

Research Activities

Published Papers

  • Kohei Adachi, Aya Hirose, Yuhei Kanazashi, Miki Hibara, Toshiyuki Hirata, Masafumi Mikami, Masaki Endo, Sakiko Hirose, Nobuyuki Maruyama, Masao Ishimoto, Jun Abe, Tetsuya Yamada
    TRANSGENIC RESEARCH 30 (1) 77 - 89 0962-8819 2021/02 [Refereed]
    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonuclease 9 (Cas9) system is being rapidly developed for mutagenesis in higher plants. Ideally, foreign DNA introduced by this system is removed in the breeding of edible crops and vegetables. Here, we report an efficient generation of Cas9-free mutants lacking an allergenic gene, Gly m Bd 30K, using biolistic transformation and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Five transgenic embryo lines were selected on the basis of hygromycin resistance. Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis detected only two different mutations in e all of the lines. These results indicate that mutations were induced in the target gene immediately after the delivery of the exogenous gene into the embryo cells. Soybean plantlets (T-0 plants) were regenerated from two of the transgenic embryo lines. The segregation pattern of the Cas9 gene in the T-1 generation, which included Cas9-free plants, revealed that a single copy number of transgene was integrated in both lines. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that no Gly m Bd 30K protein accumulated in the Cas9-free plants. Gene expression analysis indicated that nonsense mRNA decay might have occurred in mature mutant seeds. Due to the efficient induction of inheritable mutations and the low integrated transgene copy number in the T-0 plants, we could remove foreign DNA easily by genetic segregation in the T-1 generation. Our results demonstrate that biolistic transformation of soybean embryos is useful for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated site-directed mutagenesis of soybean for human consumption.
  • Rafael A. Muchanga, Toshiyuki Hirata, Yoshitaka Uchida, Ryusuke Hatano, Hajime Araki
    AGRONOMY JOURNAL 112 (3) 1636 - 1648 0002-1962 2020/05 [Refereed]
    Depending on management, cover crops may improve soil and environmental quality and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield. We evaluated the effects of hairy vetch (HV; Vicia villosa R.) residue management and the biculture of HV and rye (Secale cereale L.) on soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), soil inorganic nitrogen, and tomato yield for 2 yr in a plastic high tunnel. The SOC in the surface 10-cm depth was 2.87-17.5% significantly greater in HV incorporation (HVI), HV mulch (HVM), and the biculture of HV and rye treatments (HV+RYE), than in a no cover crop treatment (bare fallow). However, cover crop management effects on STN varied with soil depths (0- to 10- and 10- to 30-cm depths) and years, and HVI tended to be more effective than other treatments in increasing STN. Residual soil nitrate-N was increased by cover crops, more so by HV monoculture than HV+RYE. The MBN and inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N) were greater in HVI than either HVM or HV+RYE. Tomato total yield was 11.1-43.8% significantly greater in HVI and HVM than in bare fallow. However, the effects of HV+RYE on MBN, inorganic N, and tomato yield varied with C/N ratio of residues and best results were obtained with a C/N ratio of 17.6 than with 23.7. Therefore, if an adequate seeding HV/rye ratio (2:1) is used, HV+RYE is a better management practice to increase SOC and STN at topsoil and tomato yield with least residual N.
  • Rafael A. Muchanga, Yoshitaka Uchida, Toshiyuki Hirata, Ryusuke Hatano, Hajime Araki
    HORTICULTURE JOURNAL 89 (4) 394 - 402 2189-0102 2020 [Refereed]
    The nitrogen (N) contribution of rye (Secale cereale L.) to tomato production may increase when grown and applied with hairy vetch (Vicia villosa R.) to the soil. To examine the uptake and recovery efficiency by tomatoes and retention in the soil of N derived from N-15-labeled rye applied as a monoculture and biculture with hairy vetch, a Wagner pot examination was conducted under plastic high tunnel conditions in Sapporo, Japan. Irrespective of cover crop residue management, the peak of rye-derived N uptake occurred between 4 and 8 weeks after transplanting (WAT) and ceased between 8 and 12 WAT. Rye-derived N uptake by tomatoes (shoot + fruit) was 58.3% greater in rye monoculture treatment than in the biculture of hairy vetch and rye treatment because of higher rye-derived N input, whereas rye-derived N recovery was greater in the biculture treatment (34.0%) than in monoculture treatment (26.9%). The soil retained 47.0% and 52.5% of the rye-derived N input in the biculture (972 mg N/pot) and rye monoculture (1943 mg N/pot) treatments, respectively. Rye-derived N stored in the roots and possibly lost was estimated at 19.0% and 20.6% of the rye-derived N input in the biculture and monoculture treatments, respectively. Hairy vetch in the biculture treatment contributed 46.2% more N to tomato production than rye, and the hairy vetch N contribution was more significant during the late period (4-8 WAT) than the early period (0-4 WAT) of tomato cultivation. Therefore, the biculture may change the N release pattern from both hairy vetch and rye, with the cover crops releasing high amounts of N in both the early and late periods of tomato cultivation. These results may help improve N management in vegetable production systems by maximizing the use of plant-derived N by crops, thereby reducing N fertilizer inputs.
  • Rafael A. Muchanga, Toshiyuki Hirata, Hajime Araki
    HORTSCIENCE 54 (6) 1023 - 1030 0018-5345 2019/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Cover crops and compost application may influence soil quality and productivity of fresh-market tomatoes. The effects of hairy vetch (HV) (Vicia villosa Roth) and livestock compost on soil C and N stocks, N availability, and tomato yield were evaluated for 2 years in a plastic high tunnel. Averaged across years, soil C and N stocks increased in plots incorporating hairy vetch and compost more than in plots with no hairy vetch and compost. When compared with baseline stocks (initial soil C and N stocks before the initiation of the examination), soil C stock increased by 3%, 2.8%, 2.6% in the HV treatment, the compost treatment, and the HV and compost treatment, respectively. In contrast, a 1.85% loss of soil C stock was observed in a no HV and no compost (bare) treatment. Soil N stocks increased in all treatments, with the greatest increase in the compost treatment (26%) and the lowest in the bare treatment (9.3%). Averaged across sampling dates, the HV treatment exhibited the greatest soil N availability and nitrate levels in leaf petiole in both years, whereas the bare treatment exhibited the lowest soil N availability and nitrate levels in leaf petiole. HV + compost and compost treatments showed a similar influence on soil N availability, but HV + compost exhibited greater nitrate levels in leaf petiole than the compost treatment. The marketable and total yields were 10% to 15% greater in the HV and the compost treatments than in the bare treatment. N uptake was 17% to 38% greater in the HV treatment than in the other treatments. Because of unstable cover crop production in the northern region, a combined application of cover crops and compost may be one of the best practices to compensate for low cover crop biomass production by increasing organic matter input to the soil, thereby improving soil quality and tomato yield.
  • Y. Sugihara, H. Ueno, T. Hirata, M. Komatsuzaki, H. Araki
    Acta Horticulturae 1164 135 - 142 0567-7572 2017/06/30 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Fresh market tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are mainly grown in plastic house in Japan and usually a large amount of nitrogen fertilizer was applied for getting high yield. One of the ways to establish an organic system, no chemical N fertilizer, is the use of cover crops. The application effect of a legume cover crop, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa R., HV), on N dynamics in fresh market tomatoes, 'House Momotaro', was investigated using the 15N-labeling method in 2011 and 2012. Before transplanting of tomato, the 15N-labeled HV (1.319 mg N pot-1, 260 kg N ha-1), and chemical N fertilizers were incorporated into the soil. Tomato seedlings were transplanted into a 1/2000 a Wagner pot with 0 and 240 kg ha-1 of N application (N0HV and N240HV) in plastic house early June, 2011. Only 240 kg ha-1 of N fertilizer was applied in conventional plot. There was no significant difference in fruit yield among the plots. In organic plot, N0HV, total N uptake in tomato plant was smaller than that in N240HV, however, the rate of N uptake derived from HV to total N uptake in tomato plants (%Ndfhv) in N0HV (37.1%) was larger than that in N240HV (24.8%) at 12 weeks after transplant. Nitrogen use efficiency from HV-derived N (NUE; N uptake derived from HV in tomato/amount of N applied in HV) was 44.4% in N240HV and 49.4% in N0HV. About half of HV-N including organic and inorganic type remained in the soil. Tomato was cultivated in the soil used 2011 with unlabelled HV and N fertilizer in 2012. There was no difference in the uptake amount of N derived from HV applied in 2011 (HV2011) into tomato between N240HV and N0HV, 57.7 mg plant-1 on average, so nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) derived from HV2011 was 4.4% on average 2012. It was recognized HV could be available for not only short-term N source, but also long-term N source.
  • Toshiyuki Hirata, Daisuke Noguchi, Hajime Araki
    Japanese Journal of Farm Work Research 日本農作業学会 52 (3) 133 - 142 0389-1763 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
    This study examined how hairy vetch seeding affects reduction of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to the continuous cropping of spring wheat in Central Hokkaido, in 2015 and 2016. The spring wheat cultivar, ‘Haruyutaka’, was cultivated using two cropping systems, namely, a conventional system wherein spring wheat was sown in early April and an early winter seeding system wherein spring wheat was sown just before snowfall. Hairy vetch was grown until just before the spring wheat seeding was completed in the conventional system. In contrast, in the early winter seeding system, hairy vetch was incorporated in late October. N fertilizer application after snow melting was reduced to half the recommended level in the cropping systems employing hairy vetch. Growth and dry matter production in spring wheat were estimated in 2015 and 2016, by comparatively evaluating these results with the conventional and the early winter seeding systems without hairy vetch application. Dry weight of hairy vetch ranged from 250.1 g m-2 in the conventional system in 2014 to 50.1 g m-2 in the early winter seeding system in 2015. The grain dry matter weight was higher in the early winter seeding system in only 2015, but there was no difference between hairy vetch application treatments in both systems in 2015 and 2016. N content in wheat grain ranged from 2.29% to 2.52%, which was sufficient to ensure seed quality of spring wheat. The plant length was suppressed at the late growth stage in the early winter seeding system employing hairy vetch in 2016. This results suggest that N deficiency occurred at the ripening stage of wheat in this system. The present study shows the potential to reduce spring N fertilizer to half of the recommended level by introduction of hairy vetch during the previous autumn season.
  • Rafael Alexandre Muchanga, Toshiyuki Hirata, Hajime Araki
    HORTICULTURE JOURNAL 86 (4) 493 - 500 2189-0102 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
    In order to establish a low-input alternative production system based on cover crops, the effectiveness of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth; HV) incorporated as a basal nitrogen fertilizer and its effects on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content in fresh-market tomato production in plastic high tunnel was investigated in Sapporo (snow cover region), Japan. The treatments consisted of HV seeding rates (HV2, 2 kg/10 a; HV5, 5 kg/10 a) and ammonium sulfate (AS10, 10 kg N/10 a) applied as basal N fertilizers, and the Non HV (control) with no HV and ammonium sulfate. In all plots, 15 kg N/10 a were added before tomato transplanting as a controlledrelease fertilizer (LPS100 41%-N) to maintain the tomato growth in the mid and late stages. HV aboveground biomass (dry weight) was 585 kg/10 a in HV2 and 719 kg/10 a in HV5. Nitrate in petiole sap was higher in HV2, HV5, and AS10 plots than in Non HV plots throughout the cultivation period with the exception of the first 2 weeks after transplanting (WAT). The Growth index (GI) was higher in HV2 (47971), HV5 (46285), and AS10 (43397) than in Non HV (39847) at 7 WAT, the beginning of the harvest. Higher marketable yields were found in tomatoes grown in HV2 (6.87 t/10 a), HV5 (6.91 t/10 a), and AS10 (6.08 t/10 a), compared with the Non HV (5.19 t/10 a). The HV plots had greater soil total and organic N than AS10 and Non HV, and slightly increased soil C after tomato production. From these results, the HV seeding rate of 2 kg/10 a will be enough to support the growth of tomatoes planted after HV production if HV grows steadily in a plastic high tunnel.
  • Yuichi Sugihara, Hideto Ueno, Toshiyuki Hirata, Masakazu Komatsuzaki, Hajime Araki
    HORTICULTURE JOURNAL 一般社団法人 園芸学会 85 (3) 217 - 223 2189-0102 2016 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Utilization of cover crops helps the establishment of environmentally friendly agriculture due to their nutrition supplying ability mainly in the current year of application, but cover crop-derived N also remains until the following year. In the present study, the nutritional effect of a cover crop on tomato production in a greenhouse in the following year was investigated using the N-15-labeling method. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa R., HV) was used as a cover crop. N-15-labeled HV (1319 mg N/pot) was applied to a 1/2000 a Wagner pot, and a fresh market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), 'House Momotaro' was cultivated in it at 0, 80, and 240 kg.ha(-1) of N application in 2011 (N0HV, N80HV, and N240HV). After the tomato cultivation in 2011, the soil was stored in a greenhouse (the temperature varied from -4.1 degrees C to 26.5 degrees C) without any water or fertilizer. Tomatoes were cultivated again in the Wagner pots containing the soil used in 2011, to which was added the same rate of N fertilizer (0, 80, and 240 kg.ha(-1) of N) and unlabeled HV (935 mg N/pot) in 2012. Total N uptake of tomato plants was higher in N240HV (2377 mg/plant), followed by N80HV (1760 mg/plant), N0HV (1498 mg/plant). On the other hand, the uptake of N derived from HV applied in 2011 (HV2011, 1319 mg N/pot) was not different among the treatments (57.7 mg/plant on average); thus, nitrogen use efficiency derived from HV2011 in 2012 was 4.4% on average. This value was much lower than that in 2011 (47.1% on average), but HV2011-N also remained in the soil after the tomato cultivation in 2012 (500 mg N/pot). The distribution ratios of HV2011-N to the fruit in 1st and 2nd fruit clusters that developed in the early growth period were higher than those of N derived from soil, fertilizer, and HV applied in 2012. These results showed that although the N supplying effect of HV was small, HV could be available not only as short-term N source, but also long-term N source, and HV-derived N applied in the previous year was absorbed by tomato plants during a relatively early growth period in the following year.
  • Yuichi Sugihara, Hideto Ueno, Toshiyuki Hirata, Hajime Araki
    JOURNAL OF THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE 一般社団法人 園芸学会 83 (3) 222 - 228 1882-3351 2014/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    In order to improve the use efficiency of a cover crop, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa R., HV), and supplemental chemical N fertilizer, N release and uptake patterns from HV, fast-release N fertilizer (Fast), and slow-release N fertilizer (Slow) in fresh market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production were investigated using the N-15-labeling method. In the incubation of soil-added N at two mix rates, 20% Fast + 80% Slow (FS) and 100% Slow (S), a large amount of inorganic N, mainly NH4+-N, was released by FS in 4 weeks. Tomato 'House momotaro' was grown in 1/2000 a Wagner pots incorporating such N fertilizer and N-15-labeled HV residue (30 g DW/pot, about 200 kg N.ha(-1)). Plant biomass in tomato grown with HV was larger than that grown without HV. HV-derived N (N-dfhv,) was taken up by the tomatoes mainly until 4 weeks after transplant (WAT). The uptake amount of N-dfhv, was the same in the pot with HV-FS and HV-S. The rate of N uptake derived from HV to total N uptake in tomato plants (%N-dfhv) was 43% in HV-S, higher than that in HV-FS (34%) in 4 WAT; however, such a difference disappeared after 4 WAT. N uptake by tomato plants continued until 12 WAT. Based on these results, HV acted as a fast-release fertilizer. There was competition in N uptake between chemical fertilizer N and ITV-released N in the early stage of tomato cultivation. A large amount of chemical fertilizer tended to suppress the uptake of N-dfhv. N uptake by tomato plant continued until the late stage. These results can be applied to establish a suitable combination of HV and chemical fertilizer for tomato production.
  • Tatsuya Higashi, Mu Yunghui, Masakazu Komatsuzaki, Shigenori Miura, Toshiyuki Hirata, Hajime Araki, Nobuhiro Kaneko, Hiroyuki Ohta
    SOIL & TILLAGE RESEARCH 138 64 - 72 0167-1987 2014/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
    No-tillage, cover crops, and N fertilization play important roles in conserving or increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the effects of their interaction are less well known, particularly in Asian countries. We examined the effects of three tillage management systems, moldboard plow/rotary harrow (MP), rotary cultivator (RC), and no-tillage (NT); three winter cover crop types (FL: fallow, RY: rye, and HV hairy vetch); and two nitrogen fertilization rates (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1) for upland rice and 0 and 20 kg N ha(-1) for soybean production) on changes in SOC. Vertical distributions at 0-2.5, 2.5-7.5, 7.5-15, and 15-30 cm depths of soil carbon content and bulk density were measured each year. From 2003 to 2011, NT and RC management increased SOC by 10.2 and 9.0 Mg ha(-1), whereas SOC under the MP system increased only by 6.4 Mg ha(-1). Cover crop species also significantly increased SOC in the same period by 13.4 and 8.6 Mg ha(-1) for rye and hairy vetch, respectively, although SOC with fallow increased only by 5.4 Mg ha(-1). Continuous soil management for 9 years enhanced SOC accumulation. Summer crop species between upland rice and soybean strongly affected SOC; the SOC increases were 0.29 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) for the upland rice rotation and 1.84 Mg ha(-1) year for the soybean rotation. However, N fertilization levels did not significantly affect SOC. These results suggest that the NT system and rye cover crop enhance carbon sequestration in Kanto, Japan, but that their contributions differ depending on the combination of main and cover crops. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Yuichi Sugihara, Hideto Ueno, Toshiyuki Hirata, Hajime Araki
    JOURNAL OF THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE 一般社団法人 園芸学会 82 (1) 30 - 38 1882-3351 2013/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
    One of the ways to reduce chemical fertilizer application is the use of cover crops, which improve soil properties and supply nutrition to subsequent crops. The application effect of a legume cover crop, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa R., HV), on N dynamics in fresh market tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), 'House Momotaro,' was investigated using the N-15-labeling method. Tomato seedlings were transplanted into a 1/2000 a Wagner pot at 0, 80, and 240 kg.ha(-1) of N application (N0HV, N80HV, and N240HV) on June 9, 2011. Before transplanting, the labeled HV and chemical fertilizers were incorporated into the soil. Five tomato plants were collected 6 times in each treatment and then separated into leaves, stems, and roots. Fruits were harvested at maturity. HV-derived N uptake was recognized mainly in the first 4 weeks after transplant (WAT). Especially in N240HV, HV-derived N uptake ceased at 4 WAT. The uptake amounts of HV-derived N at 10 WAT were 587, 657, and 729 mg.plant(-1) in N240HV, N80HV, and N0HV, respectively, and were increased by decreasing N fertilizer application. The rate of N uptake derived from HV to total N uptake in tomato plants (%N-dfhv) was the highest at 2 WAT, and %N-dfhv in N80HV (52.1%) and N0HV (51.5%) were significantly higher than in N240HV (43.6%). After 2 WAT, %N-dfhv, decreased gradually in all N rates as tomatoes grew and decreased to 24.8%, 34.4%, and 37.1% in N240HV, N80HV, and N0HV, respectively, until 12 WAT. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from HV-derived N was the highest at 10 WAT, and N0HV (55.3%) was significantly higher than N240HV (44.5%) and N80HV (49.8%). The partition rate of HV-derived N into fruits was 63.9%, and 39.7% of HV-derived N was distributed into 1st and 2nd fruit clusters. From these results, it was clarified that HV can be expected to be an alternative N fertilizer because HV-derived N was absorbed effectively with a small amount of N fertilizer. Further research on fertilizer management in tomato's early stage will be needed for an N-reduction system because HV-derived N was mainly absorbed for 4 WAT.
  • Toshiyuki HIRATA, Takeshi NAGAYAMA, Hajime ARAKI
    Japanese Journal of Farm Work Research 日本農作業学会 47 (4) 127 - 137 0389-1763 2012 [Refereed]
    Cover crops have been used for maintenance of soil quality in wheat production systems for many years. Examined were biomass accumulation and nitrogen absorption in wheat production of four annual rotational croppings ; spring wheat and bare fallow, hairy vetch, bristle oat, and mixture of hairy vetch and bristle oat, in Hokkaido, with its cool season and snow cover region. The overview of results is as follows. 1) The yields of wheat were increased by cover croppings. It was not influenced by the species of cover crops used. 2) Yield of wheat in 2009 was 55.4% of that in 2008 in the bare fallow plot, while reduction rates of wheat yields from 2008 to 2009 were 36.7% and less in the plots where cover crops were produced. It was suggested that the yield stability of wheat was increased by rotational managements of cover crops. 3) From multiple linear regression analysis with nine explanatory variables ; three candidate nitrogen resources and their C/N ratio, two cover crop species and a tillage method, bristle oat production was found to have a negative effect on the nitrogen absorption of wheat. This result showed the effectiveness of hairy vetch cropping in the rotational production of spring wheat and cover crops. 4) The effect of spring tillage on wheat yield was not detected among cover crops. Nontillage seeding of spring wheat may provide an advantage in saving energy in the field in rotational cropping of spring wheat and cover crops.
  • Tomomi Nakamoto, Masakazu Komatsuzaki, Toshiyuki Hirata, Hajime Araki
    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION 58 (1) 70 - 82 0038-0768 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
    We hypothesized that cover cropping could increase soil microbial activities under various tillage systems and that increased microbial activities would improve soil properties. Soil sampling was conducted at two fields in Japan in 2009. At the Ibaraki field (Andosol, clay loam), three, tillage practices (no-tillage, plowing to 30 cm, and rotary tillage to 15 cm) and three types of winter cover cropping [bare fallow as control, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), and rye (Secale cereale L.)] were conducted from 2003 to 2009. At the Hokkaido field (Fluvisol, light clay), two tillage practices (autumn tillage and rotary tillage with a rotary tiller to a depth of 15 cm once in autumn and twice in a year, respectively), and four types of winter cover cropping (bare fallow, hairy vetch, bristle oat (Avena strigosa L.), and a mixture of hairy vetch and bristle oat) were conducted from 2006 to 2009. Soil microbial activities and the fungal-to-bacterial activity ratio (FIB ratio) were estimated by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) method with the use of selective antibiotics. At the Ibaraki field, rye cover cropping showed higher microbial SIR than bare fallow at depths of 0-30 cm and rotary tillage maintained higher microbial SIR than no-tillage or plowing at depths of 7.5-1.5 cm. There was no meaningful interaction effect between cover cropping and tillage on microbial SIR. At the Hokkaido field, cover cropping and tillage had only limited effects on microbial SIR. High FIB ratios (indicating fungal dominance) were recorded with the use of cover crops in both fields. Fungal SIR, estimated from the microbial SIR and FIB ratio, was closely related to the content of total soil organic carbon (SOC) and the mean weight diameter (MWD) of water-stable aggregates. Based on SOC, fungal SIR was significantly higher under rye cover cropping. The relationship between fungal SIR and MWD was affected by tillage. We conclude that rye cover cropping and rotary tillage were very effective in increasing fungal SIR, SOC, and MWD in the Ibaraki soil. Field practices that enhance fungal activities might be effective in improving certain types of arable soil.
  • SUZUKI Yumiko, OKAMOTO Hiroshi, HIRATA Toshiyuki, KATAOKA Takashi, SHIBATA Youichi
    Japanese journal of farm work research 日本農作業学会 45 (2) 99 - 109 0389-1763 2010 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Cover crops have many benefits such as reducing chemical materials, improving soil condition, preventing soil erosion and conservation of soil water. The long-term objective of this study is to assess and estimate cover crop effectiveness such as green manure, weed depression and soil conservation. In this paper, spatial distribution of herb species and herbage mass was estimated.
    A ground based hyperspectral imaging, which is useful for acquiring field information, was employed to monitor the cover crop field (bristle oat and hairy vetch). In order to generate the maps of herbage mass, first, plant portions were extracted from hyperspectral images by NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) threshold. Next, they were classified into plant species using linear discriminant models. Finally, the herbage mass of each plant species was estimated individually using partial least squares regression model, and mapped with gradient colors depending on the estimated value.
    The results show that the success rate of plant area extraction was 100% and the success rate of the plant species classification was 78.7%. With regards to the result of the herbage mass estimation, the model that used both plant pixel spectra and plant cover rate as explanatory variables had the highest and most stable accuracy than the other models. The maps of plant species and herbage mass reflected the actual spatial distribution on the field. It was demonstrated that the hyperspectral imaging system developed in this study is a useful technique for monitoring the cover crop.
  • Cover crop use in Tomato production in plastic high tunnel
    Horticultural environment and biotechnology 50 (4) 324 - 328 2009 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Takeshi Morita, Toshiyuki Hirata, Hiroto Souma, Shohei Yoshida, Jun Satomi, Teruo Kitani
    Aerobic exercise is known to reduce pulse wave velocity (PWV), which reflects arterial stiffness. However, aerobic exercise has a depressor effect, and PWV strongly depends on blood pressure (BP). Therefore, improvement of PWV with aerobic exercise may have an indirect effect on reducing BP. In this study, the relationship between changes in BP and regional PWV measured by oscillometric and tonometry sensors before and after exercise therapy emphasizing aerobic exercise was evaluated in 46 elderly people receiving outpatient treatment for lifestyle-related diseases (7 males and 39 females, mean age : 68 years). In all subjects, BP and PWV measurements were performed before and after exercise therapy. PWV was measured between the brachium and ankle (baPWV), between the heart and femoral artery (hfPWV), and between the femoral artery and ankle (faPWV). During 6 months of exercise therapy, BP, baPWV, hfPWV and faPWV decreased significantly. By multiple regression analysis, the changes in systolic BP were extracted as factors correlated with changes in baPWV and faPWV. The changes in baPWV (r=0.639, P<0.01) and faPWV (r=0.649, p<0.01) correlated significantly with changes in systolic BP. However, changes in hfPWV were not extracted as a factor correlated with changes in systolic BP (r=0.228, P=n.s).In conclusion, exercise therapy emphasizing aerobic exercise was suggested to reduce the stiffness of both the lower limb artery (peripheral artery) and the aorta (central artery). Peripheral arterial stiffness improved concurrently with a reduction in BP as a result of exercise therapy; but there is a possibility that the improvement of central arterial stiffness is not dependent on reducing BP.
  • Hajime Araki, Toshiyuki Hirata, Naomi Asagi, Hideo Ueno
    HORTSCIENCE 42 (4) 952 - 952 0018-5345 2007/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • MU Yinghui, KOMATSUZAKI Masakazu, MORIIZUMI Shoji, GU Song, ARAKI Masaaki, ARAKI Hajime, HIRATA Toshiyuki
    Japanese journal of farm work research 日本農作業学会 42 (1) 11 - 20 0389-1763 2007 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • ハイパースペクトル画像解析を利用したカバークロップ混播区における草種識別
    農業機械学会北海道支部会報 47 27 - 33 2007 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Kobayashi Sohei, Sugiyama Syuichi, Hirata Toshiyuki, Yoshida Koichi, Takahashi Hidenori, Nakashima Hiroshi
    Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science 日本草地学会 50 (3) 265 - 270 0447-5933 2004/08/15 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO_2) concentration (app. 370μmol mol^<-1>) is predicted to double by the end of this century. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of elevated atmospheric CO_2 on forage yields of perennial ryegrass and red clover in Hokkaido. The two species were grown as monocultures in a factorial design of two CO_2 concentrations (ambient and doubled) and two nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels (with and without N) using open top chambers at the Hokkaido University Experimental Farm for two years to examine forage yields and the numbers and sizes of tillers and...
  • 平田 聡之, 森下 浩, 由田 宏一, 中嶋 博
    Research bulletin of the University Farm, Hokkaido University 北海道大学北方生物圏フィールド科学センター耕地圏ステーション生物生産研究農場 33 (33) 1 - 8 0385-6445 2003/03/31 [Not refereed][Not invited]
    Many studies for improvement of the persistence of red clover population (Trifolium pratense L.) are carried out for extension of the survival period of individuals, or improvement of a physiological function. In this study, we focused on 1) effect of natural seeding to sward production of red clover, and 2) spatial and temporal dynamics of red clover population in small scale. On first cutting time in 1999, many recruitment plants were observed in the late cutting meadow plots. In first cutting time in 2000, their dry matter weight were increased to 50% of parental plants. The parental plants in late cutting plots have higher mortality than standard cutting plots. We suggested that it may be the trade-off between the sustainability of parental plants and recruitment plants production. In red clover pure stand we surveyed, spatial distribution patterns of individuals have been aggregated temporally in small scale.
  • KOBAYASHI Sohei, HIRATA Toshiyuki, YOSHIDA Koichi, NAKASHIMA Hiroshi
    Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science 日本草地学会 47 (4) 370 - 377 0447-5933 2001/10/15 [Not refereed][Not invited]
    The increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide(CO_2) concentration that will occur in the future may affect the value of feed in two ways : directly by influencing plant physiology (independently of plant size) or indirectly through an increase in plant size(dependently on plant size). In this study, we attempted to clarify the important direct(size-independent) effect of CO_2 enrichment on the feeds of perennial ryegrass and red clover by growing them under ambient and elevated CO_2(about 700ppm) concentrations for two years at the Experiment Farms, Hokkaido University. Carbon dioxide enrichme...
  • 平田聡之, 太田沙織, 由田宏一, 中嶋博
    北海道大学農学部農場研究報告 北海道大学農学部附属農場 0 (32) 1 - 6 0385-6445 2001/03/29 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • JIANG Z S, 平田聡之, 丸山春奈, 由田宏一, 中嶋博
    てん菜研究会報 甘味資源振興会 (40) 50 - 58 0912-1048 1999/07 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • A Tozuka, H Fukushi, T Hirata, M Ohara, A Kanazawa, T Mikami, J Abe, Y Shimamoto
    THEORETICAL AND APPLIED GENETICS 96 (2) 170 - 176 0040-5752 1998/02 [Not refereed][Not invited]
    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.), regarded as the progenitor of cultivated soybean [G. max (L.) Merr.], is widely distributed in East Asia. We have collected 1097 G. soja plants from all over Japan and analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in them. Based on the RFLPs detected by gel-blot analysis, using coxII and atp6 as probes, the collected plants were divided into 18 groups. Five mtDNA types accounted for 94% of the plants examined. The geographic distribution of mtDNA types revealed that, in many regions, wild soybeans grown in Japan consisted of a mixture of plants with different types of mtDNA, occasionally even within sites. Some of the mtDNA types showed marked geographic dines among the regions. Additionally, some wild soybeans possessed mtDNA types that were identical to those widely detected in cultivated soybeans. Our results suggest that the analysis of mtDNA could resolve the maternal lineage among plants of the genus Glycine subgenus Soja.
  • 「テンサイの初期成育における微生物培養ろ液(NOK-1)施用の効果」
    『テンサイ研究会報』 40 50 - 58 1998 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • J. Abe, T. Hirata and Y. Shimamoto:“Assignment of Est1 locus to soybean linkage group 4” J. Hered. 88: 557-559. (1997)*
    1997 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • T Hirata, M Kaneko, J Abe, Y Shimamoto
    EUPHYTICA 88 (1) 47 - 53 0014-2336 1996 [Not refereed][Not invited]
    135 soybean landraces and pure line selections from Kyushu district of Japan were assayed for isozyme and seed protein loci in order to determine the genetic structure of the groups of summer and autumn maturing cultivars. Out of the 16 tested loci, Dial, Enp, Estl, and Ti exhibited a marked difference in allelic frequency between both groups. The summer cultivar group had a high frequency for Dial-b, Enp-b, Estl-a and Ti-b, whereas Dial-a, Enp-a, Estl-b and Ti-a were predominant in the autumn group. The analysis of multi-locus genotypes revealed that both groups mostly consisted of different multi-locus genotypes. The allelic combination of Dial-b Enp-b Estl-a Ti-b was most frequently observed in the summer cultivars, whereas four genotypes, Dial-a Enp-a Estl-a Ti-a, Dial-a Enp-a Estl-b Ti-a, Dial-a Enp-b Estl-b Ti-a and Dial-a Enp-a Estl-b Ti-b, occupied most of the autumn cultivars. These results indicated that both groups were appreciably differentiated from each other. The summer cultivar group also included a few accessions having the multi-locus genotypes observed predominantly in the autumn group or Acol-b characteristic of the landraces native to northern Japan. It seems likely that the summer cultivar group was not phyletically derived from a single common ancestor, but partly involves the landraces with early maturity derived from northern Japan. Dial, Enp, Estl and Ti are useful genetic markers to trace the origin and dissemination paths of Japanese soybean landraces.
  • T. Hirata, J. Abe and Y. Shimamoto:“RFLPs of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes in summer and autumn maturing cultivar groups of soybean in Kyushu district of Japan.”, Soybean Genet. Newsl. 23: 107-111. (1996)
    1996 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Kaneko Megumi, Hirata Toshiyuki, Abe Jun
    Research bulletin of the University Farm Hokkaido University 北海道大学 29 (0) 31 - 39 0385-6445 1995/03/25 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Hirata Toshiyuki, Kaneko Megumi, Misawa Tameichi
    Research bulletin of the University Farm Hokkaido University 北海道大学 29 (0) 41 - 54 0385-6445 1995/03/25 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 阿部純, 三沢為一, 大原雅, 平田聡之, 島本義也, 夏賀元康
    北海道大学農学部農場研究報告 (28) 31 - 40 0385-6445 1993/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]

Books etc

  • 作物栽培体系,第8巻 飼料作物・緑肥作物の栽培と利用-
    平田 聡之 (Joint workマメ科牧草)
    朝倉書店 2017/05

Conference Activities & Talks


  • 栗山町 タマネギ圃場調査
    2009 -2011


Research Grants & Projects

  • カバークロップすき込み後の養分供給過程の改変と作物の養分要求との同期化
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2022/04 -2025/03 
    Author : 平田 聡之
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2018/04 -2021/03 
    Author : HIRATA Toshiyuki
    The effect of hairy vetch on weed emergence in early spring was investigated by analyzing cyanamide, a major allelochemical in hairy vetch, soil microbe structure, and soil nitrogen dynamics during winter. Although cyanamide in the hairy vetch during winter decreased below the detection range by February, ammonia nitrogen in soil increased rapidly after February. It suggested that the increase in ammonia nitrogen was not due to the nitrification-inhibiting effect of cyanamide-derived dicyandiamide formation but due to low temperatures. Germination tests of weeds treated with ammoniacal nitrogen concentration in early spring showed a delay in the average germination days at low temperatures. These results show that the weed suppression effect of hairy vetch in early spring was due to ammonia damage.
  • 北海道雑草種のDNA バーコーディングと群集評価技術への応⽤
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/05 -2020/03 
    Author : 平田 聡之
  • 難防除雑草ハルガヤの有効防除技術確立事業
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/04 -2017/03 
    Author : 山田敏彦
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2012/04 -2015/03 
    Author : HIRATA Toshiyuki, ARAKI Hajime, KATAOKA Takashi
    Although the availability of soil nutrients on combination of no-till and hairy vetch cultivation was increased, the improvement of the working efficiency on no-till seeding in early winter was not detected. It was shown that the growth and the yield of wheat were superior in addition of hairy vetch residue in pots tests. After snow melt , however, the number of wheat seedlings seeded in early winter was less than that of spring seeded wheat. The ratio of normal seedlings was decreases under the snow in the case of hairy vetch residues incorporation. The results of this study were exhibited less advantage to the combination of hairy vetch cultivation and no-till sowing of spring wheat in early winter. We are examining for the effects of autumn plowing.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2009 -2011 
    Author : ARAKI Hajime, DAIMON Hiroyuki, NAKAMOTO Tomomi, UENO Hideto, KOMATSUZAKI Masakazu, HIRATA Toshiyuki
    Continuous application of cover crops increased soil carbon and activated important enzymes in soil. GHG (Greenhouse gas) was released when cover crops were incorporated, however it was inhibited by no-till cultivation. Fungi increased and water-stable aggregate was formed in the soil with application of gramineous cover crops. Mycorrhizal fungi were proliferated after decomposition of hairy vetch, one of legume cover crops, and supported phosphorus uptake into plant. Much amounts of N released by decomposition of legume cover crops were used for subsequent crops. Cover crops are important tool of organic agriculture with reduction of GHG.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2004 -2006 
    Author : ARAKI Hajime, KOMATSUZAKI Masakazu, UENO Hideto, HIRATA Toshiyuki
    1.Upland field Recycling of nitrogen was examined in No-tilled filed and tiled field (plow and rotary) with cover crops, rye and hairy vetch (HV). HV absorbed most amount of nitrogen(N) from the soil and its N was transferred to the subsequently produced land rice. Microorganism increased in the soil with cover crops, especially in near ground surface in no-tilled soil. Number of the large soil animal increased in no-tilled soil. It was supposed that New soil ecosystem that N recycling would be promoted was established in no-tilled field with cover crops. 2.Paddy field In the paddy field mulched or incorporated 15N-labeled cover crops, the absorbed efficiency of N mineralized from cover crops and rice growth were larger in incorporation than mulch treatment. Legume cover crops were decomposed in the paddy earlier than non-legumes. White clover, oats and mustard are promising cover crop for rice production in south-west region in Japan and decomposing time can be controlled by irrigation technique. 3.Greenhouse Higher concentration of Nitrate-N was maintained near soil surface in the row covered with HV residue in greenhouse. Current yield was obtained in HV mulch even if N fertilizer reduced to half amount of conventional amount. About 17% of N mineralized from HV residue was absorbed into tomato plant and the absorbed efficiency of N mineralized from HV was high in reduced N application. 4.Estimation of the ratio of grass and legume in mix-cultivation Multi-wavelength analysis of reflex light on the grass-legume mixed canopies using a hyper spectrum camera was useful to Estimation of the ratio of grass and legume.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 1996 -1998 
    Author : Hiroshi NAKASHIMA, 平田 聡之, 中辻 浩喜, 松田 従三, 由田 宏一, 寺澤 實
    The compst was made from bio-product mainly garbage by composting machine. The effects of compost application on crop growth and yield were investigated in spring wheat and adzuki bean. In 1997, the composts were applied in two different times (2 wks before seeding and on the day of seeding) and four different amounts(0,2,4, and 8kg/m_2). In comparison with the conventional fertilizer application, the yields of wheat were about the same as that of applied on the day of seeding and about 14% increase in 2 wks before seeding. The effects of the amount of compost was rather small. On the other...
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research
    Date (from‐to) : 1995 -1996 
    Author : MORISHIMA Hiroko, HIRATA Toshiyuki, ABE Jun, SHIMAMOTO Yoshiya, TSUJIMOTO Hisashi, KATO Kenji, TSUYUZAKI Hiroshi, TAKADA Kazuyoshi, SATO Yoichiro, WANG X.K, CAI H.W, LIANG Y.M, LI D.Y, GAI J.Y, WU J.R, ZHOU Y.H, YAN J, SANO Y, SATO K, LI W.J
    Target plants of our project are landrace and wild relatives of rice, wheat, barley and soybean distributed in China. Objectives of the field trip were firstly observation of geographical distribution and ecological condition of their habitats, and secondly, if possible, collection of their seeds for genetic characterization. 1) Rice group : With a kind cooperation of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, we could visit 18 sites inhabited by wild progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza rufipogon) in Guangxi Province. This wild rice is known to be differentiated into perennial and annual ecotypes in tropical Asia, but all populations we observed during our trip were perennial type. They seemed to have unique characteristics differing from perennials grown in tropical areas. In some populations, gene flow from adjacent rice fields was observed. More serious problem is destruction of the natural habitats of wild rice due to urbanization or environmental development. 2) Wheat-Barley group : In Tibet and Si-Chuan, farmers' fields of wheat and barley were observed and seed sampling was done with the cooperation of scientists of Si Chuan Agricultural University. During two trips in 1995 and 1996, more than 600 samples each of wheat and barley were obtained. "Irregulare" type of barley which has been reported only in Ethiopia was firstly found in Tibet. 3) Soybean group : Farmers' fields of landraces were visited in mountain tribe villages in Gui-Zhou Province and Xi-Shuang Bian Na, Yunnan Province, and diverse types were observed. Distribution of wild soybean (Glysine soja) was surveyed in Northeast and South (Quangxi) China, and along Yellow River. It was confirmed wild soybean is not distributed in South China. Introduction of seed samples of important crops from China is quite restricted officially. For wheat and barley, Chinese counterpart scientists could bring the collected smaples with them for cooperative study in Japan. Materials are now grown in experimental field in Japan, and preliminary survey of characters is going on. For wild rice, one of the Chinese team-members was able to work in Nat. Inst. Genet., and Chinese materials are now under study. For soybean, DNA was extracted and mitochondrial genome is studied in a laboratory of Chinese University by scientists from both countries.

Educational Activities

Teaching Experience

  • Advanced Course in Agro-Ecosystem Science I (Crop Production)
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 環境科学院
    キーワード : 作物生産 寒冷積雪地 遺伝資源 資源の探索・改良 作型 農耕地の環境保全 植物系統地理学 保全生態学 Crop production, Cool and snow cover region, Exploitation and estimation of plant resource, Improvement of crop characteristics, cropping system, Environmental condition of agricultural field, Plant phylogeography, Conservation biology
  • Fundamental Course in Field Sciences
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 環境科学院
    キーワード : 生物資源創成、共生生態系保全、持続的生物生産、生物多様性、生態系機能、生物群集生態 Bio-resources development, Ecosystem conservation, Sustainable bio-production, Biodiversity, Ecosystem function, Population and community ecology
  • Freshman Seminar
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : フィールド、体験型、環境科学、自然、産業
  • Agricultural Practice
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 農場 農業体験 作物生産 家畜飼養 収穫
  • Arts and Science Courses in English 2
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 国際本部
    キーワード : Ecosystem conservation, Sustainable bioproduction, Biodiversity, Material cycling, Harmonizable relation between human and environment
  • English Seminar
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 生態系保全、持続的生物生産、生物多様性、物質循環、人間環境共生系
  • General Education Seminar
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 総合教育部
    キーワード : 生態系保全、持続的生物生産、生物多様性、物質循環、人間環境共生系
  • General Education Seminar
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 現代日本学プログラム課程
    キーワード : 生態系保全、持続的生物生産、生物多様性、物質循環、人間環境共生系
  • Cropping Practice
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 作物,生産管理、農家見学
  • Environment and People
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : バイオマス、農耕地、食料、エネルギー、有用物質、触媒、バイオエコノミー
  • Environment and People
    開講年度 : 2021
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 生物資源創成、共生生態系保全、持続的生物生産、生物多様性、生態系機能、生物群集生態

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