Researcher Database

Jun-ichiro Kawahara
Graduate School of Humanities and Human Sciences Division of Human Sciences Department of Psychology
Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings

Affiliation

  • Graduate School of Humanities and Human Sciences Division of Human Sciences Department of Psychology

Job Title

  • Professor

URL

Research funding number

  • 30322241

ORCID ID

J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • 顔   魅力   認知心理学   注意   記憶   (衛生)マスク   ヒューマンエラー   心的構え   潜在的認知   ストレス   認知制御   実験系心理学   

Research Areas

  • Humanities & social sciences / Experimental psychology

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2020/04 - Today Hokkaido University
  • 2015/04 - 2020/03 Hokkaido University Graduate School of Letters
  • 2012/04 - 2015/03 Chukyo University
  • 2010/04 - 2012/03 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
  • 2006/04 - 2010/03 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
  • 2003/04 - 2006/03 Hiroshima University Graduate School of Education
  • 2003/08 - 2004/08 ブリティッシュコロンビア大学 心理学科 文部科学省在外研究員
  • 1999/10 - 2003/03 Hiroshima University Graduate School of Education
  • 1998/08 - 1999/09 ブリティッシュコロンビア大学 心理学科 視覚研究室博士研究員
  • 1997 - 1998 The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology

Research Activities

Published Papers

  • Tsurumi, S, Kanazawa, S, Yamaguchi, M. K, Kawahara, J. I
    Cognition 214 104749 - 104749 0010-0277 2021/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • The spill-over effect of the formal bowing motion on subjective facial attractiveness
    Osugi, T, Kawahara, J. I
    Japanese Psychological Research 2021/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on explicit and implicit attitudes towards black sanitary mask wearers
    Miki Kamatani, Motohiro Ito, Yuki Miyazaki, Jun I. Kawahara
    心理学研究 2021/07 [Refereed]
  • Effects of masks worn to protect against COVID-19 on the perception of facial attractiveness
    Kamatani, M, Ito, M, Miyazaki, Y, Kawahara, J. I
    i-Perception 2021/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Tomoki Maezawa, Jun I. Kawahara
    Memory & Cognition 0090-502X 2021/02/22 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 顔面下部のサイズ情報が顔の見かけの大きさに強く影響する
    宮崎由樹, 伊藤資浩, 神山龍一, 柴田彰, 河原純一郎
    人間工学 56 (6) 222 - 230 2020/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hiroki Terashima, Ken Kihara, Jun Kawahara, Hirohito M Kondo
    Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 174702182097225 - 174702182097225 1747-0218 2020/10/26 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Sustained attention plays an important role in adaptive behaviours in everyday activities. As previous studies have mostly focused on vision, and attentional resources have been thought to be specific to sensory modalities, it is still unclear how mechanisms of attentional fluctuations overlap between visual and auditory modalities. To reduce the effects of sudden stimulus onsets, we developed a new gradual-onset continuous performance task (gradCPT) in the auditory domain and compared dynamic fluctuation of sustained attention in vision and audition. In the auditory gradCPT, participants were instructed to listen to a stream of narrations and judge the gender of each narration. In the visual gradCPT, they were asked to observe a stream of scenery images and indicate whether the scene was a city or mountain. Our within-individual comparison revealed that auditory and visual attention are similar in terms of the false alarm rate and dynamic properties including fluctuation frequency. Absolute time scales of the fluctuation in the two modalities were comparable, notwithstanding the difference in stimulus onset asynchrony. The results suggest that fluctuations of visual and auditory attention are underpinned by common principles and support models with a more central, modality-general controller.
  • Motohiro Ito, Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 82 (5) 2393 - 2414 1943-3921 2020/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Tomoyuki Tanda, Jun Kawahara
    Visual Cognition 2020/02/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Effects of bowing and physical characteristics on perception of attractiveness
    大杉尚之, 河原純一郎
    認知心理学研究 17 (2) 69 - 77 2020/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Inhibitory template for visual marking with endogenous spatial cueing
    Yamauchi, K, Kawahara, J. I
    Visual Cognition 2020 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 衛生マスクへの着香が花粉症の不快感低減に及ぼす効果とその時間的推移
    前澤知輝, 宮崎由樹, 松長芳織, 柴田彰, 河原純一郎
    人間工学 2020 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Distance estimation by blindfolded sighted participants using echolocation
    Maezawa, T, Kawahara, J
    Perception 2019/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Auditory perceived distance can be distorted in one’s internal representation. Thus, the present study examined whether blindfolded sighted participants could reduce the bias and preserve estimated distance for 5–15 s using echolocation. The participants performed a delayed reproduction task that consisted of testing sessions on two separate days in which the target distance was manipulated from 20–50 cm. Participants were blindfolded and asked to reproduce the distance of a target after a temporal delay of several seconds using click bursts produced by a loudspeaker. The testing session was preceded by a practice session that included training and feedback. The relationship between estimated and actual distances was approximated based on a power function and the over- and underestimation of the target distance on each test day. Although participants showed systematic bias in distance estimation on both days, participants changed their bias in the second session by shifting reproduced locations closer to their bodies, the accuracy and consistency of their responses improved across the two days. Neither accuracy nor consistency were affected by the retention intervals. These enhancements of performance might be due to improved hearing ability and/or calibration of internal spatial references through a practice session.
  • Tanda, T, Kawahara, J
    Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 81 (6) 1880 - 1889 2019/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Maezawa, T, Matsuishi, T, Ito, K, Kaji, S, Tsunokawa, M, Kawahara, J
    Mammal Study 44 205 - 213 2019/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Tsurumi, S, Kanazawa, S, Yamaguchi, M, Kawahara, J
    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 186 45 - 58 2019/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • ウェットティッシュの取り出しやすさが製品の印象や製品選択に及ぼす影響
    宮崎由樹, 神山龍一, 三宅大輔, 河原純一郎
    人間工学 2019/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Kimihiro Shiomura, Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    Japanese Psychological Research Wiley 61 (2) 61  2019/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Yamauchi, K, Kawahara, J
    Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Yamauchi, K., Kawahara, J.I.
    Acta Psychologica 192 200 - 211 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    Behavioral Sciences 8 (9) 2018/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Takayuki Osugi, Jun I. Kawahara
    Perception 47 (1) 16 - 29 0301-0066 2018/01/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    It has been demonstrated that bowing motion of computer-generated female three-dimensional figures enhanced perceived attractiveness. Given that nodding and shaking head motions are used as communicative signals, such as signals of approval (and denial), these motions could be expected to modulate perceived trait impressions of model faces. We used movie clips of the nodding and shaking head motions of computer-generated figures and examined the modulation effects of these motions on perceived trait impressions (i.e., attractiveness, likability, and approachability). The results showed that the nodding head motion significantly increased ratings of subjective likability and approachability relative to those of the shaking or control conditions, whereas the shaking motion did not influence the ratings. Furthermore, it was shown that a nodding head motion of the computer-generated models primarily increased likability attributable to personality traits, rather than to physical appearance. We concluded that head nodding motion is treated as information regarding approach-related motivations and enhances perceived likeability.
  • Inukai, T, Kawahara, J
    Frontiers in Psychology-Cognition 9 (OCT) 2018 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 伊藤資浩, 河原純一郎
    北海道心理学研究 2018 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Sato, H, Kawahara, J
    Psychology 8 1229 - 1237 2017/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Motohiro Ito, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH 59 (2) 188 - 198 0021-5368 2017/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Recent studies suggest that the "mere presence" of a mobile phone impairs social interactions and neuropsychological test performance. The present study examined whether the presence of a mobile phone causes spatial bias toward the device during a visual search task. Participants identified a target among spatially distributed non-targets. We manipulated three factors: device presence (mobile phone or notepad), target congruency (congruent or incongruent), and attentional load (set size 8 or 24). A mobile phone (or a notepad in the control condition) was placed on the left side of the computer screen. Participants also completed a questionnaire to measure Internet usage and attachment. Participants with high scores on the questionnaire rapidly identified the target at the congruent (same side as the phone) location, but the mere presence effect did not occur in this condition. In contrast, participants with low scores on the questionnaire demonstrated the mere presence effect, but no spatial bias was observed. These results suggest that the mere presence effect can be modulated by individual differences in the degree to which a device is appealing.
  • Chris Oriet, Mamata Pandey, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION 48 117 - 128 1053-8100 2017/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Distractors presented prior to a critical target in a rapid sequence of visually-presented items induce a lag-dependent deficit in target identification, particularly when the distractor shares a task-relevant feature of the target. Presumably, such capture of central attention is important for bringing a target into awareness. The results of the present investigation suggest that greater capture of attention by a distractor is not accompanied by greater awareness of it. Moreover, awareness tends to be limited to superficial characteristics of the target such as colour. The findings are interpreted within the context of a model that assumes sudden increases in arousal trigger selection of information for consolidation in working memory. In this conceptualization, prolonged analysis of distractor items sharing task-relevant features leads to larger target identification deficits (i.e., greater capture) but no increase in awareness. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hirohito M. Kondo, Anouk M. van Loon, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Brian C. J. Moore
    PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 372 (1714) 0962-8436 2017/02 [Refereed][Invited]
     
    We perceive the world as stable and composed of discrete objects even though auditory and visual inputs are often ambiguous owing to spatial and temporal occluders and changes in the conditions of observation. This raises important questions regarding where and how 'scene analysis' is performed in the brain. Recent advances from both auditory and visual research suggest that the brain does not simply process the incoming scene properties. Rather, top-down processes such as attention, expectations and prior knowledge facilitate scene perception. Thus, scene analysis is linked not only with the extraction of stimulus features and formation and selection of perceptual objects, but also with selective attention, perceptual binding and awareness. This special issue covers novel advances in scene-analysis research obtained using a combination of psychophysics, computational modelling, neuroimaging and neurophysiology, and presents new empirical and theoretical approaches. For integrative understanding of scene analysis beyond and across sensory modalities, we provide a collection of 15 articles that enable comparison and integration of recent findings in auditory and visual scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.
  • Jun I. Kawahara, Takatsune Kumada
    QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 70 (11) 2271 - 2289 1747-0218 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study examined whether observers are able to establish multiple attentional sets to concurrently monitor two different spatial locations. Observers identified a target letter in red or cyan among nontarget letters of other heterogeneous colours during a temporal feature search. A peripheral distractor display consisted of one item of either the same colour as the current target, and the other potential target colour, or an irrelevant colour that could never be the target. They identified an odd-ball colour letter among homogenous colours during a singleton search. The results revealed that observers maintained multiple attentional sets for detecting two singletons or for targets involving two (or three) features. However, they were unable to maintain a mixture of sets. Moreover, exposure to a distractor containing feature that corresponded to a feature of the current target was advantageous for target identification. The presence or absence of this set-specific capture depended on top-down knowledge and did not occur automatically in the singleton-detection stream. These results demonstrate a limitation in the flexibility of attentional sets. Although two singleton detections were possible, multiple attentional templates for a more complex attentional set could not be maintained concurrently when monitoring multiple rapid serial visual presentations.
  • Ken Kihara, Hirohito M. Kondo, Jun I. Kawahara
    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 36 (34) 8895 - 8901 0270-6474 2016/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Selective attention plays an important role in identifying transient objects in a complex visual scene. Attentional control ability varies with observers. However, it is unclear what neural mechanisms are responsible for individual differences in attentional control ability. The present study used the following attentional blink paradigm: when two targets are to be identified in rapid serial visual presentation, the processing of the first target interrupts the identification of the second one appearing within 500 ms after the first-target onset. It has been assumed that the reduction of the second-target accuracy is mainly due to a transient inhibition of attentional reorienting from the first to the second target, which is modulated by the GABA system. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated whether individual variation of attentional blink magnitude is associated with GABA concentrations in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC), right posterior-parietal cortex (PPC), and visual cortex (VC) of humans. GABA concentrations in the PFC were related negatively to attentional blink magnitude and positively to the first-target accuracy. GABA concentrations in the PPC were positively correlated with attentional blink magnitude. However, GABA concentrations in the VC did not contribute to attentional blink magnitude and first-target accuracy. Our results suggest that frontoparietal inhibitory mechanisms are closely linked with individual differences in attentional processing and that functional roles of the GABAergic system in selective attention differ between the PFC and PPC.
  • Yuki Miyazaki, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH 58 (3) 261 - 272 0021-5368 2016/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Currently, some Japanese women use a sanitary mask to hide their faces when not wearing makeup, perhaps because they believe that they are more attractive (or less ugly) when wearing a sanitary mask than when not wearing makeup. The present study examined the effect of wearing a sanitary mask on the perception of facial attractiveness. We manipulated the presence or absence of a mask in the main experiments or an occluder (e.g., notebook) in control experiments and asked participants to rate facial images. The results revealed that attractive faces wearing a sanitary mask were perceived as less attractive than the same faces without the mask, contrary to Japanese women's belief. This is the first study to demonstrate a new phenomenon, the sanitary-mask effect, in which observers underestimate the physical attractiveness of a mask-wearing face. Importantly, the pattern of the results of perceived attractiveness was substantially altered when a control object occluded the faces. This suggests that facial occlusion by a sanitary mask has a unique effect, due to occlusion and unhealthiness priming.
  • Tomoe Inukai, Tomonari Shimomura, Jun I. Kawahara
    ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 78 (1) 159 - 167 1943-3921 2016/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We investigated whether attentional set is available at the beginning of a trial or whether it develops gradually within a trial. Thus, we manipulated the time from the onset of a trial to a target and observers' search strategy. We also observed the effect of the presence or absence of distractors as an index of the temporal development of attentional set. Participants identified a target letter embedded in a stream of rapidly presented nontargets while ignoring peripheral distractors. Baseline accuracy when no peripheral distractor was presented increased as the target appeared later in the stream, suggesting attentional awakening. Identification accuracy was impaired by the presence of peripheral distractors (i.e., attentional capture) early in the stream only when observers adopted the feature search mode. The magnitude of attentional capture increased over the course of the first 1, 000 ms of a trial under the singleton detection and feature search modes. These results suggest that singleton detection mode requires time for a bottom-up signal to be effective in capturing attention, whereas the feature search mode does not require such a warm-up period to be effective and is available from the beginning of viewing the stream.
  • Motohiro Ito, Jun I. Kawahara
    ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA 163 107 - 113 0001-6918 2016/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study examined whether attention can be flexibly controlled to monitor two different feature dimensions (shape and color) in a temporal search task. Specifically, we investigated the occurrence of contingent attentional capture (i.e., interference from task-relevant distractors) and resulting set reconfiguration (i.e., enhancement of single task-relevant set). If observers can restrict searches to a specific value for each relevant feature dimension independently, the capture and reconfiguration effect should only occur when the single relevant distractor in each dimension appears. Participants identified a target letter surrounded by a non-green square or a non-square green frame. The results revealed contingent attentional capture, as target identification accuracy was lower when the distractor contained a target-defining feature than when it contained a nontarget feature. Resulting set reconfiguration was also obtained in that accuracy was superior when the current target's feature (e.g., shape) corresponded to the defining feature of the present distractor (shape) than when the current target's feature did not match the distractor's feature (color). This enhancement was not due to perceptual priming. The present study demonstrated that the principles of contingent attentional capture and resulting set reconfiguration held even when multiple target feature dimensions were monitored. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Shiori Sato, Jun I. Kawahara
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG 79 (4) 523 - 533 0340-0727 2015/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study investigated whether faces capture attention regardless of attentional set. The presentation of a face as a distractor during a visual search has been shown to impair performance relative to when the face was absent, implying that faces automatically attract attention. If attentional control is contingent on the observer's current goal, faces should not capture attention when they are irrelevant to the observer's attentional set. Previous studies demonstrating face-induced attentional capture used faces that were relevant to the task. Thus, a task in which faces were completely irrelevant to the observer's set was created. Participants identified a target letter among heterogeneously colored non-targets while ignoring a peripheral facial image that appeared as a brief distractor. No face-specific capture was observed when the target-distractor stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was long (Experiment 1). When the SOA was shortened, attentional capture by irrelevant faces was observed (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 extended this finding to all conditions, regardless of the attractiveness of faces. No such capture effect was found in Experiment 4 with inverted-face distractors. These results indicate that completely task-irrelevant faces break through top-down attentional set given a brief distractor-target SOA.
  • Takayuki Osugi, Jun I. Kawahara
    ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 77 (5) 1697 - 1714 1943-3921 2015/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Bowing is a greeting behavior. The present study examined the modulation effect of bowing on perception of attractiveness. In each trial, a portrait digitized from university yearbooks was presented on a computer screen. The portrait was mildly tilted toward participants to simulate a greeting bow (25-degree angle). Participants evaluated the subjective attractiveness of the face using a visual analog scale (0-100). The mean attractiveness judgment of the bowing portrait was significantly higher relative to that of the bending-backward or standing-still control conditions (Experiment 1). Additional control experiments revealed that alternative accounts relying on apparent spatial proximity and physical characteristics could not solely explain the effect of bowing (Experiment 2) and indicated that the effect was specific to objects perceived as faces (Experiment 3). Furthermore, observers' in-return bowing behavior did not reduce the bowing effect (Experiment 4), and bowing motion increased the ratings of subjective politeness and submissiveness (Experiment 5). Finally, tilting the 3D faces elicited the same effect from observers as did tilting the still photos (Experiment 6). These results suggest that a tilting motion of portraits (or images of face-like objects) mimicking bowing enhances perceived attractiveness, at least as measured in a culture familiar with greeting by bowing.
  • Ken Kihara, Tatsuto Takeuchi, Sanae Yoshimoto, Hirohito M. Kondo, Jun I. Kawahara
    FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 6 (JUN) 1664-1078 2015/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    It has been argued that attentional processing of visual stimuli is facilitated by a voluntary action that triggers the stimulus onset. However, the relationship between actioninduced facilitation of attention and the neural substrates has not been well established. The present study investigated whether the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA) system is involved in this facilitation effect. A rapid serial visual presentation paradigm was used to assess the dynamics of transient attention in humans. Participants were instructed to change a digit stream to a letter stream by pressing a button and specifying successive targets of four letters. Pupil dilation was measured as an index of LC-NA function. Accuracy of target identification was better when the temporal delay between participants' key press and target onset was 800 ms than when targets appeared just after the key press or when targets appeared without key press. Accuracy of target identification was positively correlated with both the peak amplitude of pupil dilation and the pupil size at the time of the key press. These results indicate that target identification in the visual task is closely linked to pupil dilation. We conclude that the LC-NA system plays an important role in the facilitation of transient attention driven by voluntary action.
  • Noriko Akashi, Ami Sambai, Akira Uno, Junichiro Kawahara, Max Coltheart
    Japan Journal of Logopedics and Phoniatrics 55 (2) 162 - 166 0030-2813 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We investigated word attribute effects on and characteristics of errors in spelling to dictation of two-character Japanese Kanji words in 48 Japanese normal adults. Frequency, imageability, and spelling consistency significantly affected spelling accuracy and latency. The frequency and imageability effects are taken to reflect lexical processing, and the spelling consistency effect is taken to reflect sub-lexical processing. These results suggest that both lexical and sub-lexical processing occur during spelling to dictation of Kanji words. Spelling duration was affected by frequency and number of strokes. The spelling errors were mainly classified into three types: one-character correct responses, phonologically plausible errors, and non-responses. This outcome suggests that phonologically plausible errors result from sub-lexical processing for spelling inconsistent words.
  • 鑓水秀和, 河原純一郎
    認知科学 21 314 - 324 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 成人の漢字単語書き取りにおける単語属性効果および誤反応特徴
    明石法子, 三盃亜美, 宇野彰, 河原純一郎, Cortheart, M
    音声言語医学 55 162-166  2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Jun I. Kawahara, Hirotsune Sato
    ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 75 (6) 1096 - 1102 1943-3921 2013/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Fuji Kei, Sato Hirotsune, Kawahara Jun-Ichiro, Nagai Masayoshi
    Cognitive Studies 日本認知科学会 20 (4) 498 - 501 1341-7924 2013 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    このたびは,大会発表賞という栄えある賞を賜り,大変光栄に存じております.受賞の機会を下さいました学会運営委員,選考委員会の先生方に心より御礼申します.また,会場での発表に耳を傾けて下さり,本研究を評価くださった皆様にも,深く感謝致します.この研究では,わずかな身体・表情の変化によって,自覚もなされないうちに認知処理のあり方が変容するという現象について検討しました.昨今のインターネットやメディアの発展に伴い,徐々に失われつつある身体・表情を介したコミュニケーションにも,人々の視野を広げ思考を彩る様々な可能性が内包されていることを示す結果が得られたかと考えております.今回の受賞を励みに,今後もまた,研究を重ねていく所存です. 最後になりますが,長きに渡り丁寧にご指導を下さった永井聖剛先生,折に触れ的確なご助言を下さいました河原純一郎先生,佐藤広英先生のご尽力に,この場をお借りして改めて心より感
  • Jun Kawahara, Michiteru Kitazaki
    Proceedings - SAP 2013: ACM Symposium on Applied Perception 141  2013 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Like selective visual attention, the representation of multiple objects as an ensemble is a major strategy used by the visual system to overcome a bottleneck that the system cannot handle multiple objects simultaneously. Although simple image properties including mean size, orientation, and brightness as well as higher-level properties such as the average emotion and gender of faces, can be extracted from a group of items/images (see Alvarez, 2011 for review), it is not clear whether subjective values (e.g., attractiveness) are processed in a similar manner. © 2013 Authors.
  • Takayuki Osugi, Jun I. Kawahara
    QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 66 (1) 69 - 90 1747-0218 2013/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When some distractors (old items) appear before others (new items) in an inefficient visual search task, the old items are excluded from the search (visual marking). Previous studies have shown that changing the shape of old items eliminates this effect, suggesting that shape identity must be maintained for successful visual marking. However, the contribution of top-down target knowledge to the maintenance of visual marking under shape change conditions has not been systematically examined. The present study tested whether the vulnerability of visual marking to shape change is contingent on observers' attentional set, by manipulating compatibility of the set and the domains in which the change occurs. The results indicated that visual marking survived shape changes when the observer's attentional set was consistent with critical features between the old and new items. This protection was observed when the set was based on explicit instructions at the beginning of the experiment, and when the task set was implicitly carried over from the previous task. These results suggest that top-down processes play a role in maintaining memory templates by enhancing the grouping and suppression processes during visual search, despite disruptive bottom-up signals.
  • Attentional set protects visual marking from visual transients.
    Osugi, T, Kawahara, J
    Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 1 - 22 2012/07/27 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ken Kihara, Jun I. Kawahara
    ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 74 (2) 312 - 321 1943-3921 2012/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The term attentional blink (AB) refers to a failure in identifying the second of two targets, separated by less than 500 ms, embedded in a rapid succession of nontargets. To examine whether the expectation of the onset of the first target affects the AB, we compared the magnitudes of the AB deficit when participants triggered the appearance of the first target and when the target was presented automatically at some time point, as in traditional AB studies. In Experiment 1, the first target appeared immediately after a participant's voluntary keypress, revealing that the accuracy for identifying the first target increased and that the AB deficit was attenuated. In Experiment 2, the temporal delay between a voluntary keypress and the first-target presentation was manipulated. The results showed that both targets could be reported accurately only when the first target was presented within 300 ms after the action. In Experiment 3, we ruled out an alternative explanation that would attribute the facilitation effect to mere physical movement, by examining the accuracy of target identification when participants voluntarily pressed a key but that action was unrelated to the onset of the first target. Taken together, the results suggest that voluntary action to trigger the onset of a visual target facilitates processing and reduces the subsequent AB deficit when the target appears within 300 ms of the action.
  • Hirotsune Sato, Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    COGNITION & EMOTION 26 (1) 129 - 135 0269-9931 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Assessments of acute stress using self-report questionnaires can be biased by various factors, including social desirability. The present study used a bias-free method, the Implicit Association Test (IAT), to assess stress. Unlike a previous study (Schmukle & Egloff, 2004) in which acute stress was not detected with the IAT, this study manipulated stress by generating test anxiety and threatening self-esteem. The results revealed that the IAT effect was greater in the high-stress group than in the low-stress group. Participants in the high-stress group associated their concept of self with the concept of anxiety more strongly than did those in the low-stress group. This result suggests that the IAT is a sensitive measure for detecting group differences in acute stress.
  • Hirotsune Sato, Ippei Takenaka, Jun I. Kawahara
    QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 65 (4) 617 - 623 1747-0218 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Selective attention can be improved under conditions in which a high perceptual load is assumed to exhaust cognitive resources, leaving scarce resources for distractor processing. The present study examined whether perceptual load and acute stress share common attentional resources bymanipulating perceptual and stress loads. Participants identified a target within an array of nontargets that were flanked by compatible or incompatible distractors. Attentional selectivity was measured by longer reaction times in response to the incompatible than to the compatible distractors. Participants in the stress group participated in a speech test that increased anxiety and threatened self-esteem. The effect of perceptual load interacted with the stress manipulation in that participants in the control group demonstrated an interference effect under the low perceptual load condition, whereas such interference disappeared under the high perceptual load condition. Importantly, the stress group showed virtually no interference under the low perceptual load condition, whereas substantial interference occurred under the high perceptual load condition. These results suggest that perceptual and stress related demands consume the same attentional resources.
  • Jun Kawahara, Kaori Yanase, Michiteru Kitazaki
    JOURNAL OF VISION 12 (12) 1534-7362 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study examined whether participants were able to ignore a task-irrelevant commencement or cessation of optic flow while they were engaging in a letter-identification task, as claimed by adherents of the view that attentional set determines deployment of attention, or whether irrelevant events would capture attention regardless of observers' attentional set, as claimed by adherents of a broad range of views emphasizing the behavioral urgency of stimulus motion. Observers identified a green letter in a central rapid stream of heterogeneously colored nontargets. A completely task-irrelevant optic flow occurred in the periphery. If attentional deployment were governed by a top-down attentional set, the letter identification would be unaffected by the temporal change in the optic flow. The results reflected attentional capture by commencement or cessation of optic flow, which is inconsistent with the top-down view. When the peripheral dots expanded at various speeds before onset of the target, identification was impaired relative to when no motion occurred. Mere commencement or cessation of motion was sufficient to produce the capture effect. Qualitative ( commencement or cessation) rather than quantitative changes (acceleration or deceleration) of the motion display were critical for the occurrence of attentional capture. We conclude that salient discontinuities in optic flow induce attentional capture when observers search for a feature in a different stimulus domain, an idea implying a unique role for of expanding global motion in the deployment of visual attention.
  • Christian N. L. Olivers, Johan Hulleman, Thomas Spalek, Jun-ichiro Kawahara, Vincent Di Lollo
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE 37 (2) 396 - 408 0096-1523 2011/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The attentional blink is the marked deficit in awareness of a 2nd target (T2) when it is presented shortly after the 1st target (T1) in a stream of distractors. When the distractors between TI and T2 are replaced by even more targets, the attentional blink is reduced or absent, indicating that the attentional blink results from online selection mechanisms that act in response to distracting input rather than being the result of TI-induced cognitive resource depletion. However, Dell'Acqua, Jolicoeur, Luria, and Pluchino (2009) recently contended that an attentional blink is found in the multiple-target case as long as the appropriate trial context and analyses are used, thus reinstating resource-based explanations of the attentional blink and challenging the selection account. Specifically, an attentional blink reemerges when target performance is analyzed contingent on previous target accuracy. We argue on theoretical and empirical grounds that neither the trial context nor the type of analysis poses a serious problem for selection accounts. We show that the attentional blink and previous target contingency effects can be dissociated, with the latter depending more on low-level, short-range competition. We conclude that selection mechanisms involved in filtering for targets still provide a strong and coherent explanation of the attentional blink.
  • Ken Kihara, Yoshihiko Yagi, Yuji Takeda, Jun I. Kawahara
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE 37 (1) 168 - 179 0096-1523 2011/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two targets (T1 and T2) are embedded in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), T2 is often missed (attentional blink, AB) if T2 follows T1 by less than 500 ms. Some have proposed that inhibition of a distractor following T1 contributes to the AB, but no direct evidence supports this proposal. This study examined distractor inhibition by assessing a distractor devaluation effect where inhibited items were evaluated less positively than controls. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that a distractor presented just after T1 was evaluated less favorably when T2 was misidentified, independently of stimulus characteristics. Experiment 3 produced distractor devaluation in T2 incorrect trials when the evaluated distractor was the second item after T1. In contrast, a distractor presented before TI was not devaluated (Experiment 4). Experiment 5 demonstrated that participants could not recognize presented distractors after an RSVP task, rejecting the possibility that memorized distractors were devalued. Results show a relationship between the devaluation of distractors following T1 and the AB, providing the first direct evidence of the distractor inhibition during the AB.
  • Hirotsune Sato, Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    ANXIETY STRESS AND COPING 24 (4) 359 - 367 1061-5806 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Retrospective self-report questionnaires of negative mood states experienced in the past (e. g., the most recent two weeks) tend to be exaggerated in a negative direction relative to the average ratings given to the moods contemporaneously. The present study used three measures that decomposed mood states into their constituent elements to examine whether certain components selectively contributed to this negative bias or all components contributed to this bias equally. Fifty-three participants responded to the questionnaires via the Internet every evening for two weeks. On the final day, participants recalled and retrospectively evaluated their mood state over the previous two weeks as a whole. The results revealed that memory bias occurred selectively for negative mood states. Anxiety, depression, and helplessness were exaggerated in the global compared with the daily ratings. None of the positive mood components showed any bias in the retrospective global ratings. A regression analysis indicated that the difference in daily and global ratings for negative mood was partly explained by peak and final scores. Higher peak scores led to greater overestimation whereas final scores had smaller effects; the higher the final score was, the less participants overestimated their negative mood in the global ratings.
  • Atsunori Ariga, Jun-ichiro Kawahara, Katsumi Watanabe
    VISUAL COGNITION 19 (5) 553 - 584 1350-6285 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The visual system dynamically modulates attention to identify a target embedded in a rapid sequence of nontargets. Typically, the accuracy of target identification increases as the number of preceding items increases and is maintained at this increased level: Known as the attentional awakening phenomenon. In this study, we investigated the temporal characteristics of the visual system that contribute to maintaining attentional state throughout a trial. In Experiment 1, we initially demonstrated that the enhanced state of attention was reset after a gap of 500-1000 ms that was inserted in the sequence. In Experiment 2, we found that the attentional state was maintained when the temporally separated sequences were encapsulated by a continuous sequence of random dots. In the following experiments, we systematically manipulated the spatiotemporal configurations of random dots (or used a different object) and found that the attentional state was maintained as long as the object continuity was maintained.
  • Jun I. Kawahara, Ken Kihara
    QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 64 (5) 991 - 1008 1747-0218 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Visual search for a unique target is impaired when a salient distractor is presented (attentional capture). This phenomenon is said to occur because attention is diverted to a distractor before it reaches the target. Similarly, perception of the second of two targets embedded in a rapid stream of nontargets is impaired, suggesting attentional deprivation due to the processing of the first target (attentional blink). We examined whether these phenomena emerge from a common underlying attentional mechanism by using correlation studies. If these phenomena share a common foundation, the magnitude of these deficits should show within-subject correlations. Participants (N = 135) revealed significant attentional deficits during spatial and temporal capture and the attentional blink tasks. However, no significant correlation was found among these tasks. Experiment 2 (N = 95) replicated this finding using the same procedure as that used in Experiment 1 but included another attentional blink task that required spatial switching between the two targets. Strong correlations emerged only between the two attentional blink tasks (with/without spatial switching). The present results suggest that attentional deficits during spatial and temporal capture and the attentional blink tasks reflect different aspects of attention.
  • Ken Kihara, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Yuji Takeda
    BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS 42 (4) 1105 - 1113 1554-351X 2010/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Recently, the use of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in computer monitors has increased in popularity. Can LCDs produce results similar to those obtained in cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays in studies of temporal attention and perception tasks? Performance in two tasks (metacontrast masking and attentional blink) was examined using an LCD, a CRT oscilloscope, and a raster scan CRT display. Experiment 1 focused on metacontrast masking where a typical metacontrast function emerged irrespective of monitor type. Experiments 2 and 3 examined whether differences in monitors influence the attentional blink. Again, all displays elicited similar performance profiles for both the attentional blink and the trade-off between identification accuracy of the two targets. Although our results may not generalize to all LCD applications and all experimental paradigms, they indicate that LCDs can reproduce results similar to those found in metacontrast masking and attentional blink studies that were originally identified with CRT displays.
  • Takayuki Osugi, Takatsune Kumada, Jun Kawahara
    ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 72 (8) 2144 - 2156 1943-3921 2010/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When some distractors (old items) appear before others (new items) in an inefficient visual search task, the old items are excluded from the search (visual marking). Previous studies have shown that shape changes of static old items are sufficient to eliminate this effect when global luminance is maintained, suggesting that shape identity must be maintained for successful visual marking. It was unclear whether the change in meaning or shape was critical, because these changes were confounded in previous studies. The present study examined whether consistency in the semantic or the graphical identity of old items is critical for visual marking by introducing shape change in the absence of meaning change. The results indicated that visual marking survived graphical changes in old items as long as their meaning was maintained, suggesting that the memory template underlying visual marking represents the semantic identity of items.
  • Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA 135 (1) 38 - 49 0001-6918 2010/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The presence of a singleton in a task-irrelevant domain can impair visual search. This impairment, known as the attentional capture depends on the set of participants. When narrowly searching for a specific feature (the feature search mode), only matching stimuli capture attention. When searching broadly (the singleton detection mode), any oddball captures attention. The present study examined which strategy represents the "default" mode using an operant conditioning approach in which participants were trained, in the absence of explicit instructions, to search for a target in an ambiguous context in which one of two modes was available. The results revealed that participants behaviorally adopted the singleton detection as the default mode but reported using the feature search mode. Conscious strategies did not eliminate capture. These results challenge the view that a conscious set always modulates capture, suggesting that the visual system tends to rely on stimulus salience to deploy attention. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Akiko Oh-uchi, Jun-ichiro Kawahara, Likio Sugano
    PSYCHOLOGIA 53 (2) 114 - 124 0033-2852 2010/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Recent studies on metaattention have demonstrated a tendency toward overestimating one's performance on attentionally demanding tasks. However, the extent to which such metacognitive failures apply to all attentional phenomena remains unclear. The present study examined whether participants could anticipate attentional capture elicited by a task-irrelevant distractor during visual search. We measured attentional capture among university students and preschoolers and examined metaattentional judgments made by university students and the preschoolers' parents. The students and preschoolers exhibited attentional capture. The university group underestimated their attentional performance, and the parents predicted that they would be less affected by capture than would their children. These results indicate that the tendency toward overestimating metaattentional capabilities is not a ubiquitous but rather represents a domain-specific effect. We propose that veridical metaattentional judgements can be made when the attentional phenomena in question relate to deficits that participants are able to notice in actual life.
  • Tomoe Inukai, Takatsune Kumada, Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 72 (4) 939 - 950 1943-3921 2010/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The identification of a central visual target is impaired by the onset of a peripheral distractor. This impairment is said to occur because attentional focus is diverted to the peripheral distractor. We examined whether distractor offset would enhance or reduce attentional capture by manipulating the duration of the distractor. Observers identified a color singleton among a rapid stream of homogeneous nontargets. Peripheral distractors disappeared 43 or 172 msec after onset (the short- and long-duration conditions, respectively). Identification accuracy was greater in the long-duration condition than in the short-duration condition. The same pattern of results was obtained when participants identified a target of a designated color among heterogeneous nontargets when the color of the distractor was the same as that of the target. These findings suggest that attentional capture consists of stimulus onset and offset, both of which are susceptible to top-down attentional set.
  • Tomoe Inukai, Jun-ichiro Kawahara, Takatsune Kumada
    ATTENTION PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 72 (3) 658 - 666 1943-3921 2010/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Accuracy in identifying a target is impaired by a task-irrelevant singleton distractor even when the target and distractor appear in the same location. However, whether this impairment, known as a nonspatial interdimensional attentional capture, is contingent on a top-down attentional set or determined by stimulus-driven signals from distractors is unclear. To examine whether interdimensional attentional capture is affected by a top-down attentional set, the present study explicitly manipulated observers' search strategies (the singleton detection or feature search modes) and the number of objects consisting of the search items. The results indicated that interdimensional attentional capture occurred even under the feature search mode but that the capture effect decreased under this search mode irrespective of the number of distractors, suggesting that top-down knowledge was effective in modulating nonspatial interdimensional capture.
  • Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION 19 (1) 107 - 124 1053-8100 2010/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Studies in cognitive psychology have shown that the deployment of visual attention operates under spatial limitations, rendering its assignment to multiple locations difficult or costly. This study explored whether this conventional understanding applies to human metaattention as well 1 measured the spatial distribution of metaattention during viewing of natural scenes and found that participants believed they could attend to multiple locations simultaneously Study 2 tested whether this tendency could be modified by information about the tendency to overestimation After participants were informed of this tendency toward overestimation with both verbal instruction and demonstrations of attentional blindness and blindness to these phenomena, the selectivity of metaattention increased Study 3 demonstrated that participants overestimated their attentional abilities by comparing the metaattentional drawings and the actual behavioral performances of the same participants These results were consistent with recent findings of metaattentional overestimation in change detection and suggested human insensitivity in monitoring attentional limitations (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved
  • Thomas M. Spalek, Jun-ichiro Kawahara, Vincent Di Lollo
    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE 63 (4) 319 - 322 1196-1961 2009/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    At the earliest processing stages, visual stimuli are decomposed by a set of filters tuned to specific values of such attributes as colour, orientation, and motion. These filters have been characterised both neurophysiologically and behaviourally. The single exception is the attribute of flicker that has been characterised neurophysiologically but not behaviourally. Using a visual search paradigm, the authors provide the first behavioural demonstration that flicker is indeed a primitive attribute used by the visual system in stimulus encoding. Consistent with the temporal contrast-sensitivity function, sensitivity to flicker was highest at about 10 Hz and decreased as the flicker rate was either increased or decreased.
  • 熊田 孝恒, 河原 純一郎, 武田 裕司, 永井 聖剛, 瀧田 正寿
    JASMA : Journal of the Japan Society of Microgravity Application 日本マイクログラビティ応用学会 26 (4) 260 - 268 0915-3616 2009/10/19 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Andrew B. Leber, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Yuji Gabari
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE 35 (5) 1385 - 1397 0096-1523 2009/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    How does past experience influence visual search strategy (i.e., attentional set)? Recent reports have shown that, when given the option to use 1 of 2 attentional sets, observers persist with the set previously required in a training phase. Here, 2 related questions are addressed. First, does the training effect result only from perseveration with the currently active set or from long-term learning? Experiment 1 supported the latter alternative: When training and test were separated by up to 1 week, to prevent perseveration across the 2 sessions, the training effect was still obtained. Second, is the learning feature-specific (tuned to a precise set of colors) or more abstract? Experiments 2 and 3 supported the latter: When stimulus colors were switched between training and test to remove the possibility of feature-specific learning, the training effect again was obtained. These experiments indicate that attentional set is largely guided by long-term abstract learning.
  • Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE 35 (4) 1043 - 1061 0096-1523 2009/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When 2 targets are embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation stream of distractors, perception of the second target is impaired when the intertarget lag is relatively short (less than 500 ms). Stimuli concurrently presented with the stream can affect this phenomenon, which is called attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have yielded conflicting results concerning the direction of the effect of added distractors on the AB: Some studies report an increased AB, whereas others report a decreased AB. The present Study explored the boundary conditions of the exaggeration-reduction effects of distractors on the AB and investigated underlying mechanisms by manipulating the spatial configuration, timing, and type of distractors. The results indicate that the magnitude of the AB deficit increased, regardless of the type of distractors. when spatial uncertainty of the target locations was involved. The reduction of the AB occurred at optimal presentation of distractors and disappeared when the second target was presented at a suprathreshold level. These results suggest that stochastic resonance or the center-surround attentional mechanism may contribute to the reduction effect of distractors on the AB deficit.
  • Takayuki Osugi, Takatsune Kumada, Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    VISION RESEARCH 49 (8) 851 - 861 0042-6989 2009/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In an inefficient visual search task, when some distractors (old items) temporally precede some others (new items), the old items are excluded from the search, a phenomenon termed visual marking. This effect is said to occur because the locations of the old items are inhibited before the new items appear. The present study used a probe-detection task to examine whether this inhibition occurs only at the precise locations of old items or at and around the locations of old items. We also investigated the effect of inhibition overreaching boundaries to encompass neighboring regions. Participants searched for a target or detected a probe that appeared after the new items appeared. The results revealed that the probe reaction times at locations inside grouped regions were longer than those at a blank region where no items had been presented and were comparable to those at a location occupied by old items. Probe detection was not delayed when the probe was presented near but external to the external boundary of the grouped regions. The overreaching effect was obtained before and after the new items appeared. We conclude that the inhibitory template for visual marking represents clusters of old items for at least 200 ms before the onset of new items, and that this spatial schema is preserved until at least 200 ms after the onset of new items. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Christian N. L. Olivers, Thomas M. Spalek, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Vincent Di Lollo
    PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW 16 (1) 214 - 218 1069-9384 2009/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The authors have argued elsewhere that the attentional blink (AB; i.e., reduced target detection shortly after presentation of an earlier target) arises from blocked or disrupted perceptual input in response to distractors presented between the targets. When targets replace the intervening distractors, so that three targets (T1, T2, and T3) are presented sequentially, performance on T2 and T3 improves. Dux, Asplund, and Marois (2008) argued that T3 performance improves at the expense of T1, and thus provides evidence for resource depletion. They showed that when T1 is made more salient (and presumably draws more resources), an AB for T3 appears to reemerge. These findings can be better explained, however, by (1) the relationship between T1 and T2 (not T1 and T3) and (2) differential salience for T3 in the long-lag condition of Dux et al.'s study. In conclusion, the Dux et al. study does not present a severe challenge to input control theories of the AB.
  • Jun-ichiro Kawahara, James T. Enns
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE 35 (1) 146 - 158 0096-1523 2009/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When observers try to identify successive targets in it visual stream at a rate of 100 ms per item, accuracy for the 2nd target is impaired for intertarget lags of 100-500 ins. Yet, when the same stream is presented more rapidly (e.g., 50 ins per item), this pattern reverses and a 1st-target deficit is obtained. M. C. Potter, A. Staub, and D. H. O'Connor (2002) accounted for these findings with a 2-stage competition theory (detection followed by identification) in which each stage is limited by its own pool of resources. In 5 experiments we varied the items that preceded the 1st target. The results show strong influences of these leading items on the 1st-target deficit, with almost no influence on 2nd-target accuracy. This is interpreted as strong support for multiple factors influencing target accuracy in rapid visual streams (J. Kawahara, J. T. Enns. & V. Di Lollo. 2006).
  • Alejandro Lleras, Jun-ichiro Kawahara, Brian R. Levinthal
    JOURNAL OF VISION 9 (3) 26.1 - 12 1534-7362 2009 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Our recent experiences can have substantial effects on our future behavior. Here we show influences of prior visual experiences on the future workings of selective attention. Selective attention uses inhibitory processes to suppress distracting information on a given trial. We show that, once in place, this selective inhibition persists across trials and leads to misses of future targets when they belong to the previously distracting category of stimuli. This effect is documented using a single-target RSVP task, in which participants are asked to report the case (or color) of an oddball target. Furthermore, we show that selective inhibition is not present when observers are merely asked to detect the presence or absence of the oddball target. We argue that selective inhibition is a mechanism aimed at facilitating the access to secondary (non-target de. ning) features of the target stimuli, and that our results provide further evidence that visual stimuli are processed in a hierarchical, non-holistic manner.
  • Visual marking survives graphical change without semantic change.
    Osugi, T, Kumada, T, Kawahara, J
    Journal of Vision 9 1175 - 1175 2009 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Alejandro Lleras, Brian R. Levinthal, Jun Kawahara
    ATTENTION 176 195 - 213 0079-6123 2009 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When an observer is searching through the environment for a target, what are the consequences of not finding a target in a given environment? We examine this issue in detail and propose that the visual system systematically tags environmental information during a search, in an effort to improve performance in future search events. Information that led to search successes is positively tagged, so as to favor future deployments of attention toward that type of information, whereas information that led to search failures is negatively tagged, so as to discourage future deployments of attention toward such failed information. To study this, we use an oddball-search task, where participants search for one item that differs from all others along one feature or belongs to a different visual category, from the other stimuli in the display. We find that when participants perform oddball-search tasks, the absence of a target delays identification of future targets containing the feature or category that was shared by all distractors in the target-absent trial. We interpret this effect as reflecting an implicit assessment of performance: target-absent trials can be viewed as processing "failures" insofar as they do not provide the visual system with the information needed to complete the task. Here, we study the goal-oriented nature of this bias in three ways. First, we show that the direction of the bias is determined by the experimental task. Second, we show that the effect is independent of the mode of presentation of stimuli: it happens with both serial and simultaneous stimuli presentation. Third, we show that, when using categorically defined oddballs as the search stimuli (find the face among houses or vice versa), the bias generalizes to unseen members of the "failed" category. Together, these findings support the idea that this inter-trial attentional biases arise from high-level, task-constrained, implicit assessments of performance, involving categorical associations between classes of stimuli and behavioral outcomes (success/failure), which are independent of attentional modality (temporal vs. spatial attention).
  • Ken Kihara, Jun-ichiro Kawahara, Yuji Takeda
    NEUROREPORT 19 (15) 1493 - 1496 0959-4965 2008/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When observers are asked to identify two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation, they frequently fail to identify T2 if it appears 200-500 ms afterT1 (attentional blink). The response to T2 is, however, unimpaired if it appears directly after T1 (lag-1 sparing). Furthermore, when another target immediately follows T2, the identification accuracy for the third target is also unimpaired (lag-2 sparing). It was unclear whether multiple targets were consolidated into working memory simultaneously or independently during lag-2 sparing. We observed the P3 component of the event-related potential to examine this issue. Three separable P3 components, corresponding to the three targets, were obtained when lag-2 sparing occurred, suggesting that each target can be consolidated independently.
  • Fuminori Ono, Jun-ichiro Kawahara
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG 72 (1) 61 - 64 0340-0727 2008/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    This study examined the effect of false memory on temporal perception. The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which elicits false recognition of a nonpresented word, was used to determine whether the perceived duration of falsely remembered words was longer than that for control words. The study results revealed that the perceived duration for falsely recognized words was longer than that for correctly rejected words. This is the first study to show the effect of false memory on temporal perception and suggests that temporal perception can be affected by conceptual fluency without any perceptual repetition.
  • Alejandro Lleras, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Xiaoang Irene Wan, Atsunori Ariga
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 70 (1) 114 - 131 0031-5117 2008/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When a visual search for a color oddball is performed, responses to target-present trials are affected by the color of items in immediately preceding target-absent trials, a phenomenon known as the distractor-previewing effect (DPE). Specifically, the color of the items in the target-absent trial suppresses responses to a target of that color in the subsequent trial, even though participants report a target feature uncorrelated with color. We believe that this suppression reflects a transient inhibitory effect on focused attention that biases attention away from items that are of the same color as the items in the target-absent trial. Experiments 1-3 show that the DPE is present only in tasks that require focused attention. Experiments 4A and 4B show that the DPE persists even when target-absent displays are masked. Last, Experiment 5 shows that the DPE emerges as early as within the first 100 msec of a target-present trial and is fully in place by the 250-msec mark.
  • The spatial distribution of visual marking.
    Osugi, T, Kumada, T, Kawahara, J
    Journal of Vision 8 1115 - 1115 2008 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ghorashi S, Jefferies L.N, Kawahara J.-I, Watanabe K
    Psyche (Pasadena) 14 (2008) 2008 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Alejandro Lleras, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Xiaoang Irene Wan, Atsunori Ariga
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 70 (1) 114 - 131 0031-5117 2008/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When a visual search for a color oddball is performed, responses to target-present trials are affected by the color of items in immediately preceding target-absent trials, a phenomenon known as the distractor-previewing effect (DPE). Specifically, the color of the items in the target-absent trial suppresses responses to a target of that color in the subsequent trial, even though participants report a target feature uncorrelated with color. We believe that this suppression reflects a transient inhibitory effect on focused attention that biases attention away from items that are of the same color as the items in the target-absent trial. Experiments 1-3 show that the DPE is present only in tasks that require focused attention. Experiments 4A and 4B show that the DPE persists even when target-absent displays are masked. Last, Experiment 5 shows that the DPE emerges as early as within the first 100 msec of a target-present trial and is fully in place by the 250-msec mark.
  • Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 69 (8) 1399 - 1408 0031-5117 2007/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Under incidental learning conditions, a spatial layout can be acquired implicitly and facilitate visual searches (the contextual cuing effect). Whereas previous studies have shown a cuing effect in the visual domain, the present study examined whether a contextual cuing effect could develop from association between auditory events and visual target locations (Experiments 1 and 2). In the training phase, participants searched for a T among Ls, preceded by 2 sec: of auditory stimulus. The target location could be predicted from the preceding auditory stimulus. In the test phase, the auditory-visual association pairings were disrupted. The results revealed that a contextual cuing effect occurs by auditory-visual association. Participants did not notice the auditory-visual association. Experiment 3 explored a boundary condition for the auditory-visual contextual cuing effect. These results suggest that visual attention can be guided implicitly by crossmodal association, and they extend the idea that the visual system is sensitive to all kinds of statistical consistency.
  • Lisa N. Jefferies, Shahab Ghorashi, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Vincent Di Lollo
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 69 (7) 1162 - 1174 0031-5117 2007/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two sequential targets (T1, T2) are inserted in an RSVP stream of distractors, perception of T2 is impaired at intertarget lags shorter than 700 msec. Paradoxically, this deficit disappears when T2 is presented directly after T1 (lag-1 sparing). Visser, Bischof, and Di Lollo (1999) found that lag-1 sparing occurs only when T1 and T2 are presented in the same stream. In contrast, Shih (2000) obtained lag-1 sparing with targets in separate streams. Four experiments addressed this inconsistency and revealed lag-1 sparing with targets in different streams, but only when observers had no foreknowledge of T1's location. We hypothesized that when T1 location is known, attention is focused narrowly on that strewn; if T2 then appears in the other stream it is missed, and lag-1 sparing does not occur. When T1 location is not known, attention is focused broadly, encompassing both streams, and lag-1 sparing ensues.
  • Yuki Yamada, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 69 (7) 1218 - 1229 0031-5117 2007/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two targets are embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream of distractors, perception of the second target is impaired if the intertarget lag is relatively short (less than 500 msec). This phenomenon, called attentional blink, has been attributed to a temporal inability of attentional resources. Nevertheless, a recent study found that observers could monitor two RSVP streams concurrently for up to four items presented in close succession, suggesting a much larger visual capacity limit. However, such high-capacity performance could be obtained by a rapid shift of attention, rather than concurrent monitoring of multiple locations. Therefore, the present study examined these alternatives. Results from six experiments indicate that observers can concurrently monitor two noncontiguous locations, even when targets and distractors are from different categories, such as digits, English alphabet letters, Japanese characters, and pseudocharacters. These results can be explained in terms of a modified input-filtering model in which a multidimensional attentional set can be flexibly configured at different spatial locations.
  • Lisa N. Jefferies, Shahab Ghorashi, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Vincent Di Lollo
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 69 (7) 1162 - 1174 0031-5117 2007/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two sequential targets (T1, T2) are inserted in an RSVP stream of distractors, perception of T2 is impaired at intertarget lags shorter than 700 msec. Paradoxically, this deficit disappears when T2 is presented directly after T1 (lag-1 sparing). Visser, Bischof, and Di Lollo (1999) found that lag-1 sparing occurs only when T1 and T2 are presented in the same stream. In contrast, Shih (2000) obtained lag-1 sparing with targets in separate streams. Four experiments addressed this inconsistency and revealed lag-1 sparing with targets in different streams, but only when observers had no foreknowledge of T1's location. We hypothesized that when T1 location is known, attention is focused narrowly on that strewn; if T2 then appears in the other stream it is missed, and lag-1 sparing does not occur. When T1 location is not known, attention is focused broadly, encompassing both streams, and lag-1 sparing ensues.
  • Fuminori Ono, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 69 (6) 952 - 957 0031-5117 2007/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The perception of time spent looking at a stimulus is lengthened or shortened when its physical attributes, such as area, differ from those of a comparison stimulus. We measured the perceived presentation duration of a visual object whose apparent area was altered by the Ebbinghaus illusion while its physical size remained invariant, so that a central circle surrounded by larger inducers appeared smaller than a same-size central circle surrounded by smaller inducers. The results showed that the perceived duration of presentation for apparently larger circles was longer than that of apparently smaller circles, although the actual area remained invariant across all circles. We concluded that the time perception process receives input from later visual processing.
  • Fuminori Ono, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 69 (6) 952 - 957 0031-5117 2007/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The perception of time spent looking at a stimulus is lengthened or shortened when its physical attributes, such as area, differ from those of a comparison stimulus. We measured the perceived presentation duration of a visual object whose apparent area was altered by the Ebbinghaus illusion while its physical size remained invariant, so that a central circle surrounded by larger inducers appeared smaller than a same-size central circle surrounded by smaller inducers. The results showed that the perceived duration of presentation for apparently larger circles was longer than that of apparently smaller circles, although the actual area remained invariant across all circles. We concluded that the time perception process receives input from later visual processing.
  • Fuminori Ono, Kyoko Yamada, Kazumitsu Chujo, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 69 (4) 544 - 549 0031-5117 2007/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We investigated the influence of feature-based visual attention on later temporal perception. Although there is ample evidence that space-based attention modulates temporal perception, it is not known whether feature-based attention also serves this function. The present study combined a visual selection task with a temporal interval production task to determine whether feature-based attention interacted with temporal perception. The results indicated that temporal perception of visual stimuli depended on whether the same stimulus had been attended to or ignored in a previous visual selection task. The temporal production of previously ignored stimuli was longer than the temporal production of either previously attended to or novel stimuli. This is the first demonstration of the effect of feature-based attention on later temporal perception. We concluded that temporal perception is affected by previously ignored stimuli.
  • Fuminori Ono, Kyoko Yamada, Kazumitsu Chujo, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 69 (4) 544 - 549 0031-5117 2007/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We investigated the influence of feature-based visual attention on later temporal perception. Although there is ample evidence that space-based attention modulates temporal perception, it is not known whether feature-based attention also serves this function. The present study combined a visual selection task with a temporal interval production task to determine whether feature-based attention interacted with temporal perception. The results indicated that temporal perception of visual stimuli depended on whether the same stimulus had been attended to or ignored in a previous visual selection task. The temporal production of previously ignored stimuli was longer than the temporal production of either previously attended to or novel stimuli. This is the first demonstration of the effect of feature-based attention on later temporal perception. We concluded that temporal perception is affected by previously ignored stimuli.
  • Jun-ichiro Kawahara, Tomohiro Nabeta, Jiro Hamada
    PERCEPTION 36 (5) 670 - 685 0301-0066 2007 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In the Delboeuf illusion, a circle judged initially has a weaker effect of size induction than a circle judged subsequently (the judgment-order effect). This effect has been attributed to differential allocation of visual attention (Hamada et al, 2002 Japanese Journal of Psychology 73 58-63, in Japanese). To establish the influence of attention, in experiment I we examined whether the effect occurred mandatorily once the outer circle was attended to, or whether it was necessary to direct attention specifically to the size of the area of the outer circle. Observers trisected the circumference of the outer circle thus attending to the outer circle in terms of its circumference, but ignoring its area. The illusion was stronger when the inner-circle area estimation was followed by the outer-circle area estimation than when the inner-circle area estimation was followed by the trisection task. In experiment 2 this result was replicated by using diameter judgment, instead of the size of the area. These findings indicate that mere allocation of attention to the outer circle contour is not sufficient to produce the judgment-order effect. Rather, attention must be specific to the task-relevant dimension, in this instance the visual area, to be effective.
  • Yuki Yamada, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    Perception and Psychophysics 69 (7) 1218 - 1229 0031-5117 2007 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two targets are embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream of distractors, perception of the second target is impaired if the intertarget lag is relatively short (less than 500 msec). This phenomenon, called attentional blink, has been attributed to a temporal inability of attentional resources. Nevertheless, a recent study found that observers could monitor two RSVP streams concurrently for up to four items presented in close succession, suggesting a much larger visual capacity limit. However, such high-capacity performance could be obtained by a rapid shift of attention, rather than concurrent monitoring of multiple locations. Therefore, the present study examined these alternatives. Results from six experiments indicate that observers can concurrently monitor two noncontiguous locations, even when targets and distractors are from different categories, such as digits, English alphabet letters, Japanese characters, and pseudocharacters. These results can be explained in terms of a modified input-filtering model in which a multidimensional attentional set can be flexibly configured at different spatial locations. Copyright 2007 Psychonomic Society, Inc.
  • Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    Perception and Psychophysics 69 (8) 1399 - 1408 0031-5117 2007 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Under incidental learning conditions, a spatial layout can be acquired implicitly and facilitate visual searches (the contextual cuing effect). Whereas previous studies have shown a cuing effect in the visual domain, the present study examined whether a contextual cuing effect could develop from association between auditory events and visual target locations (Experiments 1 and 2). In the training phase, participants searched for a T among Ls, preceded by 2 sec of auditory stimulus. The target location could be predicted from the preceding auditory stimulus. In the test phase, the auditory-visual association pairings were disrupted. The results revealed that a contextual cuing effect occurs by auditory-visual association. Participants did not notice the auditory-visual association. Experiment 3 explored a boundary condition for the auditory-visual contextual cuing effect. These results suggest that visual attention can be guided implicitly by crossmodal association, and they extend the idea that the visual system is sensitive to all kinds of statistical consistency. Copyright 2007 Psychonomic Society, Inc.
  • Jun-ichiro Kawahara, James T. Enns, Vincent Di Lollo
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG 70 (6) 405 - 413 0340-0727 2006/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Identification of the second of two targets is impaired if it is presented less than about 500 ms after the first. Three models of this second-target deficit, known as attentional blink (AB), were compared: resource-depletion, bottleneck, and temporary loss of control (TLC). Five experiments, in which three sequential targets were inserted in a stream of distractors, showed that identification accuracy for the leading target depended on an attentional switch whose magnitude varied with distractor-target similarity. In contrast, accuracy for the trailing target depended on similarity between the target and the trailing mask. These results strongly suggest that the AB is not a unitary phenomenon. Resource-depletion was ruled out as a viable account. The effect of attentional switching was handled naturally by the TLC model, while bottleneck models offered the best account of the effect of backward masking.
  • Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Takatsune Kumada, Vincent Di Lollo
    PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW 13 (5) 886 - 890 1069-9384 2006/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Identification of the second of two brief targets is impaired at intertarget lags of less than about 500 msec. We compared two accounts of this attentional blink (AB) by manipulating the number of digit distractors-and hence the lag-inserted among three letter targets in a rapid serial visual presentation stream of digit distractors. On the resource-depletion hypothesis, longer lags provide more time for processing the leading target, thus releasing resources for the trailing target. On the temporary-loss-of-control (TLC) hypothesis, intervening distractors disrupt the current attentional set, producing a trailing-target deficit. Identification accuracy for trailing targets was unimpaired not only at lag I (conventional lag I sparing) but also at later lags, if preceded by another target. The results supported the TLC hypothesis but not the resource-depletion hypothesis. We conclude that the AB is caused by a disruption in attentional set when a distractor is presented while the central executive is busy processing a leading target.
  • Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Takatsune Kumada, Vincent Di Lollo
    PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW 13 (5) 886 - 890 1069-9384 2006/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Identification of the second of two brief targets is impaired at intertarget lags of less than about 500 msec. We compared two accounts of this attentional blink (AB) by manipulating the number of digit distractors-and hence the lag-inserted among three letter targets in a rapid serial visual presentation stream of digit distractors. On the resource-depletion hypothesis, longer lags provide more time for processing the leading target, thus releasing resources for the trailing target. On the temporary-loss-of-control (TLC) hypothesis, intervening distractors disrupt the current attentional set, producing a trailing-target deficit. Identification accuracy for trailing targets was unimpaired not only at lag I (conventional lag I sparing) but also at later lags, if preceded by another target. The results supported the TLC hypothesis but not the resource-depletion hypothesis. We conclude that the AB is caused by a disruption in attentional set when a distractor is presented while the central executive is busy processing a leading target.
  • Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Yula Yamada
    PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW 13 (4) 594 - 599 1069-9384 2006/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two targets (T1 and T2) are inserted in a rapid stream of visual distractors (RSVP), detection/identification accuracy of T2 is impaired at intertarget lags shorter than about 500 msec. This phenomenon, the attentional blink (AB), has been regarded as a hallmark of the inability of the visual system to process multiple items. Yet, paradoxically, the AB is much reduced when T2 is presented directly after T1 (known as lag-1 sparing). Because lag-1 sparing is said to depend on observers' spatial attention being set to process the first target, we predicted that if observers are set to monitor two RSVP streams, they could process more than two items; that is, two instances of lag-1 sparing would be obtained concurrently. The results of three experiments indicated that this was the case. When observers searched for two targets in each of two synchronized RSVP streams, lag-1 sparing occurred concurrently in both streams. These results suggest that the visual system can handle up to four items at one moment under RSVP circumstances.
  • Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Yula Yamada
    PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW 13 (4) 594 - 599 1069-9384 2006/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two targets (T1 and T2) are inserted in a rapid stream of visual distractors (RSVP), detection/identification accuracy of T2 is impaired at intertarget lags shorter than about 500 msec. This phenomenon, the attentional blink (AB), has been regarded as a hallmark of the inability of the visual system to process multiple items. Yet, paradoxically, the AB is much reduced when T2 is presented directly after T1 (known as lag-1 sparing). Because lag-1 sparing is said to depend on observers' spatial attention being set to process the first target, we predicted that if observers are set to monitor two RSVP streams, they could process more than two items; that is, two instances of lag-1 sparing would be obtained concurrently. The results of three experiments indicated that this was the case. When observers searched for two targets in each of two synchronized RSVP streams, lag-1 sparing occurred concurrently in both streams. These results suggest that the visual system can handle up to four items at one moment under RSVP circumstances.
  • T Nabeta, JI Kawahara
    MEMORY 14 (3) 307 - 315 0965-8211 2006/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Studying a list of items related to an item that is not presented (lure item) produces a false memory. We investigated whether a haptic study/test results in false recognition and, if so, whether congruency of presentation modality between study and test reduces the false recognition. After haptic or visual study of lists of real objects that are related to a lure object, participants were asked to recognise whether the objects were presented haptically or visually. We obtained false recognition results with haptic study and/or test. False recognition was reduced when presentation and study modalities were congruent. After haptic study, false recognition was reduced in the haptic test, as compared to the visual test. In contrast, visual study always reduced visual false recognition. These results indicate that there is a general effect of retrieval cues that will reduce false recognition.
  • F Ono, J Kawahara
    CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION 14 (3) 474 - 482 1053-8100 2005/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We examined the effects of unconscious priming on temporal-interval production. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to keep visual displays on a screen for 2500 ms intervals. Half of the displays were repeated across blocks throughout the entire experiment, and the others were newly generated from trial to trial. The displays consisted of patterns so complex that the participants could not intentionally memorize them. The results showed that significantly more time elapsed for old displays than for new displays before participants indicated that a 2500 ms interval had elapsed. Experiment 2 replicated this effect and excluded an alternative account based on perceived pattern complexity. The effect of repetitive presentation was obtained despite the fact the participants did not recognize the repetition, suggesting that unconscious priming increased temporal production. These results suggest that time perception is affected by an unconscious process. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • F Ono, J Kawahara, YH Jiang
    JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE 31 (4) 703 - 712 0096-1523 2005/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Contextual cuing refers to the facilitation of performance in visual search due to the repetition of the same displays. Whereas previous studies have-focused on contextual cuing within single-search trials, this study tested whether I trial facilitates visual search of the next trial. Participants searched for a T among Ls. In the training phase, the spatial layout on trial N-1 was predictive of the target location on trial N. In the testing phase, the predictive value was removed. Results revealed an intertrial temporal contextual cuing effect: Search. speed became progressively shorter in the training phase, but it significantly lengthened during testing. The authors conclude that the visual system is capable of retaining spatial contextual memory established earlier to facilitate perception.
  • Di Lollo, V, D Smilek, JI Kawahara, SMS Ghorashi
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 67 (6) 1080 - 1087 0031-5117 2005/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We examined two theories of visual search: resource depletion, grounded in a static, built-in brain architecture, with attention seen as a limited depletable resource, and system reconfiguration, in which the visual system is dynamically reconfigured from moment to moment so as to optimize performance on the task at hand. In a dual-task paradigm, a search display was preceded by a visual discrimination. task and was followed, after a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) governed by a staircase procedure, by a pattern mask. Search efficiency, as indexed by the slope of the function relating critical SOA to number of distractors, was impaired under dual-task conditions for tasks that were performed efficiently (shallow search slope) when done singly, but not for tasks performed inefficiently (steep slope) when done singly. These results are consistent with system reconfiguration, but not with resource depletion, models and point to a dynamic, rather than a static, architecture of the visual system.
  • Di Lollo, V, D Smilek, JI Kawahara, SMS Ghorashi
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 67 (6) 1080 - 1087 0031-5117 2005/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We examined two theories of visual search: resource depletion, grounded in a static, built-in brain architecture, with attention seen as a limited depletable resource, and system reconfiguration, in which the visual system is dynamically reconfigured from moment to moment so as to optimize performance on the task at hand. In a dual-task paradigm, a search display was preceded by a visual discrimination. task and was followed, after a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) governed by a staircase procedure, by a pattern mask. Search efficiency, as indexed by the slope of the function relating critical SOA to number of distractors, was impaired under dual-task conditions for tasks that were performed efficiently (shallow search slope) when done singly, but not for tasks performed inefficiently (steep slope) when done singly. These results are consistent with system reconfiguration, but not with resource depletion, models and point to a dynamic, rather than a static, architecture of the visual system.
  • K Tamaoka, H Sakai, J Kawahara, Y Miyaoka, H Lim, M Koizumi
    JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLINGUISTIC RESEARCH 34 (3) 281 - 332 0090-6905 2005/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study investigated scrambling effects on the processing of Japanese sentences and priority information used among thematic roles, case particles and grammatical functions. Reaction times for correct sentence decisions were significantly prolonged for scrambled active sentences with transitive verbs in the first experiment and with ditransitive verbs in the second experiment. Errors were made with scrambled sentences more than canonical sentences in both experiments, which suggested that scrambling effects were apparent in active sentences. Passive sentences in the third experiment indicated that canonical order defined based on case particles, not thematic roles, was more quickly and accurately identified than scrambled order. Potential sentences in the fourth experiment and causative sentences in the fifth experiment indicated that the processing of scrambled sentences based on grammatical functions, but not on case particles, required longer reaction times and resulted in higher error rates than canonical sentences. Consequently, scrambling effects in the present study indicated that neither thematic roles nor case particles can provide fully-satisfactory information for canonical phrase order, and that only grammatical functions offer satisfactory information in all types of sentences.
  • K Tamaoka, H Sakai, J Kawahara, Y Miyaoka, H Lim, M Koizumi
    JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLINGUISTIC RESEARCH 34 (3) 281 - 332 0090-6905 2005/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study investigated scrambling effects on the processing of Japanese sentences and priority information used among thematic roles, case particles and grammatical functions. Reaction times for correct sentence decisions were significantly prolonged for scrambled active sentences with transitive verbs in the first experiment and with ditransitive verbs in the second experiment. Errors were made with scrambled sentences more than canonical sentences in both experiments, which suggested that scrambling effects were apparent in active sentences. Passive sentences in the third experiment indicated that canonical order defined based on case particles, not thematic roles, was more quickly and accurately identified than scrambled order. Potential sentences in the fourth experiment and causative sentences in the fifth experiment indicated that the processing of scrambled sentences based on grammatical functions, but not on case particles, required longer reaction times and resulted in higher error rates than canonical sentences. Consequently, scrambling effects in the present study indicated that neither thematic roles nor case particles can provide fully-satisfactory information for canonical phrase order, and that only grammatical functions offer satisfactory information in all types of sentences.
  • Di Lollo, V, J Kawahara, SMS Ghorashi, JT Enns
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG 69 (3) 191 - 200 0340-0727 2005/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Identification of the second of two targets is impaired if it is presented less than about 500 ms after the first. Theoretical accounts of this second-target deficit, known as attentional blink (AB), have relied on some form of limited attentional resource that is allocated to the leading target at the expense of the trailing target. Three experiments in the present study reveal a failure of resource-limitation accounts to explain why the AB is absent when the targets consist of a stream of three items belonging to the same category (e.g., letters or digits). The AB is reinstated, however, if an item from a different category is inserted in the target string. This result, and all major results in the AB literature, is explained by the hypothesis that the AB arises from a temporary loss of control over the prevailing attentional set. This lapse in control renders the observer vulnerable to an exogenously-triggered switch in attentional set.
  • Yamada, Y, Kawahara, J
    The Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science 24 1 - 10 2005 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ono F, Nabeta T, Kawahara J
    Shinrigaku kenkyu : The Japanese journal of psychology 3 75 (3) 207 - 212 0021-5236 2004/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • F Ono, J Kawahara, F Matsuda
    CAHIERS DE PSYCHOLOGIE COGNITIVE-CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY OF COGNITION 22 (1) 27 - 40 0249-9185 2004/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Our perceived duration of events is affected by factors that are at least partly conscious. Here, we report that the perceived duration of visual events can be affected by a completely unconscious factor. Participants were briefly (12.5 ms) exposed to nonsense syllables, followed by backward pattern masking in an exposure phase. In a second phase, they estimated the presented durations of nonsense syllables that were either previously exposed or not exposed. Additional discrimination tests with other participants ensured that the stimuli in the exposure phase had been presented below the conscious detection threshold. The results indicated that the mean estimated duration for the stimuli that were previously exposed was shorter than that for the new stimuli. When the backward mask was removed, and the participants were aware of the exposed stimuli, a reduction in perceived duration was not observed. These results suggest that unconscious experience may be one of determinants for reducing the perceived duration of events.
  • Ono F, Nabeta T, Kawahara J.-I
    Shinrigaku Kenkyu 75 (3) 207 - 212 2004 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • A Ariga, J Kawahara
    JOURNAL OF VISION 4 (10) 891 - 903 1534-7362 2004 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The time it takes to respond to an odd-colored target (e.g., a red diamond among green diamonds) is reduced when distracter-colored items in an appropriate geometric configuration (e.g., multiple red diamonds) are previewed in a preceding trial. B. A. Goolsby and S. Suzuki (2002) suggested that this phenomenon, the distracter-previewing effect, occurs because target saliency is increased by global adaptation to the previewed distractors. The present study tested and extended this idea with visual search experiments using color, face, motion, and word stimuli. We found that the distracter-previewing effect can be obtained with all of these stimuli. In particular, we found that the distracter-previewing effect was elicited by prior activation of distractors by word labels, suggesting a high-level locus for the effect.
  • K Tamaoka, H Sakai, J Kawahara, Y Miyaoka
    JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLINGUISTIC RESEARCH 32 (4) 431 - 454 0090-6905 2003/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study investigated the effects of phrase length and scrambling in the processing of Japanese sentences. Reading times of short phrases, long phrases, verbs, and whole sentences, measured by the method of self-paced reading, did not differ in terms of phrase-length order and scrambling. In addition, four types of sentences constructed on the basis of phrase-length order and scrambling did not affect duration times of correctness decision-making for sentences. However, error rates differed between canonical and scrambled sentences regardless of phrase-length order. This result implies that scrambled sentences were harder to judge as correct sentences than canonical sentences. Thus, scrambling affects the appropriate integration of information, whereas phrase-length order is simply an indication of preference and not of cognitive processing. To explain the present result, the authors propose the "configurational structure without movement," which predicts no difference in speed between the processing of canonical and scrambled sentences, apart from error rates.
  • K Tamaoka, H Sakai, J Kawahara, Y Miyaoka
    JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLINGUISTIC RESEARCH 32 (4) 431 - 454 0090-6905 2003/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study investigated the effects of phrase length and scrambling in the processing of Japanese sentences. Reading times of short phrases, long phrases, verbs, and whole sentences, measured by the method of self-paced reading, did not differ in terms of phrase-length order and scrambling. In addition, four types of sentences constructed on the basis of phrase-length order and scrambling did not affect duration times of correctness decision-making for sentences. However, error rates differed between canonical and scrambled sentences regardless of phrase-length order. This result implies that scrambled sentences were harder to judge as correct sentences than canonical sentences. Thus, scrambling affects the appropriate integration of information, whereas phrase-length order is simply an indication of preference and not of cognitive processing. To explain the present result, the authors propose the "configurational structure without movement," which predicts no difference in speed between the processing of canonical and scrambled sentences, apart from error rates.
  • JI Kawahara, SM Zuvic, JT Enns, Di Lollo, V
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 65 (3) 339 - 351 0031-5117 2003/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two targets are presented in rapid succession, perception of the second target is impaired at short intertarget lags (100-700 msec). This attentional blink (AB) is thought to occur only when the second target is backward masked. To the contrary, we show that task switching between the targets can produce an AB even without masking (Experiments 1 and 3). Further, we show that task switching produces an AB only when the second target does not belong to a class of overlearned stimuli such as letters or digits (Experiments 1 and 4). When the second target is masked, however, an AB is invariably obtained regardless of switching or overlearning. We propose that task switching involves a time-consuming process of reconfiguration of the visual system, during which the representation of the second target decays beyond recognition, resulting in an AB deficit. We suggest that overlearned stimuli are encoded in a form that, while maskable, decays relatively slowly, thus outlasting the delay due to reconfiguration and avoiding the AB deficit.
  • JI Kawahara, SM Zuvic, JT Enns, Di Lollo, V
    PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS 65 (3) 339 - 351 0031-5117 2003/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two targets are presented in rapid succession, perception of the second target is impaired at short intertarget lags (100-700 msec). This attentional blink (AB) is thought to occur only when the second target is backward masked. To the contrary, we show that task switching between the targets can produce an AB even without masking (Experiments 1 and 3). Further, we show that task switching produces an AB only when the second target does not belong to a class of overlearned stimuli such as letters or digits (Experiments 1 and 4). When the second target is masked, however, an AB is invariably obtained regardless of switching or overlearning. We propose that task switching involves a time-consuming process of reconfiguration of the visual system, during which the representation of the second target decays beyond recognition, resulting in an AB deficit. We suggest that overlearned stimuli are encoded in a form that, while maskable, decays relatively slowly, thus outlasting the delay due to reconfiguration and avoiding the AB deficit.
  • T Nabeta, F Ono, J Kawahara
    PERCEPTION 32 (11) 1351 - 1358 0301-0066 2003 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Under incidental learning conditions, spatial layouts can be acquired implicitly and facilitate visual search (contextual-cueing effect). We examined whether the contextual-cueing effect is specific to the visual modality or transfers to the haptic modality. The participants performed 320 (experiment 1) or 192 (experiment 2) visual search trials based on a typical contextual-cueing paradigm, followed by haptic search trials in which half of the trials had layouts used in the previous visual search trials. The visual contextual-cueing effect was obtained in the learning phase. More importantly, the effect was transferred from visual to haptic searches; there was greater facilitation of haptic search trials when the spatial layout was the same as in the previous visual search trials, compared with trials in which the spatial layout differed from those in the visual search. This suggests the commonality of spatial memory to allocate focused attention in both visual and haptic modalities.
  • M Maruishi, H Muranaka, M Miyatani, J Kawahara, T Tsuji, S Noda, T Kajima
    NEUROSURGICAL RE-ENGINEERING OF THE DAMAGED BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD 87 (87) 75 - 78 0065-1419 2003 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We used fMRI to study brain activation with facilitative rehabilitation techniques (passive hand movements and visual feedback) in two patients with subcortical lesions. Two tasks were given in a sequence. The first task (trial 1) was repetitive hand grasping by the paretic hand at a rate of 0.5 Hz with the eyes closed. The second task (trial 2), the facilitative rehabilitation technique, included task I plus support by a trainer to move the paretic hand with the eyes open to get visual feedback of the movement. The data were analyzed by a subtractive method. When task I was subtracted from task 2, it was found that the bilateral visual cortex, contralateral premotor cortex and posterior parietal cortex were involved with the passive hand movement and visual feedback. These facilitative rehabilitation techniques may integrate networks between sensory information and motor commands, and lead to functional reorganization.
  • Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    Japanese Psychological Research 45 (2) 109 - 114 0021-5368 2003 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Perception of the second of two rapidly presented targets is impaired when the temporal lag between them is short (attentional blink, AB). Previous studies showed two types of AB functions. One is that the performance for the second target has been found to be most impaired at the shortest lag (Lag 1), that is, when the second target appeared directly after the first target. The other is that the performance was not impaired at Lag 1 (Lag 1 sparing). The present study examined whether the task set of observers determines the occurrence of Lag 1 sparing. The experiment revealed that Lag 1 sparing occurred only when the observers were informed of the relationships of target locations. The present results extend the explanation of Lag 1 sparing by attentional gating (Visser, Zuvic, Bischof, & Di Lollo, 1999b) and suggest that this gating system is not stimulus-driven but subject to goal-directed control.
  • Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    Psychological Research 66 (2) 116 - 123 0340-0727 2002/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets is impaired if the temporal lag between them is relatively short. This attentional blink (AB) is said to occur because the first target preoccupies attentional resources, leading to a shortage of attention for, and subsequent failure of judgement of, the second target. In the present study, we examined whether the attention which is preoccupied by the first target carries the common characteristic of spatial attention, that is local facilitation of information processing. To index the facilitation, we presented an attention-sensitive probe known as the shooting line illusion in which observers see a progressively drawn line from the attended end to the other. We found that illusory motion was perceived to emanate from the end where the first target was presented. This result demonstrates the inherently spatial nature of attention, even when it is defined by temporal and symbolic variables.
  • J Kawahara
    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG 66 (2) 116 - 123 0340-0727 2002/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets is impaired if the temporal lag between them is relatively short. This attentional blink (AB) is said to occur because the first target preoccupies attentional resources, leading to a shortage of attention for, and subsequent failure of judgement of, the second target. In the present study, we examined whether the attention which is preoccupied by the first target carries the common characteristic of spatial attention, that is local facilitation of information processing. To index the facilitation, we presented an attention-sensitive probe known as the shooting line illusion in which observers see a progressively drawn line from the attended end to the other. We found that illusory motion was perceived to emanate from the end where the first target was presented. This result demonstrates the inherently spatial nature of attention, even when it is defined by temporal and symbolic variables.
  • JI Kawahara, K Yokosawa
    JOURNAL OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY 128 (4) 357 - 383 0022-1309 2001/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The phenomenon referred to as illusory line-motion (ILM; O. Hikosaka, S. Miyauchi, & S. Shimojo, 1993a) has been described as a measure of the local facilitation of attention gradient. However, J. Kawahara, K. Yokosawa, S. Nishida, and T. Sato (1996) have demonstrated a spatially parallel search for an "odd man out" in the ILM direction. Apart from showing preattentive ILM perception in terms of an analogy between line-motion and apparent motion, the authors examined whether ILM perception is possible without attention from another point of view. Four experiments revealed that the ILM target can be detected in parallel without invoking attentional facilitation and invalidated the possible contribution of attentional set in parallel ILM search. Participants were able to correctly detect the ILM target among multiple nontargets, even when the line orientation was changed from trial to trial. The authors' independent-detection model predicted ILM search performance well on several occasions. These findings strongly support a preattentive and stimulus-driven explanation of ILM perception.
  • JI Kawahara, M Miyatani
    JOURNAL OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY 128 (1) 57 - 75 0022-1309 2001/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In the present study, the authors observed the effect of informative and uninformative attentional cueing on visual search for targets that were defined by a simple feature or by conjunctions of features. Three different types of attentional cueing were tested in three experiments: peripheral informative cueing, peripheral uninformative cueing, and central informative cueing. Participants showed a greater effect of cueing in detecting a conjunction of features than in detecting unique features only when attention was oriented by either peripheral or central informative cueing. This differential cueing effect was not observed when attention was oriented by peripheral uninformative cueing. The results suggest that voluntarily oriented attention plays a more important role in feature integration than automatically oriented attention does. The results also pose limits on the generalizability of K. A. Briand's (1998) proposal regarding the role of automatically oriented attention in feature integration.
  • SL Ngohayon, J Kawahara, T Toshima
    PSYCHOLOGIA 42 (3) 170 - 182 0033-2852 1999/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    This study aimed to find out whether image segmentation is affected by the object's meaning. In Experiment 1, 20 subjects judged whether or not two probe circles embedded in a meaningless two-part figure have the same color. The probes shared the same part (same object) or different parts (different objects) of the figure. The metric distance from, fixation point to probes was identical across conditions. Responses were faster and more accurate in the same object than in the different object condition (same-object-advantage). In experiment 2, meaningful Japanese kanji and meaningless jumbled-kanji were used as stimuli. The kanji measured the effect of meaning on segmentation while the jumbled-kanji measured the applicable range of this effect. Data from 20 subjects reveal that reaction time for same-object was longer than the different-object condition (same-object-disadvantage) irrespective of whether they were kanji or jumbled-kanji. These findings suggest that meaning and it's influence affect image segmentation.
  • Kawahara J, Yokosawa K
    Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 38 (4) 1997 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • J Kawahara, K Yokosawa, S Nishida, T Sato
    PERCEPTION 25 (8) 901 - 920 0301-0066 1996 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A line, presented instantaneously, is perceived to be drawn from one end when a dot is flashed at that end prior to the presentation of the line. Although this phenomenon, called illusory line motion, has been attributed to accelerated processing at the locus of attention, preattentive (stimulus-driven) motion mechanisms might also contribute to the line-motion sensation. We tested this possibility in an odd-target-search task. The stimulus display consisted of two, four, or eight pairs of dots and lines. All lines were presented on the same side of the dots (eg right), except for the target line, which was presented on the opposite side (left). Subjects were asked to report the presence or absence of the target, which was presented in half of the trials. Low error rates for target detection (about 10%) even when the display consisted of eight dot-line pairs (ie display size was eight) indicated that illusory line motion could be perceived simultaneously at many locations. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between the dots and lines (0-2176 ms) and the contrast polarity (both dots and lines were brighter than the background, or dots were darker and lines were brighter) were also manipulated. When an ISI of a few hundred milliseconds was inserted, target detection was nearly impossible with larger display sizes. When the contrast polarity was changed, the target-detection performance was impaired significantly, even with no ISI. Moreover, it was found that the effects of display size, ISI, and contrast polarity were comparable in searches for a two-dot apparent-motion target. These results support the idea that preattentive, apparent-motion mechanisms, as well as attentional mechanisms, contribute to illusory line motion.
  • Jun'ichiro Kawahara
    Shinrigaku Kenkyu 67 (1) 25 - 32 0021-5236 1996 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study investigated the nature of attentional control when the stimulus display contained both static and dynamic items. Subjects searched for a target defined by color presented among nontargets, one of which was a distractor with a unique feature in a different stimulus dimension. Experiment 1 showed that the presence of a distractor with a taskirrelevant form hindered identification of the color-defined target. When it was easy to distinguish the target from the other items, this attentional capture was not observed even if the display contained a motion distractor (Experiment 2). Decreasing the saliency of a target color yielded the attentional capture by a motion distractor and interfered target identification performance (Experiment 3) - These results suggest that the attentional control mainly depends on the stimulus-driven activations caused by differences between features in stimulus dimensions whether the target and the distractor are defined by static or dynamic features. In order to explain these findings of the attentional capture, a possibility for proposing the single activation map model was discussed.
  • H Yoshida, J Kawahara, S Maedo, T Toshima
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 66 (5) 354 - 360 0021-5236 1995/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The perceptual process of an object with multiple features mainly consists of two stages. At first, features are encoded independently at the modular level (feature level). Secondly, they are recombined to build a temporal representation of the object (conjunctive level). Using the apparent motion technique in which stimuli were defined by color and shape, we examined the levels at which the object-specific priming takes place. Although the discrimination of the second stimulus was facilitated when it shared the features with the first stimulus, the priming effects were different according to the number of stimulus items of the first frame. When the first frame contained one stimulus item, the priming benefits were obtained at the both conjunctive and the feature levels. However, the benefit was found only at the feature level when the item number was increased to eight (one of them disappeared in the following frames as the apparent motion stimulus). The roles of modular analysis and attention integration were discussed in terms of the economical validity of feature preservation in object perception.
  • J KAWAHARA
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 64 (5) 396 - 400 0021-5236 1993/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    One of the unsettled issues in visual search research is whether the search for a conjunction of motion and the other physical feature (e. g. color or shape) is serial or parallel. In the present experiment, the subjects (six undergraduate students) were instructed to search for a target defined by color, shape, motion, or combinations of the two out of these three features, and the reaction time was measured. The slopes of the regression (number of items in the display vs. reaction time) are the largest for a target defined by a conjunction of color and shape, the smallest for a target defined by one feature, and intermediate for a moving conjunctive target. These results are consistent with those of McLeod and colleagues (1988, 1991) which suggest that a specific visual subsystem operates as a movement filter.

Books etc

MISC

  • COVID-19 epidemic and the effect of wearing sanitary masks on facial impressions
    Kawahara, J, Miyazaki, Y, Ito, M, Kamatani, M  日本色彩学会誌  44-  (6)  262  -264  2020  [Not refereed][Invited]
  • 鶴見周摩, 金沢創, 山口真美, 河原純一郎  基礎心理学研究  37-  (2)  208  2019/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 視聴覚の持続的注意の特性比較
    寺島裕貴, 木原健, 河原純一郎, 近藤洋史  日本音響学会 聴覚研究会資料  689  -694  2018/11  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Differences between self-perspective and others’ perspectives in assessing one’s own perceived facial attractiveness
    Miyazaki, Y, Kawahara, J. I  59th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society  2018/11  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 乳児における高速遂時視覚呈示(RSVP)中の顔検出能力の検討
    鶴見 周摩, 金沢 創, 山口 真美, 河原 純一郎  Vision  30-  (1)  54  -55  2018/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 衛生マスクが顔の魅力と大きさの知覚に及ぼす効果
    河原 純一郎, 宮崎 由樹  FRAGRANCE JOURNAL  45-  (11)  48  -52  2017/11  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Importance of physical size of lower facial parts in perceived size of face
    Miyazaki, Y, Ito, M, Kamiyama, R, Shibata, A, Kawahara, J  The 81st Annual Convention of the Japanese Psychological Association  2017/09  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Kasai,T, Kawahara, J  生理心理学と精神生理学  33-  (1)  1  -3  2016/08  [Not refereed][Invited]
  • Jun-Ichiro Kawahara  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY  51-  632  -632  2016/07  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Motohiro Ito, Jun Kawahara  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY  51-  190  -190  2016/07  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • The effect of wearing sanitary mask on perceived size of face
    Miyazaki, Y, Ito, M, Kamiyama, R, Shibata, A, Kawahara, J  The 14th Annual Convention of the Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology  2016/06  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • The effect of unusual first name on impression formation of social evaluation
    Ito, M, Miyazaki, Y, Kawahara, J  The 14th Annual Convention of the Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology  2016/06  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Effects of a sanitary mask on perceived facial size and attractiveness
    Miyazaki, Y, Ito, M, Kamiyama, R, Shibata, A, Kawahara, J  International Meeting of the Psychonomic Society 2016  195  2016/05  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Masayoshi Nagai, Yohei Yamada, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara, Yukiko Nishizaki  PERCEPTION  44-  245  -245  2015/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 河原 純一郎, 佐藤 広英  ストレス科学 : 日本ストレス学会誌  29-  (1)  18  -28  2014/07/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Mamata Pandey, Chris Oriet, Jun-ichiro Kawahara  CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE  66-  (4)  276  -276  2012/12  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 佐藤稔久, 河原純一郎, 熊田孝恒, 赤松幹之  自動車技術会学術講演会前刷集  (118-12)  5  -10  2012/10/03  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 木原 健, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  28-  (2)  2010/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 佐藤 広英, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  28-  (2)  267  -267  2010  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 竹中 一平, 佐藤 広英, 河原 純一郎, 熊田 孝恒  基礎心理学研究  28-  (2)  286  -286  2010  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 木原 健, 河原 純一郎, 武田 裕司  基礎心理学研究  27-  (2)  2009/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 大杉 尚之, 熊田 孝恒, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  27-  (2)  2009/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Thomas Spalek, Jun-ichiro Kawahara, Vincent Di Lollo  CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE  62-  (4)  313  -313  2008/12  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 大杉 尚之, 河原 純一郎, 熊田 孝恒  基礎心理学研究  26-  (2)  2008/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 有賀 敦紀, 河原 純一郎, 渡邊 克巳  基礎心理学研究  26-  (2)  2008/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 犬飼 朋恵, 熊田 孝恒, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  26-  (2)  2008/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Maintenance of temporal attention in rapid serial visual presentation
    Ariga, A, Kawahara, J, Watanabe, K  Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science  27-  111  -112  2008  [Refereed][Invited]
  • Time perception is influenced by subjective area size of a brief stimulus.
    Ono, F, Kawahara, J  The Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science, 25(2), 277-278.  25-  (2)  277  -278  2007  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Tomohiro Nabeta, Tomohiro Nabeta, Jun Ichiro Kawahara  European Journal of Cognitive Psychology  18-  801  -812  2006/11/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    False recognition of an item that is not presented (the lure) can occur when participants study and are tested on their recognition of items related to the lure. False recognition is reduced when the study and test modalities are congruent (e.g., both visual) rather than different (e.g., visual study and auditory test). The present study examined whether such a congruency effect occurs for haptic and auditory modalities. After studying items presented haptically or auditorily, participants took a haptic or auditory recognition test. False recognition was reduced when both the study and test were haptic, but not when the study was auditory and the test was haptic. These results indicate that cues encoded through the haptic modality can reduce false recognition. © 2006 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business.
  • 小野 史典, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  25-  (1)  2006/09/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 鍋田 智広, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  25-  (1)  2006/09/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 賀張 祐司, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  24-  (2)  2006/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 鍋田 智広, 濱田 治良, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  24-  (2)  2006/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 小野 史典, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  24-  (2)  2006/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • The effect of subjective area size on time perception.
    Ono, F, Kawahara, J  The Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science, 25(1), 119-120.  25-  (1)  119  -120  2006  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 河原 純一郎, ゴラシ シャハブ  基礎心理学研究  23-  (2)  2005/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 鍋田 智広, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  23-  (2)  2005/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 小野 史典, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  23-  (2)  2005/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Jun Ichiro Kawahara, Yuki Yamada  Visual Cognition  11-  997  -1017  2004/11/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Does one's name attract visual attention? To answer this question, we conducted four experiments. Experiment 1 adopted the method of a previous study (Bundesen, Kyllingsbæk, Houmann, & Jensen, 1997), but used Japanese names; the results of this experiment replicated the lack of evidence for attentional attraction by the observer's name. Experiments 2 and 3 tested two arguments put forward by Bundesen et al. (1997) to explain this null effect of observer's name on attentional attraction. The results showed that neither efficient target selection by colour nor the number of target characters could explain the null effect. Alternatively, we proposed that the observer's set plays a critical role in the attentional attraction of observer's name. Experiments 4 and 5 tested this idea by manipulating the observer's set; the results showed that when the observer's set matches the target defining feature, the observer's name does capture attention. These five experiments suggest that attentional attraction by an observer's name depends on the relationship between the observer's set and task. © 2004 Psychology Press Ltd.
  • 鍋田 智広, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  23-  (1)  97  -98  2004/09/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    A false memory is created by studying a list of items related to an item which is not presented. The present study examined whether a haptic study/test results in false recognition and, if so, whether a congruency of the presentation modality in the study and test reduces the false recognition. Following haptic or visual study of lists of objects participants completed a haptic or visual recognition test. We obtained a haptic false memory. Furthermore the amount of false recognition was reduced when the presentation modality was congruent with the study modality. Haptic study reduced false ...
  • M Maruishi, Y Tanaka, H Muranaka, T Tsuji, Y Ozawa, S Imaizumi, M Miyatani, J Kawahara  NEUROIMAGE  21-  (4)  1604  -1611  2004/04  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Neuroimaging data, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings, have not been reported in users of the myoelectric or electromyographic (EMG) prosthetic hand. We developed a virtual EMG prosthetic hand system to eliminate mutual signal noise interference between fMRI imaging and the EMG prosthesis. We used fMRI to localize activation in the human brain during manipulation of the virtual EMG prosthetic hand. Fourteen right-handed normal subjects were instructed to perform repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes closed (CEG); repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes open-to obtain visual feedback of their own hand movement (OEG); and repetitive grasping with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand with the eyes open to obtain visual feedback of the prosthetic hand movement (VRG). The specific site activated during manipulation of the EMG prosthetic hand was the right ventral premotor cortex. Both paradigms with visual feedback also (OEG and VRG) demonstrated activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. The center of activation of the right posterior parietal cortex shifted laterally for visual feedback with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand compared to a subject's own hand. The results suggest that the EMG prosthetic hand might be recognized in the brain as a high-performance alternative to a real hand, being controlled through a "mirror system" in the brain. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 小野 史典, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  22-  (2)  2004/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 鍋田 智広, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  22-  (2)  2004/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Fuminori Ono, Fuminori Ono, Jun Ichiro Kawahara, Fumiko Matsuda  Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive  22-  27  -40  2004/02/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Our perceived duration of events is affected by factors that are at least partly conscious. Here, we report that the perceived duration of visual events can be affected by a completely unconscious factor. Participants were briefly (12.5 ms) exposed to nonsense syllables, followed by backward pattern masking in an exposure phase. In a second phase, they estimated the presented durations of nonsense syllables that were either previously exposed or not exposed. Additional discrimination tests with other participants ensured that the stimuli in the exposure phase had been presented below the conscious detection threshold. The results indicated that the mean estimated duration for the stimuli that were previously exposed was shorter than that for the new stimuli. When the backward mask was removed, and the participants were aware of the exposed stimuli, a reduction in perceived duration was not observed. These results suggest that unconscious experience may be one of determinants for reducing the perceived duration of events.
  • Fuminori Ono, Tomohiro Nabeta, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara  Shinrigaku Kenkyu  75-  (3)  207  -212  2004  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    We examined the attentional constraints of the contextual cueing effect known to occur only for attended items. We focused on whether the items not only attended to but also inhibited afterwards yield the effect or not. We adopted a hybrid paradigm of visual marking and contextual cueing procedures. In the experiment, half the distractors preceded the others and a target for one second. The results showed the contextual cueing effect even with visually marked items. These results suggest that spatial configurations previously attended to and inhibited afterwards can be encoded as visual context.
  • M. Maruishi, H. Muranaka, M. Miyatani, J. Kawahara, T. Tsuji, S. Noda, T. Kajima  Acta Neurochirurgica, Supplementum  75  -78  2003/12/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    We used fMRI to study brain activation with facilitative rehabilitation techniques (passive hand movements and visual feedback) in two patients with subcortical lesions. Two tasks were given in a sequence. The first task (trial 1) was repetitive hand grasping by the paretic hand at a rate of 0.5 Hz with the eyes closed. The second task (trial 2), the facilitative rehabilitation technique, included task I plus support by a trainer to move the paretic hand with the eyes open to get visual feedback of the movement. The data were analyzed by a subtractive method. When task 1 was subtracted from task 2, it was found that the bilateral visual cortex, contralateral premotor cortex and posterior parietal cortex were involved with the passive hand movement and visual feedback. These facilitative rehabilitation techniques may integrate networks between sensory information and motor commands, and lead to functional reorganization. © Springer-Verlag 2003.
  • Jun Ichiro Kawahara, James Enns, Vincent Di Lollo  Journal of Vision  3-  2003/12/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets is impaired if the temporal lag between them is short ("attentional blink"). We show how this can arise from an exogenously-triggered change in task-set. Observers saw a rapid stream of distractors (digits) centred on the screen. In the THREE-LETTER condition, observers reported three successive letters embedded in the stream of digits. In the TWO-LETTER condition, a digit replaced the second letter, with observers reporting only the two letters. Identification accuracy for the final letter was significantly higher in the Three-letter than in the Two-Letter condition, even though memory load was higher in the former. We propose (1) that the intervening digit triggered an involuntary change in task-set from letters to digits, and (2) that this was only possible while the system was busy identifying the first target. Thus, perception of the final letter in the Two-Letter condition was impaired because it did not fit the new task-set imposed by the intervening digit. Additional studies confirmed this account. First, the final-letter deficit remained when observers reported the intervening digit as well as the two letters. Second, the deficit vanished when the intervening distractor in the two-letter condition was rendered virtually invisible by an abrupt spatial shift in the location of the stream after the first target. Third, a central stream of preceding digits interfered much less with target-letter identification than a stream of preceding letters. We propose that an endogenously-established task-set can be maintained quite effectively during the period in which a target letter is anticipated, permitting the efficient exclusion of task-irrelevant distractor digits. However, as soon identification of the target letter begins, the task set becomes vulnerable to alteration by exogenous distractors, making it now optimally tuned to the stimuli exemplified by the distractor digits instead of the letters.
  • Jun Ichiro Kawahara  Visual Cognition  10-  837  -852  2003/10/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Under incidental learning conditions, a spatial layout can be acquired implicitly and facilitates visual search (the contextual cueing effect; Chun & Jiang, 1998). We investigated two aspects of this effect: Whether spatial layouts of a 3D display are encoded automatically or require selective processing (Experiment 1), and whether the learned layouts are limited to 2D configurations or can encompass three dimensions (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target presented only in a specific depth plane. Contextual cueing effect was obtained only when the location of the items in the attended plane was invariant and consistently paired with a target location. In contrast, repeating and pairing the layout of the ignored items with the target location did not produce a contextual cueing effect. In Experiment 2, we found that reaction times for the repeated condition increased significantly when the disparity of the repeated distractors was reversed in the last block of trials. These results indicate that contextual cueing in 3D displays occurs when the layout is relevant and selectively attended, and that 3D layouts can be preserved as an implicit visual spatial context.
  • 小野 史典, 藤木 大介, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  22-  (1)  29  -30  2003/09/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The perceived duration of events is known to be affected by factors that are at least partly conscious. In the present study we report that the perceived duration of visual events can be affected even by an unconscious factor. The participants were briefly (12.5ms) exposed to nonsense syllables which were followed by backward pattern masking. A discrimination test for other participants confirmed that the stimuli were presented below a threshold level. The participants subsequently estimated the duration of the presentation of each of the nonsense syllables that either had, or had not, been...
  • 鍋田 智広, 小野 史典, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  22-  (1)  35  -36  2003/09/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Under incidental learning conditions spatial layouts can be acquired implicitly and facilitate visual search (contextual cueing effect). We examined whether the visual contextual cueing effect is specific to the modality or transfers to the haptic modality. The participants performed visual search trials based on a typical contextual cueing paradigm, followed by haptic search trials in which half of the trials had layouts used in the previous visual search trials. The visual contextual cueing effect was obtained in the learning phase. More importantly, the effect was transferred from visual...
  • Jun Ichiro Kawahara  Japanese Psychological Research  45-  140  -151  2003/09/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    When two visual targets are presented in rapid succession, perception of the second target is deteriorated if the temporal lag between the two targets is short (0-300 ms). This 'attentional blink' (AB) phenomenon has been believed to occur only when the second target is followed by a backward mask or when there is a task switching between two targets. The present study revealed another determining factor for the occurrence of the AB, the presence or absence of a distractor stream. Five experiments examined the effect of possible confounding factors in the extant literature and suggested that the mere presence of a distractor stream affects the processing of targets even when the observers tried to ignore them, resulting in a processing delay. This effect is discussed in a model of AB deficit in terms of decay of the second target's representation.
  • Jun Ichiro Kawahara  Japanese Psychological Research  45-  109  -114  2003/05/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Perception of the second of two rapidly presented targets is impaired when the temporal lag between them is short (attentional blink, AB). Previous studies showed two types of AB functions. One is that the performance for the second target has been found to be most impaired at the shortest lag (Lag 1), that is, when the second target appeared directly after the first target. The other is that the performance was not impaired at Lag 1 (Lag 1 sparing). The present study examined whether the task set of observers determines the occurrence of Lag 1 sparing. The experiment revealed that Lag 1 sparing occurred only when the observers were informed of the relationships of target locations. The present results extend the explanation of Lag 1 sparing by attentional gating (Visser, Zuvic, Bischof, & Di Lollo, 1999b) and suggest that this gating system is not stimulus-driven but subject to goal-directed control.
  • 小野 史典, 藤木 大介, 吉田 有美子, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  21-  (2)  2003/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 鍋田 智広, 小野 史典, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  21-  (2)  2003/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 中尾 敬, 武澤 友広, 國田 祥子, 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  21-  (2)  179  -180  2003/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 河原 純一郎  心理学評論  46-  (3)  501  -526  2003  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Jun Ichiro Kawahara  Journal of Vision  2-  2002/12/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Under incidental learning conditions, the spatial layout of visually presented objects can be acquired implicitly and can be used to facilitate visual search (contextual cueing effect; Chun & Jiang, 1998). We investigated the nature of the implicitly learned spatial layouts in stereo (3-D) displays. Experiment 1 examined whether the learned layouts are limited to 2-D configurations or can encompass three dimensions. Subjects received 720 trials of a visual search task with stereo shutter goggles so that half the items were in the frontal plane and the others were in the back. They searched for a rotated " T" among rotated "L". In the OLD condition, 12 different layouts were presented repeatedly for 360 trials. In the NEW condition, a new layout was generated on each of 360 trials. In the last 60 trials of the OLD condition, the disparity of the items was reversed. Reaction times in the OLD condition were faster than in the NEW condition even though the subjects were not able to recognize the OLD layouts (contextual cueing effect). More important, reaction times in the OLD condition increased significantly when the disparity was reversed, suggesting that the 3-D layouts had been implicitly learned during the initial 300 trials. Experiment 2 investigated whether 3-D layouts are encoded automatically or requires selective processing. Subjects searched for a target presented only in a specific depth plane (e.g., front, never in the back). A contextual cueing effect was obtained only when the location of the items in the attended plane was invariant and was consistently paired with a target location. In contrast, repeating and pairing the layout of the ignored items with the target location did not produce contextual cueing effect. These results indicate that visual attention can be guided by implicit knowledge in 3-D layouts, provided that the layout is relevant and selectively attended.
  • 河原 純一郎  基礎心理学研究  21-  (1)  59  -60  2002/09/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The spatial layout of objects can be acquired implicitly and facilitate visual search under incidental learning conditions (the contextual cueing effect; Chun & Jiang, 1998). The present study investigated whether the learned layouts are limited to two-dimensional configurations or can encompass three dimensions. We found that the reaction times for the repetition condition increased significantly when the disparity of the repeated distractors was reversed in the end of the session. These results indicate that three-dimensional layouts can be preserved as implicit visual spatial contexts.
  • J. Kawahara  Journal of Vision  1-  2001/12/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets (T1, T2) is impaired if the temporal lag between them is short. This attentional blink (AB) is said to occur because T1 preoccupies attentional resources leading to a shortage of attention for, and subsequent failure in judgement of T2. We examined whether or not the attention preoccupied by T1 carries the common characteristic of spatial attention, that is, local facilitation of information processing. To index the facilitation, we utilized an attention sensitive phenomenon known as the shooting line illusion in which observers see a progressively drawn line from the attended end to the other. In a trial, three RSVP streams of digits (distractors) and an alphabet (target) were displayed forming an imaginary equiangular triangle. Two streams contained distractors and a target, while the other had distractors only. A probe line was presented with T2, between T2 and another item. The temporal lag between T1 and T2 ranged from 100 to 700 ms. Observers were to identify T1 and T2, and to indicate the perceived direction of the probe line. We hypothesized that if attention captured by T1 has a spatial nature and thus, facilitates local processing of information, then the probe line will be perceived as if it was drawn from the side of T1 to the other side. Contrary, if attention captured by T1 has unitary and non-spatial nature, then the shooting line illusion will not be perceived. A significant AB was obtained. During this AB period, the shooting line motion was perceived to emanate from the end where T1 was presented. The motion sensation of a shooting line was especially strong at shorter lags. This result suggests that the attention engaged by T1 involves local facilitation of the spatially adjacent location. This finding may enable us to distinguish between two stage and competition models of AB.
  • Jun Ichiro Kawahara, Kazuhiko Yokosawa  Journal of General Psychology  128-  357  -383  2001/10/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The phenomenon referred to as illusory line-motion (ILM; O. Hikosaka, S. Miyauchi, & S. Shimojo, 1993a) has been described as a measure of the local facilitation of attention gradient. However, J. Kawahara, K. Yokosawa, S. Nishida, and T. Sato (1996) have demonstrated a spatially parallel search for an "odd man out" in the ILM direction. Apart from showing preattentive ILM perception in terms of an analogy between line-motion and apparent motion, the authors examined whether ILM perception is possible without attention from another point of view. Four experiments revealed that the ILM target can be detected in parallel without invoking attentional facilitation and invalidated the possible contribution of attentional set in parallel ILM search. Participants were able to correctly detect the ILM target among multiple nontargets, even when the line orientation was changed from trial to trial. The authors' independent-detection model predicted ILM search performance well on several occasions. These findings strongly support a preattentive and stimulus-driven explanation of ILM perception.
  • Vincent Di Lollo, Vincent Di Lollo, Jun Ichiro Kawahara, Samantha M. Zuvic, Troy A W Visser  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General  130-  479  -492  2001/09/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Preattentive models of early vision have not been supported by the evidence. Instead, an input filtering system, which is dynamically reconfigured so as to optimize performance on the task at hand, is proposed. As a case in point, the authors examined Sagi and Julesz's (1985a) claim that detection tasks are processed preattentively and efficiently (shallow search slopes), whereas discrimination tasks require focal attention and yield inefficient steep slopes. In 5 visual search experiments, efficiency was found to depend not on the nature of the task but on whether the task is single or dual. The second component of a dual task, whether detection or discrimination, is performed inefficiently if it does not fit the configuration of the input system, which had been set optimally for the first component. But, even the second component is processed efficiently if there is enough time to reconfigure the system after processing the first component.
  • Jun Ichiro Kawahara, Jun Ichiro Kawahara, Vincent Di Lollo, Vincent Di Lollo, James T. Enns  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance  27-  969  -984  2001/08/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Perception of the 2nd of 2 targets (T1 and T2) is impaired if the lag between them is short (0-500 ms). The authors used this attentional blink (AB) to index attentional requirements in detection and identification tasks, with or without backward masking of T2, in 2 stimulus domains (line orientation, coherent motion). With masking, the AB occurred because T2 was masked during the attentional dwell time created by T1 processing (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). Without masking, an AB occurred only in identification because during the attentional dwell time, T2 decayed to a level that could support simple detection but not complex identification. However, an AB occurred also in detection if T2 was sufficiently degraded (Experiment 4). The authors drew 2 major conclusions: (a) Attention is required in both identification and detection, and (b) 2 factors contribute to the AB, masking of T2 while attention is focused on T1 and decay of the T2 trace while unattended.
  • 河原 純一郎, Lollo Vincent Di  基礎心理学研究  19-  (2)  128  -129  2001/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Jun Ichiro Kawahara, Makoto Miyatani  Journal of General Psychology  128-  57  -75  2001/01/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    In the present study, the authors observed the effect of informative and uninformative attentional cueing on visual search for targets that were defined by a simple feature or by conjunctions of features. Three different types of attentional cueing were tested in three experiments: peripheral informative cueing, peripheral uninformative cueing, and central informative cueing. Participants showed a greater effect of cueing in detecting a conjunction of features than in detecting unique features only when attention was oriented by either peripheral or central informative cueing. This differential cueing effect was not observed when attention was oriented by peripheral uninformative cueing. The results suggest that voluntarily oriented attention plays a more important role in feature integration than automatically oriented attention does. The results also pose limits on the generalizability of K. A. Briand's (1998) proposal regarding the role of automatically oriented attention in feature integration.
  • J Kawahara, Di Lollo, V, JT Enns  INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE  41-  (4)  S421  -S421  2000/03  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Serafin L. Ngohayon, Jun Ichiro Kawahara, Tamotsu Toshima  Psychologia  42-  170  -182  1999/09/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This study aimed to find out whether image segmentation is affected by the object's meaning. In Experiment 1, 20 subjects judged whether or not two probe circles embedded in a meaningless two-part figure have the same color. The probes shared the same part (same object) or different parts (different objects) of the figure. The metric distance from fixation point to probes was identical across conditions. Responses were faster and more accurate in the same object than in the different object condition (same-object-advantage). In experiment 2, meaningful Japanese kanji and meaningless jumbled-kanji were used as stimuli. The kanji measured the effect of meaning on segmentation while the jumbled-kanji measured the applicable range of this effect. Data from 20 subjects reveal that reaction time for same-object was longer than the different-object condition (same-object-disadvantage) irrespective of whether they were kanji or jumbled-kanji. These findings suggest that meaning and it's influence affect image segmentation.
  • J Kawahara, Di Lollo, V, JT Enns  INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE  40-  (4)  S49  -S49  1999/03  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 河原 純一郎, 佐藤 隆夫  基礎心理学研究  17-  (1)  47  -48  1998/09/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    To examine the characteristics of representation on which visual attention operates, we observed the cuing effects on a visual search of a target letter presented on partially occluded two-dimensional objects. Four rectangles were arranged in a woven tick-tack-toe grid. A cue was flashed at one end of a rectangle. Subjects judged the identity of the target letter presented on a rectangle. Reaction time was delayed when another object bisected the cued and the target location than when there was no occlusion between them. This indicated that visual attention does not operate solely on spatia...
  • 河原 純一郎, 佐藤 隆夫  基礎心理学研究  16-  (2)  1998/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • J. Kawahara, K. Yokosawa  Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science  38-  1997/12/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Purpose. Kawahara, Yokosawa, Nishida, & Sato (1996, Perception, 25, 901-920) demonstrated spatially parallel search performance for an illusory line motion (ILM) target when multiple ILM distractors were in the horizontally opposite direction. They suggested that preattentive, apparent motion mechanisms were mainly responsible for ILM. On the other hand, the observed performance was concluded to involve the contribution of attention because the predicted error rate for preattentive search based on the independent single ILM judgments was lower than the observed error rate. However, the role of attention was unclear. The difference between the observed and estimated performance might come from ( 1 ) the subjects' anticipation of the horizontal ILM direction or (2) high performance in the single ILM judgment due to less attentional load. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of attention in ILM search. Method. Subjects performed a visual search task to detect an ILM target presented in half of the trials. Either 2, 4 or 8 dots were flashed for 120ms at random locations and followed by the same number of short line segments. To reduce directional anticipation, the line directions were chosen among eight radial directions from the dot. All the lines were presented in the same direction except for a target, which was presented in the opposite direction. In the control condition, to examine attentional load, after a variable number of dots ( 1, 2,4 or 8) were presented, a single line was presented and subjects judged the motion direction of the line. Results. High correct rates for ILM target detection, even when the display contained eight lines, indicated that ILM was perceptible simultaneously at multiple locations without any directional anticipation. This result was consistent with the preattentive account of the ILM. However, in both experimental and control conditions, correct rates decreased with display size increment. That is, the performance in both conditions depended on the number of dots. The multiple-dot/single-line performance in the control condition well predicted the ILM search. Conclusion. The results of this study confirmed that ILM search can be spatially processed in parallel, but the attentional load for multiple dots influences the search performance.
  • Jun'ichiro Kawahara  Perception  25-  901  -920  1996/12/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    A line, presented instantaneously, is perceived to be drawn from one end when a dot is flashed at that end prior to the presentation of the line. Although this phenomenon, called illusory line motion, has been attributed to accelerated processing at the locus of attention, preattentive (stimulus-driven) motion mechanisms might also contribute to the line-motion sensation. We tested this possibility in an odd-target-search task. The stimulus display consisted of two, four, or eight pairs of dots and lines. All lines were presented on the same side of the dots (eg right), except for the target line, which was presented on the opposite side (left). Subjects were asked to report the presence or absence of the target, which was presented in half of the trials. Low error rates for target detection (about 10%) even when the display consisted of eight dot-line pairs (ie display size was eight) indicated that illusory line motion could be perceived simultaneously at many locations. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between the dots and lines (0-2176 ms) and the contrast polarity (both dots and lines were brighter than the background, or dots were darker and lines were brighter) were also manipulated. When an ISI of a few hundred milliseconds was inserted, target detection was nearly impossible with larger display sizes. When the contrast polarity was changed, the target-detection performance was impaired significantly, even with no ISI. Moreover, it was found that the effects of display size, ISI, and contrast polarity were comparable in searches for a two-dot apparent-motion target. These results support the idea that preattentive, apparent-motion mechanisms, as well as attentional mechanisms, contribute to illusory line motion.
  • 河原 純一郎, 宮谷 真人, 利島 保  基礎心理学研究  15-  (1)  1996/09/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 河原 純一郎  心理学研究  67-  (1)  25  -32  1996/04  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Jun&apos, ichiro Kawahara  Shinrigaku Kenkyu  67-  25  -32  1996/04/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study investigated the nature of attentional control when the stimulus display contained both static and dynamic items. Subjects searched for a target defined by color presented among nontargets, one of which was a distractor with a unique feature in a different stimulus dimension. Experiment 1 showed that the presence of a distractor with a taskirrelevant form hindered identification of the color-defined target. When it was easy to distinguish the target from the other items, this attentional capture was not observed even if the display contained a motion distractor (Experiment 2). Decreasing the saliency of a target color yielded the attentional capture by a motion distractor and interfered target identification performance (Experiment 3) - These results suggest that the attentional control mainly depends on the stimulus-driven activations caused by differences between features in stimulus dimensions whether the target and the distractor are defined by static or dynamic features. In order to explain these findings of the attentional capture, a possibility for proposing the single activation map model was discussed.
  • 利島 保, 吉田 弘司, 柴崎 光世, 河原 純一郎, 永山 ルツ子, 前堂 志乃  広島大学教育学部紀要. 第一部, 心理学  44-  1  -8  1996/03/10  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • J Kawahara, H Hoshida, T Toshima  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY  31-  (3-4)  1247  -1247  1996  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • H. Yoshida, J. Kawahara, S. Maedo, T. Toshima  Shinrigaku kenkyu : The Japanese journal of psychology  66-  354  -360  1995/12/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The perceptual process of an object with multiple features mainly consists of two stages. At first, features are encoded independently at the modular level (feature level). Secondly, they are recombined to build a temporal representation of the object (conjunctive level). Using the apparent motion technique in which stimuli were defined by color and shape, we examined the levels at which the object-specific priming takes place. Although the discrimination of the second stimulus was facilitated when it shared the features with the first stimulus, the priming effects were different according to the number of stimulus items of the first frame. When the first frame contained one stimulus item, the priming benefits were obtained at the both conjunctive and the feature levels. However, the benefit was found only at the feature level when the item number was increased to eight (one of them disappeared in the following frames as the apparent motion stimulus). The roles of modular analysis and attention integration were discussed in terms of the economical validity of feature preservation in object perception.
  • 河原 純一郎, 宮谷 真人, 利島 保  基礎心理学研究  14-  (1)  1995/08/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • J. Kawahara  Shinrigaku kenkyu. The Japanese journal of psychology  64-  (5)  396  -400  1993/12/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    One of the unsettled issues in visual search research is whether the search for a conjunction of motion and the other physical feature (e.g. color or shape) is serial or parallel. In the present experiment, the subjects (six undergraduate students) were instructed to search for a target defined by color, shape, motion, or combinations of the two out of these three features, and the reaction time was measured. The slopes of the regression (number of items in the display vs. reaction time) are the largest for a target defined by a conjunction of color and shape, the smallest for a target defined by one feature, and intermediate for a moving conjunctive target. These results are consistent with those of McLeod and colleagues (1988, 1991) which suggest that a specific visual subsystem operates as a movement filter.

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Awards & Honors

  • 2020/11 日本基礎心理学会 2019年度 日本基礎心理学会優秀論文賞
     Kenji Yamauchi, Ken Kihara, Jun I. Kawahara: Predicting sustained performance over a short time 
    受賞者: Kenji Yamauchi, Ken Kihara, Jun I. Kawahara
  • 2019/05 日本認知心理学会 日本認知心理学会優秀発表賞 新規性部門
     自己同一化された二次元キャラクターに対する視線シフト 
    受賞者: 今井史;佐藤智穂;互恵子;河原純一郎
  • 2018/09 日本心理学会 学術大会優秀発表賞
     課題非関連な価値ある実物の単純存在効果 
    受賞者: 伊藤 資浩;山内 健司;河原 純一郎
  • 2018 北海道心理学会 北海道心理学会奨励賞
     顔の魅力に及ぼすサムネイル効果 
    受賞者: 伊藤資浩;山内健司;宮崎由樹;河原純一郎
  • 2017/09 日本心理学会 .
     The Sanitary-Mask Effect on Perceived Facial Attractiveness 
    受賞者: 宮崎由樹;河原純一郎
  • 2016 日本心理学会 学術大会優秀発表賞
     低アルコール摂取事態での潜在的気分測定 
    受賞者: 伊藤資浩;河原純一郎
  • 2015 日本認知心理学会 優秀発表賞(発表力評価部門)
     
    受賞者: 永井聖剛;山田陽平;河原純一郎
  • 2015 日本認知心理学会 優秀発表賞(総合性評価部門)
     
    受賞者: 佐藤史織;河原純一郎
  • 2015 日本心理学会 日本心理学会特別優秀発表賞
     顔の魅力に及ぼす衛生マスクの効果 
    受賞者: 宮崎由樹;河原純一郎
  • 2014 日本心理学会 日本心理学会特別優秀発表賞
     お辞儀は顔の主観的魅力を飛躍的に向上させる 
    受賞者: 大杉尚之;河原純一郎
  • 2014 日本基礎心理学会 日本基礎心理学会優秀論文賞
     
    受賞者: 河原純一郎;佐藤稔久;永井聖剛;熊田 孝恒;相馬優樹;根本英明;西崎友規子
  • 2014 第3回印東太郎賞
     
    受賞者: 河原純一郎
  • 2009 日本心理学会 国際賞奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 河原純一郎
  • 2007 日本基礎心理学会 優秀論文賞
     
    受賞者: 河原純一郎
  • 2007 日本認知心理学会第4回大会優秀発表賞 (総合性評価部門)
     
    受賞者: 河原純一郎
  • 2004 日本心理学会 優秀論文賞
     
    受賞者: 河原純一郎
  • 2001 日本基礎心理学会優秀発表賞
     
    受賞者: 河原純一郎
  • 1997 日本心理学会 研究奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 河原純一郎

Research Grants & Projects

  • 乳児の視覚的注意の発達から意識の形成過程を実験的に検討する
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/04 -2023/03 
    Author : 山口 真美, 河原 純一郎
  • 身体運動に起因する自己移動感・運動主体感と空間的注意分布
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Challenging Research (Exploratory)
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/06 -2021/03 
    Author : 佐藤 隆夫, 永井 聖剛, 金谷 英俊, 河原 純一郎, 温 文, 鳴海 拓志, 北崎 充晃
  • スマートフォンで潜在的なメンタルヘルスを評価するアプリケーションの開発
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2018/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 佐藤 広英, 河原 純一郎
     
    本研究課題は,日常のメンタルヘルスの評価方法として潜在連合テスト(Implicit Association Test;IAT)に着目し,スマートフォン上で潜在連合テストを実施するウェブアプリケーションを開発し,その測定の妥当性を検証することを目指すものである。平成30年度はスマートフォン上で潜在連合テストを実施するためのウェブアプリケーションの開発を行った。開発したウェブアプリケーションの仕様は,以下の通りである。(A)画面中央に表示される刺激語を左右のいずれかに分類する課題であり,左右いずれかのエリアをタッチすることで課題を進める。刺激呈示からタッチまでの反応時間を測定する。画面は縦向きでも横向きでも実施可能である。(B)2つのメインブロックの平均反応時間,標準的なスコアリング法であるDスコアを自動で出力する,(C)カテゴリ名,刺激語(およびその数)を自由にカスタマイズ可能であり,メンタルヘルスだけでなくさまざまな潜在的測定法に利用可能である。(D)潜在連合テストと共に,ウェブアンケート(カスタマイズ可能)による自己報告測度も利用可能である。(E)個人のメンタルヘルス評価に利用することを想定し,IDとパスワードにより個人ごとのデータ管理が可能である。ただし,現状のウェブアプリケーションでは「画像刺激が利用できないこと」,「single-blocked IATが実施できないこと」,「自動出力される数値の検算ができていないこと」といった課題が残されている。
  • 社会的立場と性ホルモンの交互作用による注意制御の適応的メカニズムの解明
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 犬飼 朋恵, 河原 純一郎
     
    本研究では,社会的な地位に対して選択的に働く視覚的注意に,性ホルモンが及ぼす影響を明らかにすることを目的としている。3年計画の2年目となる本年度は,実験参加者に対して実験的に割り当てられた社会的地位の高低と,その実験参加者の性ホルモンの分泌量バランスが認知課題の遂行成績に影響を与えるか否かについて検討した。このとき実験参加者はペアとして実験に参加して,2つの課題でそれぞれリーダーまたはフォロワーとしての役割が与えられた。また,課題を遂行する前に唾液を採取し社会的地位に対する関心度の高さに関わる,ソーシャルホルモンと呼ばれる男性ホルモンのテストステロンの分泌量を測定した。実験はテストステロンの高低(2)×割り当てられた社会的地位のパターン(4)として2要因被験者間計画として実施された。 実験参加者らには,ペアで協力して可能な限り早く正確に課題を行ない高得点を目指すようにあらかじめ教示された。認知課題としては心的回転課題とマウス反転課題を用いた。心的回転課題では,標準刺激としての三次元物体と,それらを回転させて他の角度から見た状態となる2つの物体と,2つの異なる物体が提示され,実験参加者は標準刺激と同じ物体を2つとも選ぶように求められた。マウス反転課題では,実際の動きと反転してディスプレイに呈示されるマウスの軌跡を見ながら指定された英数字を交互に辿ってそれぞれに対してクリックをするように求めた。いずれの課題でも制限時間内に回答された正答数を測定した。実験参加者に与えられた役割は,2つの課題ともにリーダーを任される場合とフォロワーを任される場合,いずれか1つの課題でリーダーを,もう一方の課題でフォロワーを任される場合があった。 本研究は多くの実験参加者を必要とするが十分な人数が集まっておらず,さらに多くの参加者を呼集する必要がある。
  • Inverse investment effect of attention
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 河原 純一郎, 小川 健二
     
    本年度は,注意の意図的制御,および自動的制御の両側面からの行動実験を実施した。意図的制御に関しては,作業記憶に探索すべき属性を残してから探索する,能動的注意条件と,探索すべきではない属性を残してから探索する,能動的抑制条件,および無関係な属性を残してから探索する統制条件を設けた。こうした実験では,能動的注意条件が探索を容易にさせる効果があることはこれまでに頑健に示されてきた。しかし,能動的抑制条件に関しては見解に不一致があり,属性の抑制が可能であるという知見と,それを否定する知見が混在していた。詳細に従来の知見を比較したところ,鍵となる要因はおそらく2つあり,1つは空間配置の交絡,もう1つは手がかり先行時間であった。本年度実施した実験では,先行研究では攻落していた空間配置を分離することができ,さらに,これまで知られていなかった形状次元での抑制効果を見出すことができた。この際,手がかりの先行時間が重要であることがわかった。従来,能動的抑制が効かないと主張する研究では,手がかりの先行時間は比較的短め(500-1000ms程度)であり,一方で抑制効果を見出していたものでは1300msよりも長かった。本年度はこの手がかり先行時間を体系的に操作したところ,1500msよりも長い条件で抑制効果を見出すことができた。この結果から,意図的抑制が起こるためには,長い手がかりの先行時間時間が必要であることが結論できる。この成果はAttention, Perception & Psychohysics誌に投稿・改稿中である。自動制御に関しては,個人特性(不安傾向)の高低と,ネガティブ表情および中立表情顔への注意捕捉の程度が相関することを見出した。
  • 神経伝達物質の直接計測に基づく視覚的注意の脳機能モデル構築
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 木原 健, 河原 純一郎, 近藤 洋史
     
    本研究課題は、視覚的注意に着目し、その神経機序の解明を目的としている。特に、視覚的注意の時間的な制御は大脳前頭・頭頂領域が重要な役割を果たしていることが、担当者らの研究を始め多くの研究から示唆されている。しかし、それらの領域の神経活動の化学的基盤である神経伝達物質がどのような役割を果たしているのかについては、まだ研究は進んでいない。これに関して、担当者らは最近、前頭・頭頂領域において、特にGABA濃度が視覚的注意の時間的な切り替え制御に関係していることを報告した。そこで、この知見を発展させ、時間的側面を拡張させた包括的な視覚的注意の脳機能モデルの構築を目指し、研究を進めている。 1年目である昨年度は、研究目的を達成するための行動実験として、注意の切り替えが不要だが一定時間注意を維持しなければならないGo-NoGo課題の改良版である、gradual-onset continuous performance task(gradCPT)を検証し、研究目的に適していることを確認した。この結果に基づき、2年目である本年度は、gradCPTを用いて予備的な神経伝達物質測定実験を実施し、核磁気共鳴スペクトロスコピー(MRS)でgradCPT課題を利用した際に生じる問題点を洗い出した。また、持続的注意制御に関わる認知的・神経的処理機序の視覚的側面と聴覚的側面を比較検証するために、聴覚的なgradCPTを新たに構築して、データを収集、解析した。その結果、視聴覚課題間でほぼ類似した行動成績が得られることを確認した。さらに、視覚的gradCPTの計測に必要な課題時間を検証する実験を行った。その結果、通常の課題時間である8分間とそれを短縮した2分間では、課題成績は高い相関を示すことを明らかにした。加えて、奥行き知覚に関わる視覚的注意の新たな役割を明らかにし、研究への利用可能性を検討した。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research
    Date (from‐to) : 2016/04 -2018/03 
    Author : Kawahara Jun-ichiro
     
    The present study examined whether human face and gaze distractors captured attention when the faces were entirely irrelevant to the task. Participants identified a target letter among non-target letters. In 20% of the trials, a face or a control image appeared. No distractor was presented in the remaining trials. Perceptual load was manipulated by varying the type of non-target letters. Although load theory predicts no or reduced attentional capture, the reaction times for target search were delayed in trials with a face distractor compared with those with a control image. This result suggests that attentional capture by an entirely task-irrelevant distractor occurred regardless of perceptual load. Moreover, face-specific attentional capture occurred even when the distractor did not share the temporal component of abrupt onset with the search array. These results extend the notion that faces are exceptions to load theory when faces and search items share no common display features.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2018/03 
    Author : Sato Hirotsune, KAWAHARA Jun-Ichiro
     
    The purpose of this study was to extend the implicit stress measurement with the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measurement of relaxation state and measurement of physical stress state. Results indicated that the IAT could detect the change of psychological stress state, such as acute stress and relaxation state, sensitively, but could not detect the change of physical stress state, such as fatigue state.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/04 -2017/03 
    Author : Jun-ichiro Kawahara
     
    The present study examined whether observers are able to establish multiple attentional sets to concurrently monitor two different spatial locations. Observers identified a target letter in red or cyan among nontarget letters of other heterogeneous colours during a temporal feature search. The results revealed that observers maintained multiple attentional sets for detecting two singletons or for targets involving two (or three) features. The second study demonstrates a relationship among inhibitory neural processes, front-parietal brain regions, and temporal aspects of attentional control ability.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/04 -2016/03 
    Author : Kawahara Jun-ichiro, MIYAZAKI Yuki, KITAZAKI Michiteru
     
    Extant studies have examined factors contributing to perception of attractiveness of individual human faces. The present study examined whether observers could compare the group-wide attractiveness between two groups consisted of multiple members. Observers were briefly exposed with two frames of images each of which consisted of four faces and determined the one that they believed more attractive as a whole. The results indicated that discrimination accuracy was above chance level. Virtually identical pattern of the results was obtained when each group consisted of eight faces. Study 2 examined the effect of variance of members and found that larger variances decreased attractiveness when attractiveness of the members were low. Study 3 examined the effect of sanitary mask on attractiveness perception. We proposed a model that facial occlusion by a sanitary mask has a unique effect, due to occlusion and unhealthiness priming.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2013/04 -2016/03 
    Author : ENDO Nobutaka, KAWAHARA Jun-ichiro
     
    It is known that performance in a particular task is facilitated by repeated experiences. This facilitation effect is generally explained by implicit learning. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of participants’ set for the task on implicit learning. The results showed that the active set led to the higher learning efficiency, and the spontaneously formed set for the task requirements affected the aspect of implicit learning, suggesting the possibility that participants’ set contributes to the flexibility in implicit learning.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2013/04 -2016/03 
    Author : Inukai Tomoe, KAWAHARA JUN-ICHIRO
     
    In this study, we investigated the effect of testosterone on sex differences in cognitive abilities. We assessed the second to fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D) of hands and collected saliva samples to analyze testosterone concentration. We used three types of cognitive tasks which males show a trend towards better performance than females; temporal search task, in which observers were required to identify a target embedded among nontargets, mental rotation task, and modified trail making test, in which observers were required to move a cursor with a trail onto targets during which the mouse was randomly inverted. We found a significant correlation between testosterone concentration from 2d : 4D ratio and the accuracy of the mental rotation task, while there were no correlations between testosterone concentration from saliva samples and performances on all three types of tasks. These results suggest that the effect of testosterone on sex differences is restricted to some cognitive tasks.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2012/04 -2015/03 
    Author : SATO Hirotsune, KAWAHARA Jun-ichiro
     
    This study examined the hypothesis that it was possible to assess acute stress implicitly with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). For eliminating the order effects of the IAT, we developed a new protocol, Switching IAT, and showed it was possible to assess acute stress sufficiently with the Switching IAT.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2011/04 -2015/03 
    Author : KAWAHARA Jun-ichiro
     
    The present project examined whether attentional blink and attentional capture phenomena emerge from a common underlying attentional mechanism by using correlation studies. If these phenomena share a common foundation, the magnitude of these deficits should show within-subject correlations. Participants (N=135) revealed significant attentional deficits during spatial and temporal capture and the attentional blink tasks. However, no significant correlation was found among these tasks. Experiment 2 (N=95) replicated this finding using the same procedure used in Experiment 1 but included another attentional blink task that required spatial switching between the two targets. Strong correlations emerged only between the two attentional blink tasks (with/without spatial switching). The present results suggest that attentional deficits during spatial and temporal capture and the attentional blink tasks reflect different aspects of attention.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)
    Date (from‐to) : 2011/04 -2013/03 
    Author : 河原 純一郎
     
    本研究助成では,顔が関わる社会的場面での注意捕捉に関する研究と,顔の魅力の並列抽出に関する研究を実施した。 顔が関わる社会的場面での注意捕捉に関する研究では,従来は顔は人間の注意を引きつけやすく,特に意図的に顔を探索していなくても注意を捕捉してしまうと言われていた。しかし,これまでの研究を精査すると,ほとんど全ての研究で顔への構えと,目下の課題への構えが重複していた。例えば,Langton et al.(2008)は被験者に物体の探索をさせており,この中に顔画像も含まれていた。従って,純粋な顔による注意捕捉を調べるためには,知覚的構えが顔と主課題とで重複しない事態を設ける必要があった。本研究は高速逐次視覚呈示事態を用いて,顔による注意捕捉は自動的に起こると言うよりも,課題依存であることを示す知見を得た。魅力の並列抽出に関する実験では,2-5名で構成される集団の平均的魅力を同時抽出できるかを調べた。その結果,集団内の魅力のばらつきによる魅力の押し上げ・押し下げバイアスがあることがわかった。こうした結果は,集団の魅力抽出が可能であることを示唆していた。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research
    Date (from‐to) : 2011 -2012 
    Author : INUKAI Tomoe, KAWAHARA Jun-ichiro
     
    Target identification is impaired by a salient distractor. It has been suggested that this impairment is caused by the temporal or spatial deviation of attentional focus from a task-relevant location to the distractor (attentional capture). The present study examined the effect of menstrual cycle on attentional capture for women across different phases of their menstrual cycle (the MP, FP, and LP). We collected saliva samples from women subjects for each experimental session to analyze estradiol and progesterone concentrations in the FP, LP and MP. The results indicate that robust attentional capture occurred in temporal and spatial search tasks. Attentional capture was more profound for women than men only in the temporal search task. This suggests that women are more sensitive to a salient but task-irrelevant item than men when they are searching for a target embedded among a rapid stream of nontargets. Importantly, the magnitude of attentional capture was unaffected by the metrual cycle. Theses results suggest that sex differences in attentional capture in the temporal search task result from physiological differences rather than sex hormones.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2008 -2010 
    Author : KAWAHARA Jun-Ichiro
     
    When two targets are embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation stream of distractors, perception of the second target is impaired when the inter-target lag is relatively short (less than 500 ms). Stimuli concurrently presented with the stream can affect this phenomenon, which is called attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have yielded conflicting results concerning the direction of the effect of added distractors on the AB: some studies report an increased AB, while others report a decreased AB. The present study explored the boundary conditions of the exaggeration/reduction effects of distractors on the AB and investigated underlying mechanisms by manipulating the spatial configuration, timing, and type of distractors. The results indicate that the magnitude of the AB deficit increased, regardless of the type of distractors, when spatial uncertainty of the target locations was involved. The reduction of the AB occurred at optimal presentation of distractors and disappeared when the second target was presented at a suprathreshold level. These results suggest that stochastic resonance or the centre-surround attentional mechanism may contribute to the reduction effect of distractors on the AB deficit.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research
    Date (from‐to) : 2007 -2008 
    Author : 熊田 孝恒, 河原 純一郎
     
    本年度は、言語的な情報によって標的属性を被験者に与えた際に見られる、視覚的注意の配分の促進効果を、ターゲット検出の有効性、および、妨害項目の無視の効率の観点から、視覚的な探索課題を用いて検討した。また、非言語的な情報の関与を調べるために、手がかりが与えられた際のターゲット属性の切り替えコスト、および、直前の試行からのキャリーオーバー効果との関係を同時に調べた。その結果、言語情報を与えた試行の直後のみならず、その次の試行まで課題切り替えコストの減少が見られた。この結果は、言語情報がターゲットの検出に関わる注意の配分に有効であることが明らかになった。また、第2試行まで促進の効果が見られたということは、言語的な手がかりでは、完全な意の配分が不可能であることを示唆している。さらに、手がかりと直前の試行とのキャリーオーバー効果の関係を調べたところ、両者の間に交互作用が見られた。このことから、言語的な注意制御メカニズムと非言語的な言語制御メカニズムが共通であることを示していると考えられた。さらに、妨害項目の無視効率は、手がかりが与えられた後、試行が経過するとより低下した。このことから、言語的な注意メカニズムは、注意の配分の持続的な側面に関与していることを示唆した。次いで、この点を確認するために、構音抑制を課した実験を実施した。その結果、構音抑制を与えると、妨害刺激からの干渉効果が増加した。この結果からも、言語的な注意制御機構が、注意の持続に関与していることが明らかになった。これらの結果から、言語的注意制御機構が、非言語的な制御機構とは、一部、独立である可能性が示された。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2007 
    Author : 河原 純一郎
     
    本研究では,意識的知覚を支える主要認知機能の一つである心的構えとその制御方略を調べた。意識的知覚が損なわれる例として知られる注意の瞬き(attentional blink)現象は,これまでの研究では,時間的に先行して呈示される第1標的に注意資源が占有されるため,その後に呈示される第1標的の知覚が損なわれると考えられてきた。本研究では,3つの標的を連続して呈示し,第3標的の知覚成績が第2標的よりも高いことを示し,従来の説明では不十分であることを示した。加えて,こうした意識的知覚の欠如としての見落としは常に起こるわけではないことを示した。これまで,短い時間で2つの標的を検出するとき,2つめの標的は見落とされやすいことがわかっているが,観察者が知覚的構えを維持したまま2つの標的が時間的に連続して呈示される場合は見落としが激減する(見落とし回避)。研究発表11.3は,この現象を知覚的構えの指標として利用し,同時に2箇所の位置に注意の構えを向けることができることを示した。また,標的カテゴリが複数でも見落とし回避は同時に2箇所で起こりうることを示した。この結果は,注意分割を調べる手続きとして注意の瞬き減少が利用できることを示した点で新しい視点を提供したといえる。研究発表11.1では,標的の視覚探索事態において,注意を向ける位置についての意識的な構えがなくても,視空間的文脈を反復して経験することによって,探索が速くなる効果について調べた。従来の研究では視覚的な文脈の学習が起こることが知られていたが,本研究では聴覚刺激と標的位置の対連合を無意識的に学習できることを明らかにした。研究発表11.2では,刺激の呈示順序によって心的構えを操作し,心的構えが幾何学的錯視のひとつであるDelboeuf錯視の大きさに影響することを明らかにした。(739字)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2005 
    Author : 酒井 弘, 玉岡 賀津雄, 河原 純一郎
     
    繰り返し適用可能な統語的操作によって新たな文構造を無限に処理・産出する再帰的計算能力は、人間に固有な言語能力の中核として、言語機能の理論的モデル構築を日指す言語学者にとっても、機能を支える皮質構造の解明を目指す脳科学者にとっても、極めて興味深い研究対象である。この研究では、統語的プライミング現象を手がかりに統語処理の過程を純粋に抽出し、fMRIを使用した脳機能イメージング実験を実施することで、再帰的計算能力を支える皮質構造を特定しその機能を解明することを目指している。言語処理の脳機能イメージング実験の手法を確立するとともに、統語的プライミングの心理言語学的実験における実験パラダイムを整備するために、まず音声呈示された日本語の複合語を処理する際の脳機能イメージングを計測する実験を実施した。続いて統語的プライミングの行動レベルでの影響を探るための心理言語学的実験を実施した.イメージング実験では、両半球側頭葉上側頭回の聴覚連合野に加えて、複合語を処理する際には左脳上側頭回前方と島回に強い活動が観察され、側頭葉上側頭回〜島回〜前頭葉下前頭回に、音声言語を処理するためのネットワークが存在する可能性が示された。行動実験では、日本語の語順を操作して文理解における統語的プライミング効果を測定する実験を実施したところ、英語と同様にプライム文とターゲット文の動詞が一致している際に、語順のプライム効果が最大となると言う結果が得られた。動詞が目的語などに後続する日本語でも、動詞が先行する英語と同じ結果が得られることが確認されたのは初めてである。言語の認知神経科学研究における研究情報を交換するためにMax-Planck Institute for Human Cognition and Brain Science(Leipzig, Germany)及びUniversity of Marburg(Marburg, Germany)から研究者を招聘して、国際ワークショップを開催した。
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2002 -2005 
    Author : Tamotsu TOSHIMA, 河原 純一郎, 宮谷 真人, 松橋 有子, 松田 文子, 小林 正夫, 橋本 優花里, 近藤 武夫
     
    This study was conducted to examine the development of cognitive and emotional qualia in infants by means of the new brain imaging technique. Our study for the infant's brain imaging showed that the orbitofrontal area in infants has equipped the sensitive function, which is related to cognitive and emotional qualia as same as that of adults.(1) In 2002, we confirmed the applicability of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and thermography to the brain imaging study for cognitive and emotional responses in infants, and showed that the cognitive and emotional qualia in infants could be measured as the psycho-physiological responses derived by multimodal stimuli, such as mother's face, utterance and touch. For cognitive and emotional qualia in patients with brain damage, the higher executive processing functions of patients were examined by means of the discrimination shift learning. It was showed that the dysfunction for processing elements of stimuli was due to the lesion in frontal area.(2) In 2003, the brain activity during processing the visual three dimensional objects was examine by using NIRS. We showed that there are the individual differences of the hemispheric activation, and that the activations in the anterior-parietal area and the fusiform gyrus along changed with viewpoint of perticipants in large task-demand situation. According to this study, the activation on the occipital area in infants was examined under the mother-infant interaction. It was showed that the left hemisphere on the occipital area activated under any personal interactions while the right hemisphere activated only under the infant- unfamiliar person interaction.(3) In 2004, effects of olfactory stimuli, such as braest and articilial milk, on the activation on orbitofrontal area in neonates was examined. We found that the smell of brest milk can mostly activate the frontal area in neonates, and that this was irrespective of feeding conditions. The case study for one infants, who was neglected by parent, showed that his development pf cognitive and emotional qualia could be improved through the intimate personal contact in the nursing home.(4) In 2005, the cognitive and emotional qualia for the facial expression as well as the prosodic features of infant-directed-speech were examined through the brain functional imaging in neonates by NIRS. The longitudinal study for the neonate's brain imaging on the facial expression showed that the cognitive and emotional qualia in infants develop on the frontal brain area by stages. The prosodic feature of mother's utterance could affect the activation on the frontal area in neonates in terms of their qualia development.
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(若手研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2002 -2004 
    Author : 河原 純一郎
     
    本研究の目的は,短時間のうちに連続して2つの課題を行うとき,2つ目の課題がうまく遂行できず,見落としたりするというヒューマンエラーの原因を探ることであった.具体的には,(1)1つ目の課題を行っているときに注意はどこに向けられているか,(2)2つの課題の成績に影響する環境変数(妨害刺激の有無,(3)2つの課題を行うときの空間的特性,(4)課題を行うときの心的構えの影響という4つの観点で目的を設定した.これらの4つの観点に対応した実験は全て終了し,次のような成果が得られた.1.高速逐次視覚呈示法を利用し,短時間内で連続して2つの作業を行うときの認知負荷の評価方法を開発した.とくに,標的間の空間的位置関係は大きな作業負荷となることを見いだした.昨年度の成果である,平均作業成績を被験者間で統制して比較可能な動的ノイズ操作法を利用して,上述の(2),(3)を調べるための実験を行った.短時間内に連続して2つの作業を行う場合,同じ位置で行う場合のほうが,位置を移動させる場合に比べて,作業者にとって負荷が少ないことが分かった.このJapanese Psychological Research誌に発表した.2.連続して2つの課題を行うとき,注意は少なくとも300-400ms程度,第1標的が呈示された場所にとどまっていることが分かった.これは,線運動錯視という錯覚を用いることで明らかになった.この成果はPsychological Research誌に発表した.3.標的に対するマスキング特性を検討した実験では,従来報告されていた注意の瞬き現象は,第1標的の困難度による成分と,課題切り替えによる成分があることが分かった.従来の研究では,これらの2つの成分に加え,視覚マスキングの効果が混同されており,本研究によって初めてマスキングの成分を除いた課題切り替え成分による見落とし効果が明らかになった.この成果はPerceptoin & Psychophysics誌に発表した.この研究では,見落としに及ぼす学習の効果を検討するための実験をさらに行っており,過学習された視覚パターンは見落としを起こしにくくする性質があることがわかった.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2002 -2004 
    Author : Hiromu SAKAI, 河原 純一郎, 牧岡 省吾, 小泉 政利, 玉岡 賀津雄
     
    To investigate into the neurocognitive basis for the processing of verb morphology, we conducted (1)psycholinguistic, (2)neuroscientific, (3)quantitative linguistic, (4)theoretical linguistic, (5)connectionist modeling researches. A behavioral psycholinguistic experiment was conducted using a cross-modal priming paradigm. The results indicated that derived words with regular morphological relationship (verbs with a potential suffix) showed stronger priming effects compared to semantically related words with irregular morphological relationship (transitive/intransitive verbs). A neuroimaging study was conducted using fMRI as a joint research with Hiroshima Prefectural Rehabilitation Center. So-called Broca region in the inferior frontal gylus and temporal pole were activated when Japanese native speakers processed sentences with complex verb morphology. Event-related potential response was measured by electro-encepharography while Japanese native speakers were processing verb conjugation patterns. An ERP component called P600, a component associated with syntactic violations, was observed in expressions with morphological violation. A corpus study was conducted as to the distinction between so-called ‘syntactic compound verbs' and ‘lexical compound verbs'. The results of quantitative research supported the dichotomy of syntactic vs. lexical compound verbs assumed in theoretical linguistics. Theoretical linguistic studies on Japanese complex predicates, a connectionist modeling of acquisition of verb forms were conducted. International seminars were organized every year with leading researchers in the field of cognitive neuroscience of language, including Dr.Colin Phillips (University of Maryland, USA,2002), Dr.Liina Pylkkanen (New York University, USA,2003), and Dr.Matt Davis (Medical Research Council, UK,2004).
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2002 -2004 
    Author : Makoto MIYATANI, 河原 純一郎, 中條 和光, 深田 博己, 中尾 三月, 島津 明人, 橋本 芳世子
     
    Effects of cognitive stress (time pressure, concurrent tasks, cognitive conflict) and emotional stress (anxiety) on working memory were examined. Time pressure in discrimination tasks accelerated the stimulus evaluation process measured by P300 latency and response preparation process estimated by LRP latency, depending on task requirements. Cognitive conflict in a flanker task affected the response times. The response times in congruent trials became longer as the amount of conflict in the preceding incongruent trial increased. This suggested the cognitive control mechanism of response inhibition, a part of which was supported by central executive function. The working memory in sentence comprehension was affected by time pressure, concurrent tasks, and state anxiety. Time pressure interfered with the construction of text-based model of the legend. The random generation as a secondary task delayed the sentence verification time and attenuated the semantic priming effect reflected in N400 amplitude, suggesting the disturbance of context formation in a central executive. The secondary tasks affecting the phonological loop did not raise these disturbing effects. The relation between capacity of working memory and reading strategy was dependent on emotional states. Compensatory strategies such as a reading regression were more frequent for low-span than for high-span readers. However, anxiety evoked by negative feedback of the reading performance increase the use of this compensatory strategy of high-span readers, probably in order to reduce the load in working memory coping with a consumption of working memory resource caused by anxiety. The anxiety also affected self referent processing. In an incidental learning task, participants with less anxiety showed the self-reference effect. However, increased anxiety diminished this memory phenomenon. Besides, cognitive and affective factors in social communication and stress coping behavior were investigated.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2001 -2003 
    Author : Fumiko MATSUDA, 利島 保, 河原 純一郎, 中條 和光, 宮谷 真人, 湯澤 正通, 中尾 美月
     
    [Modelling of knowledge acquisition] In this project Matsuda conducted longitudinal and cross-sectional survey and revealed the process of human knowledge acquisition and its mechanism in terms of development of knowledge on time, distance, speed relationships. Matsuda also conducted experimental works to compare the acquisition processes of temporal and spatial knowledge. Another experiments compared the processes of development in knowledge acquisition of relationships between time, distance and speed in school children.[Knowledge acquisition and meta-cognition ] Yuzawa observed the process of changes in meta-cognition and strategies in pre-school children. This study dealt with physical and social environment that enhances acquisition of knowledge on scientific, and mathematical concepts. In one of the studies, for example, Yuzawa observed pre-school children who compared diagrams in terms of their sizes. The results showed that the proportion of children who chose appropriate strategies and performed correct comparison as the age increases. Yuzawa's project showed dynamic relationships between physical environment, meta-cognition, and knowledge acquisition.[Reading and working memory] Chujo and Nakao examined the effect of working memory capacity on reading by using eye movement recording. The investigators measured working memory capacity by reading span test and tested if it correlates with the patterns in eye movement while reading. The results showed that the readers who have small working capacity frequently produced saccadic eye movements that stay only brief moment as reading proceeds, suggesting importance of working memory on knowledge acquisition.[Attentional distribution and implicit learning] Miyatani and Kawahara explored human ability to acquire layouts of items distributed spatially and for temporally by using contextual cueing paradigm. The results revealed that the participants could obtain those spatio-temporal contexts and utilise them for cognitive operations such as visual search.
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(奨励研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2000 -2001 
    Author : 河原 純一郎
     
    本研究では,短時間のうちに2つの課題を行うとき,2つ目の課題が見落とされたり,うまく遂行できないというヒューマンエラーの原因を探るため,a)2標的間の空間的関係(標的位置の同異),b)2課題の性質(同じ課題か,異なる課題か),c)切り替え負荷の時間的特性,d)標的後に呈示される物体のマスキング特性,e)標的位置での局所的情報処理促進の有無という5つの観点で目的を設定した.これらの5つの観点に対応した実験は全て終了し,次のような成果が得られた.1.短時間内で連続2作業を行うときの認知負荷の評価方法として,高速逐次視覚呈示法を利用した実験から,標的間の空間的位置関係は大きな作業負荷となることが見いだされた.本研究では,平均作業成績を被験者間で統制して比較可能な動的ノイズ操作法を初めて開発した.これらの成果はJournal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance誌に発表した.2.処理負荷を起こす2課題の性質は,両者の物理的特徴が異なっていることが決定的な成分となっていることがわかった.これは,視覚的特徴と反応(認知操作)を分離した実験で明らかになった.3.切り替えの時間的特性を検討した実験では,2つの課題がきわめて短時間内(〜300ms)に呈示されることが大きな処理負荷を生じることが分かった.実際に反応する順序は問題ではないことも見いだされた.これら2および3の点はJournal of Experimental Psychology : General誌に発表した.4.標的に対するマスキング特性を検討した実験では,従来報告されていた注意の瞬き現象は,第1標的の困難度による成分と,課題切り替えによる成分があることが分かった.従来の研究では,これらの2つの成分に加え,視覚マスキングの効果が混同されており,本研究によって初めてマスキングの成分を除いた課題切り替え成分による見落とし効果が明らかになった.この成果はPerceptoin & Psychophysics誌に掲載予定である.5.標的位置での局所的促進の有無を調べた実験では,連続2作業を実施する場合に標的位置に焦点化される注意は,局所的な処理の促進を引き起こすことが示された.これはPsychological Research誌に掲載予定である.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2000 -2001 
    Author : Kazuhiko YOKOSAWA, 河原 純一郎, 齋木 潤, 熊田 孝恒
     
    We constructed the psychological database of high-level vision research. The database contained not only the demonstration of the visual phenomena or visual stimuli, but also an environment which users can experience psychological experiment. The experiment software was built by Java language. We also made some simulation models of high-level vision : a model of illusory line motion search (Kawahara & Yokosawa, 2001), a visual selection model by LOC analysis (Kumada & Humphreys, in press), a pulsed neural network model of visual attention (Saiki, 2002), & T2 decay model of attentional blink (Kawahara, in press).

Educational Activities

Teaching Experience

  • 博士論文指導特殊演習
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 文学研究科
  • 博士論文指導特殊演習Ⅰ
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 文学院
  • 修士論文
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 文学研究科
  • 修士論文・特定課題指導特殊演習
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 文学研究科
  • 卒業論文
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 文学部
  • 修士論文・特定課題指導特殊演習
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 文学院

Committee Membership

  • 2020/10 - Today   Visual Cognition   Consulting Editor

Social Contribution

Social Contribution

Others

  • 2016 -2016 S社 共同研究資金
    顔,注意
  • 2015 -2015 H社 共同研究資金
    ユーザーインターフェイス
  • 2015 -2015 ユニチャーム社 共同研究資金
    ユニチャーム社 共同研究資金
  • 2014 -2014 S2社 共同研究資金
    飲料
  • 2014 -2014 S社 共同研究資金
    顔,化粧,注意
  • 2014 -2014 本田技研工業株式会社 共同研究
    本田技研工業株式会社 共同研究
  • 2013 -2013 本田技研工業株式会社 共同研究
    心理測定
  • 2012 -2012 いすゞ自動車中央研究所 共同研究資金
    いすゞ自動車中央研究所 共同研究資金
  • 2011 -2011 いすゞ自動車中央研究所 共同研究資金
    トラック後退時におけるドライバーの認知的問題の検討
  • 2010 -2010 日産自動車株式会社 共同研究資金
    運転行動に影響するドライバの認知機能に関する研究
  • 2010 -2010 エーザイ株式会社 共同研究資金
    PTPシートの表示デザインに関する研究
  • 2016年 ユニチャーム社 共同研究資金
    ユニチャーム社 共同研究資金


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