Researcher Database

Yasushi Fukamachi
Arctic Research Center
Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings

Affiliation

  • Arctic Research Center

Job Title

  • Professor

Degree

  • Ph.D.(Nova University (U.S.A.))

URL

Research funding number

  • 20250508

J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • Polynya   Meridional overturning circulation   Antarctic Bottom Water   sea ice   Sea of Okhotsk   Southern Ocean   

Research Areas

  • Natural sciences / Atmospheric and hydrospheric science / Polar Oceanography

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2018/10 - Today 北海道大学北極域研究センター 大気圏・水圏研究グループ 教授
  • 2011/02 - 2018/09 Water and Material Cycles Section, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University Associate Professor
  • 2008/10 - 2011/01 Water and Material Cycles Section, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University Assistant Professor
  • 2007/04 - 2008/09 Marine and Atmospheric Science Research Section, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University Assistant Professor
  • 1995/04 - 2007/03 Marine and Atmospheric Science Research Section, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University Assistant Professor
  • 1992/11 - 1995/03 Oceanography Section, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University Assistant Professor

Education

  • 1986/10 - 1992/10  Nova University  Oceanographic Center
  •        - 1992  Nova University Graduate School  Oceanographic Center  Physical Oceanography
  •        - 1986/03  Hokkaido University  School of Science
  •        - 1986  Hokkaido University  Faculty of Science  Department of Geophysics

Association Memberships

  • 日本海洋学会   The Oceanography Society   American Geophysical Union   The Oceanography Society   American Geophysical Union   The Oceanographic Society of Japan   

Research Activities

Published Papers

  • Zhang, W, N. Ebuchi, Y. Fukamachi, F. Cheng, K. I. Ohshima, B. Emery, T. Toyota, H. Abe, K. Shirasawa
    IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 1 - 13 2019/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Kashiwase, H, K. I. Ohshima, Y. Fukamachi, S. Nihashi, T. Tamura
    Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 36 1623 - 1641 2019/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Dyre Oliver Dammann, Leif E. B. Eriksson, Joshua M. Jones, Andrew R. Mahoney, Roland Romeiser, Franz J. Meyer, Hajo Eicken, Yasushi Fukamachi
    The Cryosphere 13 1395 - 1408 2019/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Activities to promote industry-government-academia collaborative research on the Arctic Region supported by Japan Arctic Research Network Center (J-ARC Net)
    Tanaka, M, Y. Fukamachi, S. Tanaka, S. Saitoh
    Proceedings of the 34th International Symposium on the Okhotsk Sea & Polar Oceans 2019 167 - 170 2019/02 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Study on Oil Spill Response Technology in Cold Water Condition - Lessons learned from Exxon Valdes and Deepwater Horizon -
    Nakazawa, N, H. Yamaguchi, A. Kurokawa, J. Ono, T. Terashima, G. Sagawa, S. Yano, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima
    Proceedings of the 34th International Symposium on the Okhotsk Sea & Polar Oceans 2019 190 - 192 2019/02 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Arctic Technology Research Forum to consolidate opinions form industry
    Kikuchi, T, H. Yamaguchi, H. Yoshinaga, S. Fukuba, M. Miwa, T. Kashiwagi, H. Yoshida, K. I. Ohshima, Y. Fukamachi, H. Yabuki, Y. Kodama
    Proceedings of the 34th International Symposium on the Okhotsk Sea & Polar Oceans 2019 171 - 175 2019/02 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Kawaguchi, Y, M. Itoh, Y. Fukamachi, E. Moriya, J. Onodera, T. Kikuchi, N. Harada
    Polar Science 2019/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hirano, D, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, E. Watanabe, A. R. Mahoney, H. Eicken, M. Itoh, D. Simizu, K. Iwamoto, J. Jones, T. Takatsuka, T. Kikuchi, T. Tamura
    ournal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 123 (8) 5688 - 5705 2018/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Kanna, N, S. Sugiyama, Y. Ohashi, D. Sakakibara, Y. Fukamachi, D. Nomura
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 123 (5) 1666 - 1682 2018/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Yasushi Fukamachi, Daisuke Simizu, Kay I. Ohshima, Hajo Eicken, Andrew R. Mahoney, Katsushi Iwamoto, Erika Moriya, Sohey Nihashi
    JOURNAL OF GLACIOLOGY 63 (241) 888 - 898 0022-1430 2017/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Time series ice-draft data were obtained from moored ice-profiling sonar (IPS), in the coastal northeastern Chukchi Sea during 2009/10. Time series data show seasonal growth of sea-ice draft, occasionally interrupted by coastal polynya. The sea-ice draft distribution indicates a slightly lower abundance of thick, deformed ice compared with the eastern Beaufort Sea. In January, a rapid increase in the abundance of thick ice coincided with a period of minimal drift indicating compaction again the coast and dynamical thickening. The overall mean draft and corresponding derived thickness are 1.27 and 1.38 m, respectively. The evolution of modal ice thickness observed can be explained mostly by thermodynamic growth. The derived ice thicknesses are used to estimate heat losses based on ERA-interim data. Heat losses from the raw, 1 s IPS data are similar to 50 and 100% greater than those calculated using IPS data averaged over spatial scales of similar to 20 and 100 km, respectively. This finding demonstrates the importance of subgrid-scale ice-thickness distribution for heat-loss calculation. The heat-loss estimate based on thin ice data derived from AMSR-E data corresponds well with that from the 1 s observed ice-thickness data, validating heat-loss estimates from the AMSR-E thin ice-thickness algorithm.
  • Masato Ito, Kay I. Ohshima, Yasushi Fukamachi, Genta Mizuta, Yoshimu Kusumoto, Jun Nishioka
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 122 (2) 788 - 802 2169-9275 2017/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In the Sea of Okhotsk, sediment incorporation, transport and release by sea ice potentially plays important roles in the bio-related material (such as iron) cycle and ecosystem. The backscatter strength data of bottom-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers have suggested signals of frazil ice down to 30 m depth, and signals of upward sediment transport throughout the water column simultaneously in the region northeast of Sakhalin, with a water depth of similar to 100 m. Such events occurred under turbulent conditions with strong winds of 10-20 m s(-1). During such events, newly formed ice was present near the observational sites, shown by satellite microwave imagery. Sediment dispersion from the bottom occurred in association with strong currents of 1.0-1.5 m s(-1). During these events, the mixed layer reaches near the bottom due to wind-induced stirring, inferred from the high frequency component of vertical velocity. Thus the winter time turbulent mixing brings re-suspended sediment up to near the ocean surface. This study provides the first observational evidence of a series of processes on the incorporation of sedimentary materials into sea ice: sedimentary particles are dispersed by the strong bottom current, subsequently brought up to near the surface by winter time mixing, and finally incorporated into sea ice through underwater interaction with frazil ice and/ or flooding of sea ice floes. This wintertime incorporation of bottom sediment into sea ice is a possible mechanism of iron supply to sea ice which melts in spring, and releases bio-reactive iron into the ocean.
  • Joshua Jones, Hajo Eicken, Andrew Mahoney, M. Rohith, Chandra Kambhamettu, Yasushi Fukamachi, Kay I. Ohshima, J. Craig George
    CONTINENTAL SHELF RESEARCH 126 50 - 63 0278-4343 2016/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Landfast sea ice is an important seasonal feature along most Arctic coastlines, such as that of the Chukchi Sea near Barrow, Alaska. Its stability throughout the ice season is determined by many factors but grounded pressure ridges are the primary stabilizing component. Landfast ice breakouts occur when these grounded ridges fail or unground, and previously stationary ice detaches from the coast and drifts away. Using ground-based radar imagery from a coastal ice and ocean observatory at Barrow, we have developed a method to estimate the extent of grounded ridges by tracking ice motion and deformation over the course of winter and have derived ice keel depth and potential for grounding from cumulative convergent ice motion. Estimates of landfast ice grounding strength have been compared to the atmospheric and oceanic stresses acting on the landfast ice before and during breakout events to determine prevailing causes for the failure of stabilizing features. Applying this approach to two case studies in 2008 and 2010, we conclude that a combination of atmospheric and oceanic stresses may have caused the breakouts analyzed in this study, with the latter as the dominant force. Preconditioning (as weakening) of grounded ridges by sea level variations may facilitate failure of the ice sheet leading to breakout events. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • G. D. Williams, L. Herraiz-Borreguero, F. Roquet, T. Tamura, K. I. Ohshima, Y. Fukamachi, A. D. Fraser, L. Gao, H. Chen, C. R. McMahon, R. Harcourt, M. Hindell
    NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 7 2041-1723 2016/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A fourth production region for the globally important Antarctic bottom water has been attributed to dense shelf water formation in the Cape Darnley Polynya, adjoining Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Here we show new observations from CTD-instrumented elephant seals in 2011-2013 that provide the first complete assessment of dense shelf water formation in Prydz Bay. After a complex evolution involving opposing contributions from three polynyas (positive) and two ice shelves (negative), dense shelf water (salinity 34.65-34.7) is exported through Prydz Channel. This provides a distinct, relatively fresh contribution to Cape Darnley bottom water. Elsewhere, dense water formation is hindered by the freshwater input from the Amery and West Ice Shelves into the Prydz Bay Gyre. This study highlights the susceptibility of Antarctic bottom water to increased freshwater input from the enhanced melting of ice shelves, and ultimately the potential collapse of Antarctic bottom water formation in a warming climate.
  • I. J. Smith, H. Eicken, A. R. Mahoney, R. Van Hale, A. J. Gough, Y. Fukamachi, J. Jones
    CONTINENTAL SHELF RESEARCH 118 154 - 164 0278-4343 2016/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In the Arctic, land-fast sea ice growth can be influenced by fresher water from rivers and residual summer melt. This paper examines a method to reconstruct changes in water masses using oxygen isotope measurements of sea ice cores. To determine changes in sea water isotope composition over the course of the ice growth period, the output of a sea ice thermodynamic model (driven with reanalysis data, observations of snow depth, and freeze-up dates) is used along with sea ice oxygen isotope measurements and an isotopic fractionation model. Direct measurements of sea ice growth rates are used to validate the output of the sea ice growth model. It is shown that for sea ice formed during the 2011/2012 ice growth season at Barrow, Alaska, large changes in isotopic composition of the ocean waters were captured by the sea ice isotopic composition. Salinity anomalies in the ocean were also tracked by moored instruments. These data indicate episodic advection of meteoric water, having both lower salinity and lower oxygen isotopic composition, during the winter sea ice growth season. Such advection of meteoric water during winter is surprising, as no surface meltwater and no local river discharge should be occurring at this time of year in that area. How accurately changes in water masses as indicated by oxygen isotope composition can be reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of sea ice cores is addressed, along with methods/strategies that could be used to further optimize the results. The method described will be useful for winter detection of meteoric water presence in Arctic fast ice regions, which is important for climate studies in a rapidly changing Arctic. Land-fast sea ice effective fractionation coefficients were derived, with a range of +1.82 parts per thousand to +2.52 parts per thousand. Those derived effective fractionation coefficients will be useful for future water mass component proportion calculations. In particular, the equations given can be used to inform choices made when engaging in end member determination for working out the component proportions of water masses. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Wei Zhang, Naoto Ebuchi, Yasushi Fukamachi, Yutaka Yoshikawa
    JOURNAL OF OCEANOGRAPHY 72 (2) 299 - 311 0916-8370 2016/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Three high-frequency (HF) ocean radars were deployed around the Soya (La P,rouse) Strait in 2003 to monitor the Soya Warm Current (SWC). Surface current observed by the HF radars contains a wind drift component, which must be removed in order to estimate the interior SWC. The wind drift parameters, speed factor and turning angle were derived from the surface current measured by the HF radars, the vertical current profile measured by a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and wind data from the numerical weather analysis system operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from October 1, 2006 to July 24, 2008. The ensemble-mean turning angle and speed factor from the entire dataset (excluding August 2007) were estimated to be 28A degrees and 0.66 %, respectively. No significant seasonal variations were discernible in the wind drift parameters. After removal of the wind drift current estimated from the wind with the ensemble-mean drift parameters, the correlation coefficient between the along-shore current speed and sea level difference between the Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk improved from 0.791 to 0.825. It was revealed that the magnitude of wind drift current reaches 45 % of that of the interior current in winter and approximately 20 % in summer, indicating the importance of wind drift current estimation in this region.
  • Fuko Sugimoto, Takeshi Tamura, Haruhito Shimoda, Shotaro Uto, Daisuke Simizu, Kazutaka Tateyama, Seita Hoshino, Toshihiro Ozeki, Yasushi Fukamachi, Shuki Ushio, Kay I. Ohshima
    POLAR SCIENCE 10 (1) 43 - 51 1873-9652 2016/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Under the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) program, sea-ice thickness has been routinely monitored off Lutzow-Holm Bay (East Antarctica) during the summer (mid-December to early January) since 2000/01, using an electromagnetic induction (EM) instrument onboard the icebreaker Shirase. Analysis of these data over a 10-year period, combined with visual observations using a simplified form of the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea ice Processes and Climate) protocol, suggests a strong interannual variability in sea-ice thickness in this region. For the repeat pack-ice observation area, where the sea-ice thickness averaged over the nine seasons is similar to 1.9 m, mean thicknesses of observed sea-ice in 2010/11 and 2011/12 are exceptionally large, at similar to 3.3 and similar to 5.8 m, respectively. This result is strongly related to regional patterns of sea ice dynamics. Ice convergence caused by anomalous northerly winds was particularly high in 2011/12, suggesting that the extremely thick ice observed in that season resulted largely from sea-ice deformation processes (including pressure ridging). Longer-term analysis of data from the past 34 years confirms that sea-ice conditions and thickness off Lutzow-Holm Bay in summer are determined mainly by the large-scale pattern of atmospheric pressure in December. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. and NIPR. All rights reserved.
  • Observations of frazil ice formation and sediment upward transport off the northeast coast of Sakhalin
    Ito, M, K. I. Ohshima, J. Nishioka, Y. Kusumoto, Y. Fukamachi
    Proceedings of the 31th International Symposium on Okhotsk Sea & Sea Ice 124 - 127 2016/02 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Daisuke Hirano, Yasushi Fukamachi, Eiji Watanabe, Kay I. Ohshima, Katsushi Iwamoto, Andrew R. Mahoney, Hajo Eicken, Daisuke Simizu, Takeshi Tamura
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 121 (1) 980 - 997 2169-9275 2016/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The nature of the Barrow Coastal Polynya (BCP), which forms episodically off the Alaska coast in winter, is examined using mooring data, atmospheric reanalysis data, and satellite-derived sea-ice concentration and production data. We focus on oceanographic conditions such as water mass distribution and ocean current structure beneath the BCP. Two moorings were deployed off Barrow, Alaska in the northeastern Chukchi Sea from August 2009 to July 2010. For sea-ice season from December to May, a characteristic sequence of five events associated with the BCP has been identified; (1) dominant northeasterly wind parallel to the Barrow Canyon, with an offshore component off Barrow, (2) high sea-ice production, (3) upwelling of warm and saline Atlantic Water beneath the BCP, (4) strong up-canyon shear flow associated with displaced density surfaces due to the upwelling, and (5) sudden suppression of ice growth. A baroclinic current structure, established after the upwelling, caused enhanced vertical shear and corresponding vertical mixing. The mixing event and open water formation occurred simultaneously, once sea-ice production had stopped. Thus, mixing events accompanied by ocean heat flux from the upwelled warm water into the surface layer played an important role in formation/maintenance of the open water area (i.e., sensible heat polynya). The transition from a latent to a sensible heat polynya is well reproduced by a high-resolution pan-Arctic ice-ocean model. We propose that the BCP, previously considered to be a latent heat polynya, is a wind-driven hybrid latent and sensible heat polynya, with both features caused by the same northeasterly wind.
  • Motoyo Itoh, Robert S. Pickart, Takashi Kikuchi, Yasushi Fukamachi, Kay I. Ohshima, Daisuke Simizu, Kevin R. Arrigo, Svein Vagle, Jianfeng He, Carin Ashjian, Jeremy T. Mathis, Shigeto Nishino, Carolina Nobre
    DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART I-OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PAPERS 102 43 - 54 0967-0637 2015/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Over the past few decades, sea ice retreat during summer has been enhanced in the Pacific sector of the Arctic basin, likely due in part to increasing summertime heat flux of Pacific-origin water from the Bering Strait. Barrow Canyon, in the northeast Chukchi Sea, is a major conduit through which the Pacific-origin water enters the Arctic basin. This paper presents results from 6 repeat high-resolution shipboard hydrographic/velocity sections occupied across Barrow Canyon in summer 2010. The different Pacific water masses feeding the canyon - Alaskan coastal water (ACW), summer Bering Sea water (BSW), and Pacific winter water (PWW) - all displayed significant intra-seasonal variability. Net volume transports through the canyon were between 0.96 and 1.70 Sv poleward, consisting of 0.41-0.98 Sv of warm Pacific water (ACW and BSW) and 0.28-0.65 Sv of PWW. The poleward heat flux also varied strongly, ranging from 8.56 TW to 24.56 TW, mainly due to the change in temperature of the warm Pacific water. Using supplemental mooring data from the core of the warm water, along with wind data from the Pt. Barrow weather station, we derive and assess a proxy for estimating heat flux in the canyon for the summer time period, which is when most of the heat passes northward towards the basin. The average heat flux for 2010 was estimated to be 3.34 TW, which is as large as the previous record maximum in 2007. This amount of heat could melt 315,000 km(2) of 1-meter thick ice, which likely contributed to significant summer sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Mahoney, A. R, H. Eicken, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, D. Simizu, C. Kambhamettu, R. MV, S. Hendricks, J. Jones
    Annals of Glaciology 56 (69) 363 - 372 2015/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ito, M, K. I. Ohshima, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. D. Simizu, K. Iwamoto, Y. Matsumura, A. R. Mahoney, H. Eicken
    Annals of Glaciology 59 (69) 307 - 314 2015/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hirano, D, Y. Kitade, K. I. Ohshima, Y. Fukamachi
    Journal of Geophysical Research 120 910 - 922 2015/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Yoshihiro Nakayama, Kay I. Ohshima, Yoshimasa Matsumura, Yasushi Fukamachi, Hiroyasu Hasumi
    JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY 44 (11) 2921 - 2937 0022-3670 2014/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    At several locations around Antarctica, dense water is formed as a result of intense sea ice formation. When this dense water becomes sufficiently denser than the surrounding water, it descends the continental slope and forms Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). This study presents the AABW formation off the coast of Cape Darnley [Cape Darnley Bottom Water (CDBW)] in East Antarctica, using a nonhydrostatic model. The model is forced for 8 months by a temporally uniform surface salt flux (because of sea ice formation) estimated from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (EOS; AMSR-E) data and a heat budget calculation. The authors reproduce AABW formation and associated periodic downslope flows of dense water. Descending pathways of dense water are largely determined by the topography; most dense water flows into depressions on the continental shelf, advects onto the continental slope, and is steered downslope to greater depths by the canyons. Intense sea ice formation is the most important factor in the formation of AABW off Cape Darnley, and the existence of depressions is of only minor importance for the flux of CDBW. The mechanism responsible for the periodic downslope flow of dense water is further analyzed using an idealized model setup. The period of dense water outflow is regulated primarily by the topographic beta effect.
  • Daisuke Simizu, Kay I. Ohshima, Jun Ono, Yasushi Fukamachi, Genta Mizuta
    PROGRESS IN OCEANOGRAPHY 126 33 - 43 0079-6611 2014/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Sea of Okhotsk is the southernmost sea-ice zone with sizable ice. It is widely believed that the prevailing northwesterly wind and the southward East Sakhalin Current (ESC) are the two main factors that drive the southward drift of sea ice. However, the relative contributions of these factors have not been understood. In this paper, by using the current and ice-drift data measured with the moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, a 3-D ocean model simulation, objective analysis data of the wind, and satellite sea-ice data, we examine to what degree and how the ice drift is determined by the wind and ocean current. From a linear regression of the observed ice drift, ocean current, and wind, the wind-forced component of the ice drift was best fitted when sea ice is assumed to move with a speed of 1.6% of the geostrophic wind with a turning angle of 17.6 degrees to the left of the wind. Such a relationship was adopted as the wind-drift component for all sea-ice pixels detected from Special Sensor Microwave Imager data. For the ocean-forced component of the ice drift, we adopted the current at 20 m depth from a numerical model simulation that reproduces well the ESC and its variability. We then evaluated the sea-ice drift over 46-54 degrees N during 1998-2005. For the southward drift of sea ice, the contribution of the wind component is found to be larger than the oceanic component, although the ocean contribution becomes larger, typically comparable to the wind contribution, near the coast and in the northern region where the ESC is stronger. We estimated the average annual cumulative southward ice transport to be 3.0 +/- 0.9 x 10(11) m(3) at 53 degrees N. This ice transport is comparable to the annual discharge of the Amur River. The ratio of wind to oceanic components in the transport is estimated to be similar to 1.2-1.8. We also conducted ice-drift simulations based on the modeled current velocity and the assumed wind drift of 1.5% geostrophic wind with a turning angle of 15 degrees to the left. The simulations reproduce well the ice drift north of 47 degrees N but not south of 47 degrees N, likely due to the poor representation of the current system at the latter, underevaluation of the wind factor near the ice edges, and the neglect of ice formation and melt. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Yujiro Kitade, Keishi Shimada, Takeshi Tamura, Guy D. Williams, Shigeru Aoki, Yasushi Fukamachi, Fabien Roquet, Mark Hindell, Shuki Ushio, Kay I. Ohshima
    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 41 (10) 3528 - 3534 0094-8276 2014/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    One year moorings at depths greater than 3000m on the continental slope off Vincennes Bay, East Antarctica, reveal the cold (<-0.5 degrees C) and fresh (<34.64) signals of newly formed Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The signal appeared in June, 3 months after the onset of active sea-ice production in the nearby Vincennes Bay Polynya (VBP). The AABW signal continued for about 5 months at two moorings, with 1 month delay at the western site further downstream. Ship-based hydrographic data are in agreement, detecting the westward spread of new AABW over the continental slope from VBP. On the continental shelf, Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation is observed by instrumented seals, in and around the VBP during autumn, and we estimate its transport to be 0.16 +/- 0.07 (x 106m3s-1). We conclude that the DSW formed in this region, albeit from a modest amount of sea-ice production, nonetheless contributes to the upper layer of AABW in Australian-Antarctic Basin.
  • Ohshima, K. I, Y. Fukamachi, G. D. Williams, S. Nihashi, F. Roquet, Y. Kitade, T. Tamura, D. Hirano, L. Herraiz-Borreguero, I. Field, M. Hindell, S. Aoki, M. Wakatsuchi, These authors contributed equally to this wor
    Nature Geoscience 6 (3) 235 - 240 1752-0894 2013/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hiroshi Shimada, Mayumi Sawada, Iori Tanaka, Hiroki Asami, Yasushi Fukamachi
    FISHERIES SCIENCE 78 (4) 865 - 877 0919-9268 2012/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To design a method for predicting outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in scallop fishing grounds, the relationship between the distribution of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense and the dynamics of the Soya Warm Current (SWC) was examined in the Okhotsk Sea off Hokkaido. Surveys were conducted from May to June to clarify the transportation mechanism of A. tamarense from the oceanic area to the coastal area. The sea-level difference (SLD) between Wakkanai and Abashiri was monitored as an index of the strength of the SWC southeastward flow in an alongshore belt to examine the possible occurrence of A. tamarense in the coastal area during temporal weakening of the SWC. A bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used for direct observations of the SWC. The results indicated that PSP occurred when low-salinity water contaminated with A. tamarense extended to the coast during temporal weakening of the SWC due to a decrease of the SLD. Our results strongly indicate that predictions can be realized by monitoring the decrease of SLD as an index of temporal weakening of the SWC after surveys of the distribution of A. tamarense in the oceanic area before the period of PSP occurrence.
  • Matti Lepparanta, Annu Oikkonen, Kunio Shirasawa, Yasushi Fukamachi
    COLD REGIONS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 76-77 83 - 91 0165-232X 2012/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Sea ice dynamics is examined for the frequency spectra of ice velocity using mathematical models and ice motion data. The data are from the Baltic Sea and Sea of Okhotsk. A general spectrum for linear coupled ice-ocean free drift is derived and analysed. Interior dynamics shows singularity in the Coriolis (inertial) frequency and asymptotic high frequency power law of -2. In the presence of internal friction the spectrum is expected to evenly fall to zero with frictional resistance increasing above yield level. In the observations, the main spectral peak is wide at the synoptic time scales. The Okhotsk Sea spectra show inertial and tidal signals but they are missing from the Baltic Sea due to very weak tides and shallow depth damping inertial oscillations. Above semidiurnal frequency ice velocity spectra fall in power law of -5/3, inherited from atmospheric and oceanic dynamics, and at very high frequencies, above 0.5 cph (cycles per hour) the fall seems to slow down to power law below -1. The Eulerian ice velocity spectrum was higher than the Lagrangian spectrum throughout the entire obtained spectrum (0.1-5 cpd (cycles per day)). Theoretical spectra show general agreement with observations except that they have less kinetic energy at very high frequencies and much stronger inertial peak. Thus Eulerian observations are more variable than Lagrangian observations. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Chris Petrich, Hajo Eicken, Jing Zhang, Jeremy Krieger, Yasushi Fukamachi, Kay I. Ohshima
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 117 doi:10.1029/2011JC007339  0148-0227 2012/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Seasonal breakup of landfast sea ice consists of movement and irreversible ice detachment in response to winds or oceanic forces in the late stages of ice decay. The breakup process of landfast sea ice in the Chukchi Sea at Barrow, Alaska, was analyzed for the years 2000 through 2010 on the basis of local observations of snow and ice conditions, weather records, image sequences obtained from cameras, coastal X band marine radar, and satellite imagery. We investigated the relation of breakup to winds, tides, and nearshore current measurements from a moored acoustic Doppler current profiler. Two breakup modes are distinguished at Barrow on the basis of the degree of ice decay. Mechanical breakup due to wind and oceanic forces follows ablation and weakening of the ice. Thermal breakup is the result of ice disintegration under melt ponds, requiring little force to induce dispersion. Grounded pressure ridges are pivotal in determining the breakup mode. The timing of thermal breakup of the nearshore ice cover was found to correlate with the measured downwelling solar radiation in June and July. This linkage allows for the development of an operational forecast of landfast ice breakup. Results from forecasts during 2 years demonstrate that thermal breakup can be predicted to within a couple of days 2 weeks in advance. The cumulative shortwave energy absorbed by the ice cover provides for a measure of the state of ice decay and potential for disintegration. Discriminating between the two modes of breakup bears the potential to greatly increase forecasting skill.
  • Yoshihiro Nakayama, Kay I. Ohshima, Yasushi Fukamachi
    JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY 42 (1) 179 - 192 0022-3670 2012/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Wind factor, the ratio of sea ice drift speed to surface wind speed, is a key factor for the dynamics of sea ice and is generally about 2%. In some coastal oceans, however, the wind factor tends to be larger near the coast. This study proposes the enhancement mechanism of the sea ice drift caused by the dynamical coupling between sea ice and a coastal ocean. In a coastal ocean covered with sea ice, wind-forced sea ice drift excites coastal trapped waves (shelf waves) and generates fluctuating ocean current. This ocean current can enhance sea ice drift when the current direction is the same as that of the wind-driven drift. The authors consider a simplified setting where spatially uniform oscillating wind drifts sea ice parallel to the coast. When a barotropic long shelf wave is assumed for the ocean response, sea ice drifts driven by wind and ocean are obtained analytically. The ratio of ocean-driven to wind-driven sea ice drifts is used for the evaluation of the oceanic contribution to the enhancement of sea ice drift. The enhancement is mostly determined by the characteristics of the shelf waves, and sea ice drift is significantly enhanced close to the coast with lower-frequency wind forcing. Comparison with the observation off the Sakhalin coast shows that the degree of enhancement of sea ice drift and its characteristic such that larger enhancement occurs near the coast are mostly consistent with our theoretical solution, suggesting that this mechanism is present in the real ocean.
  • Yasushi Fukamachi, Kay I. Ohshima, Yuji Mukai, Genta Mizuta, Masaaki Wakatsuchi
    ANNALS OF GLACIOLOGY 52 (57) 1 - 8 0260-3055 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In the southwestern part of the Sea of Okhotsk off Hokkaido, sea-ice drift characteristics are investigated using the ice and water velocities obtained from a moored upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) during the winters of 1999-2001. Using hourly-mean values of these data along with the wind data measured at a nearby coastal station, the wind factor and turning angle of the relative velocity between the ice and water velocities with respect to the wind are calculated assuming free drift under various conditions. Since the simultaneous sea-ice draft data are also available from a moored ice-profiling sonar (IPS), we examine the dependence of drift characteristics on ice thickness for the first time. As ice thickness increases and wind decreases, the wind factor decreases and the turning angle increases, as predicted by the theory of free drift. This study clearly shows the utility of the moored ADCP measurement for studying sea-ice drift, especially with the simultaneous IPS measurement for ice thickness, which cannot be obtained by other methods.
  • Nihashi, S, N. Ebuchi, Y. Fukamachi, S. Takahashi
    Annals of Glaciology 52 (57) 133 - 139 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Yasushi Fukamachi, Kay I. Ohshima, Naoto Ebuchi, Tadao Bando, Kazuya Ono, Minoru Sano
    JOURNAL OF OCEANOGRAPHY 66 (5) 685 - 696 0916-8370 2010/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Time-series data of the vertical structure of the Soya Warm Current (SWC) were obtained by a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in the middle of the Soya Strait from September 2006 to July 2008. The site of the ADCP measurement was within the coverage of the ocean-radar measurement around the strait. The volume transport of the SWC through the strait is estimated on the basis of both the vertical structure observed by the ADCP and the horizontal structure observed by the radars for the first time. The annual transport estimates are 0.62-0.67 Sv (1 Sv = 10(6) m(3)s(-1)). They are somewhat smaller than the difference between the previous estimates of the inflow and outflow through other straits in the Sea of Japan, and smaller than those obtained in the region downstream of the strait during 2004-05 (0.94-1.04 Sv). The difference in the two periods may be attributed to interannual variability of the SWC and/or the different measurement locations.
  • Y. Fukamachi, S. R. Rintoul, J. A. Church, S. Aoki, S. Sokolov, M. A. Rosenberg, M. Wakatsuchi
    NATURE GEOSCIENCE 3 (5) 327 - 331 1752-0894 2010/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The primary paths for the transport of Antarctic Bottom Water from the Southern Ocean into the global ocean are the deep western boundary currents east of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Kerguelen plateau(1). Previous ship-based observations documented distinct water properties and velocities associated with a deep western boundary current in the Kerguelen region(2-7), but the mean flow is as yet unconstrained. Here we report measurements from a coherent array of eight current-meter moorings that reveal a narrow and intense equatorward flow extending throughout the water column just east of the Kerguelen plateau. Velocities averaged over two years exceed 20 cm s(-1) at depths of about 3,500 m, the strongest mean deep western boundary current flow yet observed at similar depths. We estimate the mean equatorward transport of water colder than 0 degrees C at 12.3 +/- 1.2 x 10(6) m(3) s(-1), partially compensated by poleward flow. We also estimate the net equatorward flow of water colder than 0.2 degrees C at about 8 x 10(6) m(3) s(-1), substantially higher than the 1.9 x 10(6) m(3) s(-1) reported from the boundary current that carries dense water from the Weddell Sea into the Atlantic Ocean north of the Falkland plateau(8). We conclude that the Kerguelen deep western boundary current is a significant pathway of the global ocean's deep overturning circulation.
  • Rintoul, S. R, K. Speer, M. Sparrow, M. Meredith, E. Hoffmann, E. Fahrbach, C. Summerhayes, A. Worby, M. England, R. Bellerby, S. Speich, D. Costa, J. Hall, M. Hindell, G. Hosie, K. Stansfield, Y. Fukamachi, T. de Bruin, A. Naveira Garabato, K. Alberson, V. Ryabinin, H. C. Shin, S. Gladyshev
    Proceedings of OceanObs '09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2) WPP-306  2010 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, Takeshi Tamura, Yasushi Fukamachi, Sei-ichi Saitoh
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 114 (C10) C10025  0148-0227 2009/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    From comparisons with thickness of sea ice from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and ice-profiling sonar data we have developed an Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) thin ice thickness algorithm for the Sea of Okhotsk. This algorithm can estimate ice thickness of <= 0.2 m without snow using the polarization ratio of AMSR-E brightness temperature at a 36.5 GHz channel from a linear relationship with AVHRR ice thickness. When a snow cover exists on the thin ice surface, as occurred a few times in each winter, it is shown that the algorithm cannot detect the thin ice. Sea ice and dense shelf water (DSW) production in coastal polynya are estimated on the basis of heat flux calculation with the daily AMSR-E ice thickness for three winters (December-March) of 2002-2003 to 2004-2005. The ice production is largest in the northwest shelf (NWS) polynya which accounts for similar to 45% of the sum of ice production in major coastal polynyas. The ice production in major coastal polynyas would cover the maximum ice area of the Okhotsk Sea if the average ice thickness is assumed to be 1 m. Variability of the ice production is mainly modulated by air temperature. In the NWS polynya, which is the main DSW production area, the annual DSW formation rate is estimated to be similar to 0.36 Sv.
  • Yasushi Fukamachi, Kunio Shirasawa, Anatoliy M. Polomoshnov, Kay I. Ohshima, Ervin Kalinin, Sohey Nihashi, Humfrey Melling, Genta Mizuta, Masaaki Wakatsuchi
    CONTINENTAL SHELF RESEARCH 29 (11-12) 1541 - 1548 0278-4343 2009/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    From December to June 2002-2003, sea-ice and oceanic data were obtained from moorings near Sakhalin in the west central Okhotsk Sea. Ice draft measured by sonar reveals distinct periods of thin and thick ice. Thin-ice periods in January-March corresponded to offshore ice movement and increasing seawater salinity. The measured change in salinity corresponds well with that derived from heat-flux calculations using the observed ice thickness. Brine rejection from ice growing in a coastal polynya off northern Sakhalin is responsible for much of the observed salinity increase. The simultaneous observation of dense shelf water (> 26.7 sigma(0)) suggests that this region is one possible source. The periods of thick-ice incursion are likely indicative of heavily deformed pack formed further north and drifting south with the current. The mean draft (1.95 m), thick-ice ratio, and keel frequency during these periods are close to values observed in the Beaufort Sea. Freshwater transport estimated from the observed ice thickness and velocity is larger than that of the Amur River discharge. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Naoto Ebuchi, Yasushi Fukamachi, Kay I. Ohshima, Masaaki Wakatsuchi
    JOURNAL OF OCEANOGRAPHY 65 (1) 31 - 43 0916-8370 2009/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Subinertial and seasonal variations in the Soya Warm Current (SWC) are investigated using data obtained by high frequency (HF) ocean radars, coastal tide gauges, and a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The HF radars clearly captured the seasonal variations in the surface current fields of the SWC. Almost the same seasonal cycle was repeated in the period from August 2003 to March 2007, although interannual variations were also discernible. In addition to the annual and interannual variations, the SWC exhibited subinertial variations with a period of 5-20 days. The surface transport by the SWC was significantly correlated with the sea level difference between the Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk for both the seasonal and subinertial variations, indicating that the SWC is driven by the sea level difference between the two seas. The generation mechanism of the subinertial variation is discussed using wind data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. The subinertial variations in the SWC were significantly correlated with the meridional wind stress component over the region. The subinertial variations in the sea level difference and surface current delay from the meridional wind stress variations by one or two days. Sea level difference through the strait caused by wind-generated coastally trapped waves (CTWs) along the east coast of Sakhalin and west coast of Hokkaido is considered to be a possible mechanism causing the subinertial variations in the SWC.
  • Ono, J, K. I. Ohshima, G. Mizuta, Y. Fukamachi, M. Wakatsuchi
    Continental Shelf Research 28 (6) 697 - 709 2008 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Fukamachi, Y, I. Tanaka, K. I. Ohshima, N. Ebuchi, G. Mizuta, H. Yoshida, S. Takayanagi, M. Wakatsuchi
    Journal of Oceanography 64 (3) 385 - 392 0916-8370 2008 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hiwatari, T, K. Shirasawa, Y. Fukamachi, R. Nagata, T. Koizumi, H. Koshikawa, K. Kohata
    Polar Science 2 (1) 41 - 54 1873-9652 2008 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Aoki, S, N. Fujii, S. Ushio, Y. Yoshikawa, S. Watanabe, G. Mizuta, Y. Fukamachi, M. Wakatsuchi
    Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (C8) C08038  0148-0227 2008 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Yasushi Fukamachi, Genta Mizuta, Kay I. Ohshima, Takenobu Toyota, Noriaki Kimura, Masaaki Wakatsuchi
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 111 (C9) doi:10.1029/2005JC003327  0148-0227 2006/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    [ 1] Using a moored ice-profiling sonar along with a moored acoustic Doppler current profiler, a total spatial section of draft across 3334 km of sea ice was obtained in the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk near Hokkaido in the winters of 1999 - 2001. Using this draft data set, the average draft and keel statistics are discussed in this sea for the first time. The mean draft was 0.60 m, which corresponds to the thickness of 0.71 m, over the three winters with the range of 0.49 - 0.72 m for each winter. The classification of level and deformed ice reveals a small range of the monthly mean level ice draft (0.18 - 0.27 m) and the dominance of the deformed ice in terms of volume (80%). The mean draft varied with the areal ratio of the deformed ice fairly well. These results suggest that dynamic processes such as ridging and rafting are important for the evolution of draft in the region of observation. The observed draft probability density distribution and keel statistics show that the thick ice ratio and keel frequency are lower than the similar data in polar regions and closer to those observed in Davis Strait west of Greenland. Along with the ice concentration and speed derived from the satellite data the southward ice transport to the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk is estimated on the basis of the observed sea ice thickness. The estimated ice transport ranged from 15 to 70 km 3 in each winter. The heat and freshwater transport associated with the ice transport ranged from - 3.9 x 10(17) to - 1.8 x 10(18) J and from 12 to 57 km(3), respectively.
  • J Ono, KI Ohshima, G Mizuta, F Yasushi, M Wakatsuchi
    DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART I-OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PAPERS 53 (3) 409 - 424 0967-0637 2006/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To clarify the characteristics of tidal currents and heights over Kashevarov Bank (KB) in the Sea of Okhotsk, continuous mooring observation with ADCP and CT sensors was carried out near the summit of KB from 20 September 1999 to 20 June 2000. The velocity, sea-surface height, and bottom-water temperature were dominated by the diurnal signal with fortnightly modulation. The velocity amplitude reached similar to 1.4 in s(-1) during the spring tide. The K-1 and O-1 tidal current ellipses are clockwise with a nearly circular shape and nearly barotropic. To interpret the physical mechanism of the amplified diurnal currents over KB, a seamount-trapped wave (SMTW) model was applied to KB. The frequency of SMTW approximated to KB is close to the diurnal tidal frequencies for the first-gravest mode of first azimuthal wavenumber. The structure and properties of the SMTW mode are consistent with the observations. It is proposed that the amplified diurnal currents over KB are caused by the resonance with SMTW. The observed fortnightly variability in tidal currents and bottom- and surface-temperatures suggests that both the cold spot in summer and the low sea-ice concentration in winter over KB are due to the horizontal and vertical mixing with the surrounding subsurface water, caused by strong tidal currents. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • N Ebuchi, Y Fukamachi, KI Ohshima, K Shirasawa, M Ishikawa, T Takatsuka, T Daibo, M Wakatsuchi
    JOURNAL OF OCEANOGRAPHY 62 (1) 47 - 61 0916-8370 2006/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Three High Frequency (HF) ocean radar stations were installed around the Soya/La Perouse Strait in the Sea of Okhotsk in order to monitor the Soya Warm Current (SWC). The frequency of the HF radar is 13.9 MHz, and the range and azimuth resolutions are 3 km and 5 deg., respectively. The radar covers a range of approximately 70 km from the coast. The surface current velocity observed by the HF radars was compared with data from drifting buoys and shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs). The current velocity derived from the HF radars shows good agreement with that observed using the drifting buoys. The root-mean-square (rms) differences were found to be less than 20 cm s(-1) for the zonal and meridional components in the buoy comparison. The observed current velocity was also found to exhibit reasonable agreement with the shipboard ADCP data. It was shown that the HF radars clearly capture seasonal and short-term variations of the SWC. The velocity of the Soya Warm Current reaches its maximum, approximately 1 m s(-1), in summer and weakens in winter. The velocity core is located 20 to 30 km from the coast, and its width is approximately 40 km. The surface transport by the SWC shows a significant correlation with the sea level difference along the strait, as derived from coastal tide gauge records at Wakkanai and Abashiri.
  • G Mizuta, KI Ohshima, Y Fukamachi, M Wakatsuchi
    JOURNAL OF MARINE RESEARCH 63 (6) 1017 - 1039 0022-2402 2005/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Long-term current measurements of the East Sakhalin Current (ESC) in the Sea of Okhotsk are analyzed using the technique of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) in the frequency domain. The first and second EOFs at subtidal frequencies represent motions over the continental shelf and slope, respectively, corresponding to the variability of the two cores of the intense ESC. The first EOF can be explained by the first-mode coastal trapped wave (CTW). The structure of the second EOF is similar to that of the second-mode CTW to the first approximation. According to the distribution of the cross-spectra between EOFs and the wind stress over the whole area of the Sea of Okhotsk, the first EOF is correlated with the alongshore component of the wind stress over the northern and western shelves. The distribution of the phase of the wind stress, which is correlated with the first EOF, indicates that a resonance between the CTW and wind stress drives the motion represented by the first EOF at lower frequencies. At higher frequencies the phase of the wind stress correlated with the first EOF is almost uniform in space, being consistent with the greater speed of phase propagation of the EOF compared with that for the free CTW at these frequencies. The second EOF is correlated with the wind stress curl in the central part of the Sea of Okhotsk. The motion by the second EOF is confined over the slope at lower frequencies and becomes large over the shelf at higher frequencies. This change in the structure of the second EOF is consistent with the results of the numerical experiment of the flow induced by the offshore forcing by Chapman and Brink (1987). The phase of the wind stress curl which is correlated with the second EOF changes clearly in space at some frequencies, suggesting that the motion represented by the second EOF propagates along the isobath with the coast to the fight. The wind stress curl contains the wavenumber resonant with the lowest two or three modes of CTWs.
  • KI Ohshima, Y Fukamachi, T Mutoh, M Wakatsuchi
    JOURNAL OF OCEANOGRAPHY 61 (2) 247 - 260 0916-8370 2005/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Mesoscale eddies, particularly anticyclonic ones, are dominant features in the Kuril Basin of the Okhotsk Sea. In 1999, both surface drifter and hydrographic observations caught the same anticyclonic eddy northwest of Bussol' Strait, which has a diameter of similar to100 km, typical surface velocity of 0.2-0.3 m s(-1), and less dense core extending to a depth of similar to1200 m. Based on an idea that the generation of mesoscale eddies is caused by strong tidal mixing in and around Kuril Straits, we have conducted a series of three-dimensional numerical model experiments, in which strong tidal mixing is simply parameterized by increasing coefficients of vertical eddy viscosity and diffusivity along the eastern boundary. Initially, a regular series of disturbances with a wavelength of similar to70 km starts to develop. The disturbances can be clearly explained by a linear instability theory and regarded as the baroclinic instability associated with the near-surface front formed in the region between the enhanced mixing and offshore regions. In the mature phase, the disturbances grow large enough that some eddies pinch off and advect offshore (westward), with the scale of disturbances increasing gradually. Typical eddy scale and its westward propagation speed are similar to100 krn and similar to0.6 km day(-1), respectively, which are consistent with the observations by satellites. The westward propagation can be explained partly due to nonlinear effect of self-offshore advection and partly due to the beta-effect. With the inclusion of the upper ocean restoring, the dominance of anticyclonic eddy, extending from surface to a depth of similar to1200 m, can be reproduced.
  • Y Fukamachi, G Mizuta, KI Ohshima, LD Talley, SC Riser, M Wakatsuchi
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 109 (C9) doi:10.1029/2003JC001906  2169-9275 2004/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The region off the east coast of Sakhalin is thought of as an important pathway of dense shelf water (DSW) from its production region in the northwestern Okhotsk Sea to the southern Okhotsk Sea. From July 1998 to June 2000, the first long-term mooring experiment was carried out in this region to observe the southward flowing East Sakhalin Current (ESC) and DSW. Moored and associated hydrographic data show considerable modification of cold dense water via mixing with warm offshore water in the slope region off northern Sakhalin. Significant onshore eddy heat flux was observed at the northernmost mooring (54.9degreesN), which suggests the occurrence of baroclinic instability. The eddy heat flux was not significant farther south. At moorings along 53degreesN, cold anticyclonic eddies were identified that were consistent with isolated eddies seen in the hydrographic data. The three years of hydrographic data also showed large differences in extent and properties of DSW. Furthermore, the mooring data show that seasonal variability of DSW was quite different in the two years. The average DSW transport for sigma(theta) > 26.7 evaluated using the moored data at 53degreesN for 1 year (1998-1999) was similar to0.21 Sv (= 10(6) m(3) s(-1)). This value is at the lower end of the previous indirect estimates. Along with the DSW modification, this transport estimate indicates that DSW was not only carried southward by the ESC but was spread offshore by eddies off northern Sakhalin.
  • G Mizuta, KI Ohshima, Y Fukamachi, M Itoh, M Wakatsuchi
    CONTINENTAL SHELF RESEARCH 24 (6) 643 - 657 0278-4343 2004/04 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Hydrographic observations under sea ice were conducted in the southwestern part of the Sea of Okhotsk for 4 years from 1996 to 1999. Every year a cold mixed layer with near-freezing temperature was distributed from the sea surface to a depth of 150-300 m near the shelf break under sea ice. The thicknesses of the mixed layer and sea ice were largest in 1997. While the depth of the mixed layer was considerably deeper than that of dichothermal water, which is identified as a temperature minimum from spring to fall in this region, the density of water in the mixed layer was equal to or less than that of dichothermal water. It is shown that deepening of isopycnals due to the alongshore component of the wind stress is essential for thickening of the mixed layer. In 1997 the nearly northerly winds, which are usually directed offshore, were more parallel to the coast than those in the other years. Thickening of the mixed layer in 1997 is attributed to this wind condition. The air temperature and wind indicate that the sea-ice production rate was low in 1997, whereas the wind direction was favorable for rafting and ridging. Thus the change in wind direction is proposed As an important factor in determining the thickness of both the mixed layer and the sea ice in this region. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • KI Ohshima, D Simizu, M Itoh, G Mizuta, Y Fukamachi, SC Riser, M Wakatsuchi
    JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY 34 (2) 513 - 525 0022-3670 2004/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    It is proposed that the cyclonic gyre over the northern half-basin of the Okhotsk Sea is driven by the wind stress curl and that a major part of the East Sakhalin Current (ESC) can be regarded as its western boundary current. Both from the high-resolution ECMWF and Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Dataset (COADS) data, the annual mean wind stress curl is positive over the sea. When the Sverdrup streamfunction is calculated by excluding the shallow shelves, the streamfunction shows a cyclonic pattern over the central basin, which is roughly consistent with the geopotential anomaly distribution from all the available hydrographic data. Profiling floats suggest that the cyclonic gyre extends to at least a depth of 500 m: a relatively intense southward flow (ESC) with an average speed of approximately 10 cm s(-1) near the western boundary and slow northward flow with an average speed of approximately 2 cm s(-1) in the east. Climatological data show that along zonal sections at 50degrees-53degreesN isopycnal surfaces gradually rise from the east to west and sharply drop near the western boundary, suggesting the Sverdrup balance. This feature persists throughout the year. The integrated northward baroclinic transport of 3.5 Sv along 53degreesN is comparable to the Sverdrup transport of 3.7 Sv, calculated from the annual mean wind stress. Sverdrup balance appears to hold roughly in the baroclinic field in 50degrees-53degreesN. A flat-bottom numerical model forced by realistic wind stress reproduces well the cyclonic gyre, with the observed baroclinic features. In the south, the anticyclonic circulation in the Kuril Basin cannot be explained by the wind stress curl inside the Okhotsk Sea in this simplified model.
  • Nakatsuka, T, T. Fujimune, C. Yoshikawa, S. Noriki, K. Kawamura, Y. Fukamachi, G. Mizuta, M. Wakatsuchi
    Journal of Geophysical Research 109 doi:10.1029/2003JC001908  2004 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • G Mizuta, Y Fukamachi, KI Ohshima, M Wakatsuchi
    JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY 33 (11) 2430 - 2445 0022-3670 2003/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In order to clarify the structure and seasonal variability of the flow field near the western boundary of the Sea of Okhotsk, long-term mooring measurements were carried out from 1998 to 2000 in this region. In most of the mooring period a persistent southward flow (the East Sakhalin Current) was observed, which extends from the surface to a depth around 1000 m. The speed of this southward flow clearly changed seasonally. The peak monthly mean speed along 53degreesN at a depth of 200 m attained a maximum of 37 6 9 cm s(-1) in January and a minimum of 10 +/- 8 cm s(-1) in July. Three different cores of intense flow were identified in the southward flow. The first core was centered over the continental slope and had rather large vertical extent, reaching the bottom on the slope. The second core was trapped over the shelf near the surface and was observed from October to November. This core was associated with less saline surface water affected by the Amur River discharge. The third core was intensified toward the bottom on the slope. The spatial and temporal distribution of this bottom-intensified core coincided with that of dense shelf water, which is formed over the broad shelf in the north. The intensity of this core damped within a few hundred kilometers from the northern end of Sakhalin probably because of strong mixing of dense shelf water with surrounding waters. The total transport of the southward flow at 53degreesN was 6.7 x 10(6) m(3) s(-1) in the annual average, varying from a maximum of 12.3 x 10(6) m(3) s(-1) in February and a minimum of 1.2 x 10(6) m(3) s(-1) in October. Most of the transport was maintained by the first core of the southward flow.
  • Y Fukamachi, G Mizuta, KI Ohshima, H Melling, D Fissel, M Wakatsuchi
    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 30 (7) doi:10.1029/2002GL016197  0094-8276 2003/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    [1] Using a moored ice-profiling sonar along with an ADCP, a spatial section of draft across 855 km of sea ice was obtained for the first time in the southwestern part of the Okhotsk Sea near Hokkaido in winter of 1999. The draft evolved from 0.20 m in mid-February to 1.45 m in late March with the overall value of 0.72 m. The draft characteristics were quite different between February and March before and after the period of strong winds. The increase of the mean draft from February to March was associated with the increase of deformed ice. The maximum draft observed was similar to17 m. Ice volume was dominated by the contribution from portions of deformed ice especially in March. These results suggest that deformed ice dominated in the region of observation and dynamical processes were mainly responsible for the evolution of draft.
  • T Matsuoka, S Uratsuka, M Satake, A Nadai, T Umehara, H Maeno, H Wakabayashi, F Nishio, Y Fukamachi
    ANNALS OF GLACIOLOGY, VOL 34, 2002 34 429 - 434 0260-3055 2002 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Dual-frequency, multi-polarization airborne synthetic aperture radar (Pi-SAR; developed by the Communications Research Laboratory and National Space Development Agency of Japan) observations of the seasonal sea-ice region off Okhotsk coast of Hokkaido Japan, were carried out in February 1999 using X- and L-band radar frequencies with a resolution of 1.5 and 3.0 in. In conjunction with the SAR observations, the sea-ice thickness (draft) and velocity were Measured by a moored Ice Profiling Sonar (IPS) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Tracks of the sea Ice passing over the IPS were estimated front the time series of the ADCP ice-velocity and -direction data. Along these tracks, the SAR backscattering coefficient profiles were compared with the IPS ice-draft profiles. The results showed that the L-band SAR backscattering profiles correlated well with the IPS ice-draft data, particularly in the thicker part (a few meters thick) of the rim of first-year ice, which had a large backscattering coefficient. Although the X-band SAR backscattering profiles did not correlate well with the IPS data, thin ice (<10 cm thick) showed a large backscattering coefficient. The L-band SAR and IPS data did not distinguish thin ice front open water.
  • Near-surface circulation and tidal currents of the Okhotsk Sea observed with the satellite-tracked drifters
    Ohshima, K. I, M. Wakatsuchi, Y. Fukamachi, G. Mizuta
    Journal of Geophysical Research 107 doi:10/1029/2001JC001005  2002 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ohshima, K. I, G. Mizuta, M. Itoh, Y. Fukamachi, T. Watanabe, Y. Nabae, K. Suehiro, M. Wakatsuchi
    Journal of Ocenography 57 (4) 451 - 460 0916-8370 2001 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Y Fukamachi, M Wakatsuchi, K Taira, S Kitagawa, S Ushio, A Takahashi, K Oikawa, T Furukawa, H Yoritaka, M Fukuchi, T Yamanouchi
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 105 (C3) 6531 - 6540 0148-0227 2000/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The region off Adelie Land is considered as one of the sources of Antarctic Bottom Water. Hydrographic observations were carried out during two cruises in December 1994 and January 1995 and January and February 1996 in this region. Vertical sections along 140 degrees E show that bottom water is colder and fresher than the water above. This bottom water also has higher dissolved oxygen and lower silicate concentrations. The saline bottom water that originated from Ross Sea is not found in these hydrographic data obtained west of 142 degrees E. Current meter moorings were also carried out at three locations on the continental slope in this region, At one of these moorings (139 degrees 59'E, 65 degrees 10'S: 2665 m deep), data were successfully obtained from January 1995 to March 1996. Three current meters were deployed at 1075, 1778, and 2632 m deep in this mooring. The data show that the average current speed at the lower current meter is 16.2 cm s(-1); and it is about 3 times larger than those at the upper two current meters. Also, variability of speed and temperature is largest at the lower current meter. In addition, seasonal variability of speed and temperature is evident only at this current meter. From August to December? speed is larger by 5.7 cm s(-1) and temperature is lower by 0.27 degrees C. Also, their variability is larger during the same period. This seasonal variability observed near the bottom suggests seasonal variability of bottom water formation in this region.
  • Fukamachi, Y, K. I. Ohshima, T. Ishikawa
    Antarctic Research Series 74 317 - 324 1998 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Y FUKAMACHI, JP MCCREARY, JA PROEHL
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 100 (C2) 2559 - 2577 0148-0227 1995/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The instability of density fronts is investigated as a possible generation mechanism for the small-scale, wavelike patterns that are commonly observed along upwelling fronts and filaments. Unstable-wave solutions are obtained in two linearized models: a 1 1/2-layer model, and a continuously stratified model confined to the surface region of the ocean. In both systems the thickness of the upper region is held constant for the background state, the front being specified by allowing the temperature field T within the region to vary zonally. The background state in the layer model consists of vertically oriented isotherms associated with a depth-independent current, whereas in the continuously stratified model it consists of steeply tilted isotherms and a vertically sheared current. Solutions are found both when the background velocity field V is zonally uniform and when it is zonally sheared. When V is weak and zonally uniform, approximate solutions are derived analytically for both models that are valid for low-frequency, low-wavenumber waves. These solutions demonstrate that the unstable waves in the two systems are dynamically related, both being representations of ageostrophic baroclinic instability. Numerical solutions corroborate the analytic results and extend their range of validity. Energetics analyses confirm that the energy source for the waves is the background potential energy associated with the zonally varying T field. When V is a zonally sheared jet, the models still exhibit a band of instability, which is identifiable with ageostrophic baroclinic instability. The most unstable wave in this band has a short wavelength, a frequency near f/2, and a rapid growth rate consistent with observed features. The layer model also has a band of larger-scale waves that is a mixed, baroclinic-barotropic instability; however, for a typical frontal structure this band is weaker than the baroclinic band.
  • A NONLINEAR MECHANISM FOR MAINTAINING COASTALLY TRAPPED EASTERN BOUNDARY CURRENTS
    JP MCCREARY, Y FUKAMACHI, P LU
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 97 (C4) 5677 - 5692 0148-0227 1992/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Several versions of a 2 1/2-layer model are used to investigate a nonlinear mechanism for maintaining wind-driven currents trapped to an eastern ocean boundary. All the models neglect the advection terms in the momentum equations, retaining advection only in the continuity equations. Solutions are forced by a band of upwelling-favorable wind without curl. A possible solution to this system is a state of rest in which the upper layer pressure gradient everywhere balances the wind stress (the Sverdrup balance). As expected, solutions to a linearized version of the model adjust to this equilibrium state by the westward radiation of both mode-1 and mode-2 Rossby waves. In contrast, when the wind is sufficiently strong, the nonlinear solutions retain a reasonable coastal circulation (with an equatorward surface jet and a poleward undercurrent) even after 40 years of integration. The basic nonlinear process that causes this marked difference in response is the following: an onshore geostrophic flow, which compensates for offshore Ekman drift, is established by the radiation of mode-1 Rossby waves. and this current can be strong enough to reverse the propagation direction of mode-2 Rossby waves. As a consequence, the resulting eastern boundary currents are dynamically similar to the frictional, western boundary currents that occur in other models. The equilibrium state of the nonlinear solutions is presumably also a state of rest, but the diffusive adjustment occurs at such a slow rate that we have not been able to confirm this conclusion numerically.
  • McCreary, J. P, Y. Fukamachi, P. K. Kundu
    Journal of Geophysical Research 96 (C2) 2515 - 2534 0148-0227 1991 [Refereed][Not invited]

Conference Activities & Talks

  • サハリン沖係留観測に基づく高精度なAMSR-E薄氷厚アルゴリズムの開発  [Not invited]
    柏瀬陽彦, 大島慶一郎, 深町康, 二橋創平, 田村岳史
    海洋学会秋季大会 富山  2019/09
  • カービング氷河の融解に伴う海洋への鉄供給過程  [Not invited]
    漢那直也, 杉山慎, 深町康, 野村大樹, 西岡純
    海洋学会秋季大会 富山  2019/09
  • グリーンランド北西部ボードインフィヨルドにおける氷河近傍での係留観測  [Not invited]
    藤支良貴, 深町康, 漢那直也, 杉山慎
    海洋学会秋季大会 富山  2019/09
  • グリーンランド北西部ボードイン氷河近傍の海洋における水温,塩分,流速の長期観測  [Not invited]
    藤支 良貴, 深町 康, 漢那 直也, 杉山 慎
    雪氷学会北海道支部研究発表会  2019/05
  • Interactions between sea-ice drift and near-inertial internal waves in the Northwind Abyssal Plain, Arctic Ocean: year-round mooring observations  [Not invited]
    Yusuke Kawaguchi
    EGU General Assembly 2019  2019/04
  • Mooring measurement of sea ice and ocean in the northeastern coastal Chukchi Sea from 2009  [Invited]
    Fukamachi, Y
    Japan-U.S. Arctic Science Collaboration “Reflections on the Past Two Decades and Future Opportunities”  2019/03
  • HU-UAF collaboration over the past 20 years in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic  [Not invited]
    Saitoh, S, Y. Fukamachi
    Japan-U.S. Arctic Science Collaboration “Reflections on the Past Two Decades and Future Opportunities”  2019/03
  • Bio-related material cycle in a coastal polynya observed with moored acoustic and optical instruments in the northeastern Chukchi Sea  [Not invited]
    Masato Ito, Kay I. Ohshima, Yasushi Fukamachi, Hajo Eicken, Andrew R. Mahoney, Joshua Jones, Toru Takatsuka
    The Ninth Symposium on Polar Science  2018/12
  • チュクチ海ポリニヤ域における音響・光学測器による物質循環過程の観測  [Not invited]
    伊藤優人, 大島慶一郎, 深町康, Hajo Eicken,Andrew, R. Mahoney, Joshua Jones
    2018年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2018/09  東京
  • グリーンランド北西部におけるカービング氷河前縁フィヨルドの海水特性  [Not invited]
    漢那直也, 杉山慎, 榊原大貴, 深町康, 野村大樹
    2018年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2018/09  東京
  • グリーンランド北西部ボードウィンフィヨルドにおける海洋観測  [Not invited]
    藤支良貴, 杉山慎, 漢那直也, 深町康
    雪氷研究大会  2018/09  札幌
     
    地震の影響で中止
  • 北海道と海氷:海氷の減少とその影響  [Not invited]
    深町康
    バイオミメティクス市民セミナー(第79回)「北海道とバイオミメティクスを考える その3 寒冷地とバイオミメティクス」  2018/07  札幌
  • Effects of glacial meltwater discharge on surface water pCO2 and air–sea CO2 flux in Bowdoin Fjord in northwestern Greenland  [Not invited]
    Daiki Nomura, N. Kanna, S. Yunoki, D. Sakakibara, Y. Fukamachi, T. Hirawake, S. Sugiyama
    Polar 2018  2018/06  Davos, Switzerland
  • Monitoring of the Soya Warm Current by HF Ocean Radars since 2003  [Not invited]
    Naoto Ebuchi, Yasushi Fukamachi, Kay I. Ohshima, Toru Takatsuka, Masao Ishikawa, Kunio Shirasawa, Masaaki Wakatsuchi
    The 4th Ocean Radar Conference for Asia-Pacific  2018/06  Naha, Japan
  • An evidence of a subglacial freshwater discharge into a fjord at the boundary of Bowdoin Glacier, northwestern Greenland  [Not invited]
    KANNA, Naoya, SUGIYAMA, Shin, SAKAKIBARA, Daiki, FUKAMACHI, Yasushi, NOMURA Daiki, FUKUMOTO, Sungo, PODOLSKIY, Evgeniy
    JpGU Meeting 2018  2018/05  Chiba, Japan
  • チュクチ海北東部沿岸域における海氷厚の経年変動  [Not invited]
    深町康, 大島慶一郎, Andrew, R. Mahoney, Hajo Eicken, 清水大輔, 岩本勉之, 守家衣利加, 高塚徹, Joshua Jones
    ArCS全体会合  2018/05  横浜
  • George, Alaska coastal sea ice in the new millennium: Findings from the Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network and implications for sustained autonomous observations of a rapidly changing Arctic  [Not invited]
    Eicken, Mahoney, Lee, Johnson, Jones, Ohshima, Fukamachi
    2018 Ocean Sciences Meeting  2018/02  Portland, USA
  • Transports of macronutrient and inorganic carbon to surface waters by subglacial meltwater plume in Bowdoin Fjord in northwest Greenland  [Not invited]
    N. Kanna, S. Sugiyama, Y. Ohashi, D. Sakakibara, B. Nishizawa, I. Asaji, Y. Fukamachi, D. Nomura
    2018 Ocean Sciences Meeting  2018/02  Portland, USA
  • High Ice Production in Antarctic Coastal Polynyas and Its Possible Linkage to Material Cycle and Biological Productivity (Invited)  [Not invited]
    Kay I. Ohshima, Masato Ito, Sohey Nihashi, Yasushi Fukamachi, Kazuki Nakata, Daisuke Simizu
    2018 Ocean Sciences Meeting  2018/02  Portland, USA
  • Seasonal variability of near-inertial internal waves in the Northwind Abyssal Plain, Arctic Ocean  [Not invited]
    Y. Kawaguchi, M. Itoh, Y. Fukamachi, E. Moriya, N. Onodera, T. Kikuchi
    Fifth International Symposium on Arctic Research (ISAR-5)  2018/01  Tokyo
  • Sea-ice thickness from moored ice-profiling sonar in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean  [Not invited]
    Motoyo Itoh, Yasushi Fukamachi, Noriaki Kimura, Richar, A. Krishfield, Takashi Kikuchi, Erika Moriya, Jonaotaro Onodera, Naomi Harada
    Fifth International Symposium on Arctic Research (ISAR-5)  2018/01  Tokyo
  • Continuous Sea-ice Thickness Measurement in the Northeastern Coastal Chukchi Sea from 2009  [Not invited]
    Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, A. R. Mahoney, H. Eicken, D. Simizu, K. Iwamoto, E. Moriya, T. Takatsuka, J. Jones
    Fifth International Symposium on Arctic Research (ISAR-5)  2018/01  Tokyo
  • Sea-ice thickness from moored ice-profiling sonar in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean  [Not invited]
    Motoyo Itoh, Yasushi Fukamachi, Noriaki Kimura, Richar, A. Krishfield, Takashi Kikuchi, Erika Moriya, Jonaotaro Onodera, Naomi Harada
    Arctic Change 2017  2017/12  Québec, Canada
  • Mooring measurement in Bowdoin Fjord in northwestern Greenland  [Not invited]
    Yasushi Fukamachi, Naoya Kanna, Shin Sugiyama, Yoshihiko Ohashi, Daiki Sakakibara, Daiki Nomura
    The 8th Symposium on Polar Science  2017/12  Tachikawa, Japan
  • 急激に変化する北極海の環境とその社会への影響  [Not invited]
    深町康
    北海道大学低温科学研究所公開講座  2017/11  札幌
  • 係留観測による北極海カナダ海盆の海氷厚の季節変動  [Not invited]
    伊東素代, 深町康, 木村詞明, R.A. Krishfield, 菊地隆, 守家衣利加, 小野寺丈尚太郎, 原田尚美
    日本海洋学会2017年度秋季大会  2017/10  仙台
  • グリーンランド北西部Bowdoinフィヨルドにおける氷河流出水の挙動の時間発展  [Not invited]
    大橋良彦, 青木茂, 松村義正, 杉山慎, 漢那直也, 榊原大貴, 深町康
    日本海洋学会2017年度秋季大会  2017/10  仙台
  • 氷河融氷水の流出が駆動するグリーンランドフィヨルドにおける栄養塩輸送過程  [Not invited]
    漢那直也, 杉山慎, 大橋良彦, 榊原大貴, 西沢文吾, 浅地泉, 深町康
    日本海洋学会2017年度秋季大会  2017/10  仙台
  • カービング氷河の高濁度融解水流出がフィヨルド生態系へ与える影響  [Not invited]
    漢那直也, 杉山慎, 大橋良彦, 榊原大貴, 西沢文吾, 浅地泉, 深町康, 阿部義之, 山口篤
    日本雪氷学会 雪氷研究大会2017  2017/09  十日町
  • Sea Ice Velocity Observation by HF Ocean Radar  [Not invited]
    W. Zhang, N. Ebuchi, Y. Fukamachi, B. Emery
    International Radiowave Oceanography Workshop  2017/09  Lüneburg, Germany
  • グリーンランド北西部ボードイン氷河前縁部における海洋観測  [Not invited]
    漢那直也, 杉山慎, 榊原大貴, 深町康, 野村大樹, 福本俊吾, 山崎新太郎, E. Podolskiy
    北海道大学低温科学研究所共同利用集会  2017/08  札幌
  • The Suppression Of Antarctic Bottom Water Formation By Melting Ice Shelves In Prydz Bay  [Not invited]
    Guy WILLIAMS, Laura HERRAIZ-BORREGUERO, Fabien ROQUET, Takeshi TAMURA, Kay OHSHIMA, Yasushi FUKAMACHI, Alexander FRASER, Libao GAO, Hongxia CHEN, Clive MCMAHON, Robert HARCOURT, Mark HINDELL
    14th Annual Meeting of Asia Oceania Geosciences Society  2017/08  Singapore
  • easonal variability of near-inertial internal waves and its kinetic energy in the ice-diminishing Arctic Ocean  [Not invited]
    Yusuke Kawaguchi, Motoyo Itoh, Takashi Kikuchi, Jonaotaro Onodera, Naomi Harada, Yasushi Fukamachi, Erika Moriya
    JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017  2017/05  Chiba, Japan
  • Effect of subglacial meltwater plume formation on phytoplankton growth in the fjord of Bowdoin Glacier in northwest Greenland  [Not invited]
    Naoya Kanna, Shin Sugiyama, Yoshihiko Ohashi, Daiki Sakakibara, Bungo Nishizawa, Izumi Asaji, Yasushi Fukamachi
    JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017  2017/05  Chiba, Japan
  • Abrupt changes and interactions of polar oceans and ice sheets as a research subject in Master Plan 2020  [Not invited]
    Shin Sugiyama, Yasushi Fukamachi, Kay I. Ohshima, Shigeru Aoki, Teruo Aoki, Michiyo Yamamoto-Kawai, Takashi Kikuchi, Daisuke Hirano
    JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017  2017/05  Chiba, Japan
  • Subglacial meltwater discharge and its impact on water properties in Bowdoin Fjord, northwestern Greenland  [Not invited]
    Yoshihiko Ohashi, Shigeru Aoki, Yoshimasa Matsumura, Shin Sugiyama, Naoya Kanna, Daiki Sakakibara, Yasushi Fukamachi
    JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017  2017/05  Chiba, Japan
  • Variability of sea-ice thickness in the northeastern coastal Chukchi Sea revealed by a moored ice-profiling sonar  [Invited]
    Fukamachi Yasushi, Simizu Daisuke, Ohshima Kay, Eicken Hajo, Mahoney Andrew, Iwamoto Katsushi, Moriya Erika, Nihashi Sohey
    JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017  2017/05  Chiba, Japan
  • 北極海の海氷消失が及ぼす北極海の乱流化について – ノースウインド深海平原における係留系データの解析 -  [Not invited]
    川口悠介, 伊東素代, 菊地隆, 小野寺丈尚太郎, 原田尚美, 深町康, 守家衣利加
    ブルーアース2017  2017/03  東京
  • Sea ice field course at Saroma Lagoon and Okhotsk Sea by International Antarctic Institute  [Not invited]
    Aoki, S, Fukamachi, Y, Toyota, T, Hirawake, T, Mizuta, G, Matsumura, Y, Ohshima, K. I
    The 32nd International Symposium on the Okhotsk Sea & Polar Oceans  2017/02  Monbetsu, Japan
  • Underwater frazil ice formation in the Sakhalin polynya  [Not invited]
    Ito, M, Ohshima, K. I, Fukamachi, Y, Shirasawa, K
    The 32nd International Symposium on the Okhotsk Sea & Polar Oceans  2017/02  Monbetsu, Japan
  • Variability of sea-ice thickness in the northeastern coastal Chukchi Sea revealed by a moored ice-profiling sonar  [Not invited]
    Fukamachi, Y, Simizu, D, Ohshima, K. I, Eicken, H, Mahoney, A. R, Iwamoto, K, Moriya, E, Nihashi, S
    The 32nd International Symposium on the Okhotsk Sea & Polar Oceans  2017/02  Monbetsu, Japan
  • Turbid meltwater discharge and its impact on phytoplankton growth in the fjord of Bowdoin Glacier in northwest Greenland  [Not invited]
    Kanna, N, Sugiyama, S, Ohashi, Y, Sakakibara, D, Nishizawa, B, Asaji, I, Fukamachi, Y
    Workshop on the Dynamics and Mass Budget of Arctic Glaciers & the IASC Network on Arctic Glaciology Annual Meeting  2017/01  Bethel, USA
  • Variability of sea-ice thickness in the northeastern coastal Chukchi Sea revealed by a moored ice-profiling sonar  [Not invited]
    Fukamachi, Y
    Workshop on Sea Ice Remote Sensing and Modeling  2017/01  Tokyo
  • Landfast Sea Ice Breakouts: Stabilizing Ice Features, Oceanic and Atmospheric Forcing at Barrow, Alaska  [Not invited]
    Jones, J, Eicken, H, Manoney, A. R, Kambhamettu, R. MV, C, Fukamachi, Y, Ohshima, K. I, George, C
    2016 AGU Fall Meeting  2016/12  San Francisco, USA
  • The observation of underwater frazil ice formation and upward sediment transport in an Arctic polynya in the Chukchi Sea  [Not invited]
    Ito, M, Ohshima, K. I, Fukamachi, Y, Simizu D, Mahoney, A. R, Eicken, H
    2016 AGU Fall Meeting  2016/12  San Francisco, USA
  • Modeling glacial meltwater runoff process in Bowdoin Fjord, northwestern Greenland  [Not invited]
    Ohashi Yoshihiko, Aoki Shigeru, Matsumura Yoshimasa, Sugiyama Shin, Kanna Naoya, Sakakibara Daiki, Fukamachi Yasushi
    The Seventh Symposium on Polar Science  2016/12  Tachikawa, Japan
  • Changes in seabird density relative to oceanographic gradients in the glacial fjord in northwestern Greenland  [Not invited]
    Nishizawa Bungo, Kanna Naoya, Ohashi Yoshihiko, Sakakibara Daiki, Asaji Izumi, Sugiyama Shin, Fukamachi Yasushi, Watanuki Yutaka
    The Seventh Symposium on Polar Science  2016/12  Tachikawa, Japan
  • Turbid water and chlorophyll a distributions near the interface of the ocean and a tidewater glacier in northwest Greenland  [Not invited]
    Kanna Naoya, Sugiyama Shin, Ohashi Yoshihiko, Sakakibara Daiki, Nishizawa Bungo, Asaji Izumi, Fukamachi Yasushi
    The Seventh Symposium on Polar Science  2016/12  Tachikawa, Japan
  • Interannual variabilties of fluxes in Barrow Canyon from 2010-2014 : results from the DBO-5 repeat section  [Not invited]
    Itoh Motoyo, Kikuchi Takashi, Fukamachi Yasushi, Pickart Robert, collaborators
    2016 PAG Fall Meeting  2016/10  Qingdao, China
  • サハリンポリニヤにおける過冷却水とフラジルアイスの生成  [Not invited]
    伊藤優人, 大島慶一郎, 深町康
    2016年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2016/09  鹿児島
  • 係留観測に基づくAMSR-E薄氷厚アルゴリズムの開発とオホーツク海の海氷生産量マッピング  [Not invited]
    柏瀬陽彦, 大島慶一郎, 深町康, 二橋創平
    2016年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2016/09  鹿児島
  • Sea Ice Velocity Observation by HF Ocean Radar  [Not invited]
    張偉, 江淵直人, 深町康, Emery Brian, 程豊, 阿部泰人, 豊田威信, 白澤邦男
    2016年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2016/03  東京
  • 南極海氷コアから推定される昭和基地周辺の定着氷の発達・崩壊過程  [Not invited]
    豊田威信, 牛尾収輝, 田村岳史, 野村大樹, 清水大輔, 深町康, 松村義正, Fraser Alexander
    2016年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2016/03  東京
  • アラスカ沖バロー沿岸ポリニヤにおける海氷生産量の経年変動  [Not invited]
    平野大輔, 深町康, 渡邉英嗣, 大島慶一郎, 岩本勉之, Mahoney Andrew, Eicken Hajo, 清水大輔, 田村岳史
    2016年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2016/03  東京
  • ケープダンレー底層水形成に関わる乱流混合の役割  [Not invited]
    平野大輔, 北出裕二郎, 大島慶一郎, 深町康
    2016年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2016/03  東京
  • 海氷結氷期における海底堆積物の上方輸送の観測  [Not invited]
    伊藤優人, 大島慶一郎, 西岡純, 楠本仁麦, 水田元太, 深町康
    2016年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2016/03  東京
  • Formation and Variability of Antarctic Bottom Water off Cape Darnley: the Fourth Antarctic Bottom Water  [Not invited]
    Ohshima, K. I, Nakayama, Y, Fukamachi, Y, Matsumura, Y, Nihashi, S, Tamura, T, Kitade, Y, Hirano, D, Shimizu, D, Aoki S
    2016 AGU Ocean Sciences Meeting  2016/02  New Orleans, USA
  • Observations of frazil ice formation and sediment upward transport off the northeast coast of Sakhalin  [Not invited]
    Ito M, Ohshima, K. I, Nishioka, J, Kusumoto, Y, Mizuta, G, Fukamachi, Y
    The 31th International Symposium on Okhotsk Sea & Sea Ice  2016/02  Monbetsu, Japan
  • Validation of AMSR-E thin ice algorithm based on moored ice profiling sonar measurement  [Not invited]
    Fukamachi, Y, Ohshima, K. I, Iwamoto, K, Tamura, T, Nihashi, S
    Workshop on satellite data for Arctic research and applications, Side event during Arctic Frontiers 2016  2016/01  Tromsø, Norway
  • Sea ice velocity observation by HF radar: Comparison with ADCP and buoy drifter measurements  [Not invited]
    Zhang, W, Ebuchi, N, Emery, B, Fukamachi, Y, Abe, H.. Shirasawa, K.. Toyota,T
    研究集会「海洋レーダーを用いた海況監視システムの開発と応用」  2015/12  春日
  • ハイブリッド特性を有するバロー沿岸ポリニヤにおける海氷生産量の経年変動  [Not invited]
    平野大輔, 深町康, 渡邉英嗣, 岩本勉之, Andrew Mahoney, Hajo Eicken, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 田村岳史
    第6回極域科学シンポジウム  2015/11  立川
  • 南極底層水を起点とする熱塩循環・物質循環のダイナミクス  [Not invited]
    大島慶一郎, 川合美千代, 北出裕二郎, 勝又勝郎, 深町康, 田村岳史, 青木茂
    第6回極域科学シンポジウム  2015/11  立川
  • チャクチ海バロー沖におけるフラジルアイス生成と海底堆積物の上方輸送の観測  [Not invited]
    伊藤優人, 大島慶一郎, 深町康, 清水大輔, Andrew R. Mahoney, Hajo Eicken
    第6回極域科学シンポジウム  2015/11  立川
  • 北極バロー沖沿岸ポリニヤにおけるフラジルアイスの生成・沈降と堆積物粒子の上方輸送の観測  [Not invited]
    伊藤優人, 大島慶一郎, 深町康, 清水大輔, A. R. Mahoney, H. Eicken
    2015年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2015/09  愛媛
  • Sea ice formation on continental shelves: a comparison of water mass signals near an Antarctic ice shelf and off the Alaskan coast  [Not invited]
    Inga J. Smith, Alex J. Gough, Patricia J. Langhorne, Hajo Eicken, Andrew R. Mahoney, Gregory H. Leonard, Robert Van Hale, Yasushi Fukamachi, Stefan Jendersie, Joshua Jones, Timothy G. Haskell
    IGS International Symposium on Contemporary Ice-Sheet Dynamics  2015/08  Cambridge, UK
  • Numerical Investigation of Formation and Variability of Antarctic Bottom Water off Cape Darnley  [Not invited]
    Nakayama, Y, Ohshima, K. I, Matsumura, Y, Fukamachi, Y, Hiroyasu, H
    26th IUGG General Assembly 2015  2015/07  Prague, Czech Republic
  • The fourth Antarctic Bottom Water: Cape Darnley Bottom Water  [Not invited]
    Ohshima, K. I, Fukamachi, Williams, G. D, Nihashi, S, Tamura, T, Kitade, Y, Hirano, D, Aoki, S, Wakatsuchi, M
    26th IUGG General Assembly 2015  2015/07  Prague, Czech Republic
  • A wind-driven, hybrid latent and sensible heat coastal polynya at Barrow, Alaska  [Not invited]
    Hirano, D, Y. Fukamachi, E. Watanabe, K. Iwamoto, A. R. Mahoney, H. Eicken, D. Simizu, K. I. Ohshima, T. Tamura
    26th IUGG General Assembly 2015  2015/06  Prague, Czech Republic
  • Sediment upward dispersion and frail ice formation by strong wnd events -A possible mechanism of iron supply to sea ice  [Not invited]
    Ito, M, K. I. Ohshima, J. Nishioka, Y. Kusumoto, G. Mizuta, Y. Fukamachi
    ESSAS Annual Science Meeting  2015/06  Seattle, USA
  • Characteristics of sea-ice draft revealed by a moored ice-profiling sonar in the Chukchi Sea off Barrow, Alaska  [Not invited]
    Fukamachi. Y, Simizu, D, Ohshima, K. I, Iwamoto, K, Eicken, H, Mahoney, A. R
    Fourth International Symposium on the Arctic Research (ISAR-4)  2015/04  Toyama
  • SIZONet: Multi-purpose, multi-platform observations to inform responses to an Arctic sea ice cover in transformation  [Not invited]
    Eicken, H, Mahoney, A. R, Dammann, D. O, Jones, J, Hendricks, S, Fukamachi, Y, Ohshima, K. I, Haas, C, Gerland, S, Makshtas, A
    Fourth International Symposium on the Arctic Research (ISAR-4)  2015/04  Toyama
  • A wind-driven, hybrid latent and sensible heat coastal polynya at Barrow, Alaska  [Not invited]
    Hirano, D, Y. Fukamachi, E. Watanabe, K. Iwamoto, A. R. Mahoney, H. Eicken, D. Simizu, K. I. Ohshima, T. Tamura
    Forth International Symposium on the Arctic Research (ISAR-4)  2015/04  Toyama
  • 強風イベントによる海底堆積物の上方輸送とフラジルアイス生成-海氷への鉄供給メカニズム-  [Not invited]
    伊藤優人, 大島慶一郎, 西岡純, 楠本仁麦, 水田元太, 深町康
    2015年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2015/03  東京
  • 係留観測による北極チャクチ海沿岸域の海氷厚に関する研究  [Not invited]
    守家衣利加, 深町康, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 高塚徹, 岩本勉之, Mahoney Andrew R, Jones Joshua, Eicken Hajo
    2015年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2015/03  東京
  • ビンセネス湾沖における南極底層水の特性  [Not invited]
    北出裕二郎, 嶋田啓資, 白井優, 青木茂, 深町康, 田村岳史, 牛尾収輝, 大島慶一郎
    2015年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2015/03  東京
  • アラスカ沖バロー沿岸ポリニヤの特徴(Ⅱ)  [Not invited]
    平野大輔, 深町康, 渡邉英嗣, 岩本勉之, MahoneAndrew, Eicken Hajo, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 田村岳史
    2015年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2015/03  東京
  • リュツォ・ホルム湾定着氷域での海氷厚の分布と変動  [Not invited]
    杉本風子, 大島慶一郎, 田村岳史, 宇都正太郎, 下田春人, 清水大輔, 舘山一孝, 星野聖太, 深町康, 尾関俊浩, 牛尾収輝
    2015年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2015/03  東京
  • Sediment upward dispersion and frazil ice formation by strong windy events in the Sea of Okhotsk observed with ADCP. -A possible mechanism of iron supply to sea ice-  [Not invited]
    Ito, M, Ohshima, K. I, Nishioka, J, Kusumoto, Y, Mizuta, G, Fukamachi, Y
    The 30th International Symposium on Okhotsk Sea & Sea Ice  2015/02  Monbetsu, Japan
  • チャクチ海アラスカバロー沖における海氷厚の係留観測  [Not invited]
    守家衣利加, 深町康, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 高塚徹, 岩本勉之, Mahoney Andrew R, Jones Joshua, Eicken Hajo
    第5回極域科学シンポジウム  2014/12  立川
  • アラスカ沖バロー沿岸ポリニヤの特徴  [Not invited]
    平野大輔, 深町康, 渡邉英嗣, 岩本勉之, Andrew Mahoney, Hajo Eicken, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 田村岳史
    第5回極域科学シンポジウム  2014/12  立川
  • ビンセネス湾沖南極底層水の特性  [Not invited]
    北出裕二郎, 嶋田啓資, 白井優, 青木茂, 田村岳史, 深町康, 牛尾収輝, 大島慶一郎
    第5回極域科学シンポジウム  2014/12  立川
  • A wind-driven, hybrid latent and sensible heat coastal polynya at Barrow, Alaska  [Not invited]
    Hirano, D, Y. Fukamachi, E. Watanabe, K. Iwamoto, A. Mahoney, H. Eicken, D. Shimizu, K. I. Ohshima, T. Tamura
    AGU Fall Meeting 2014  2014/11  San Francisco, USA
  • アラスカ沖バロー沿岸ポリニヤの特徴(Ⅰ)  [Not invited]
    平野大輔, 深町康, 渡邉英嗣, 岩本勉之, Andrew Mahoney, Hajo Eicken, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 田村岳史
    2014年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2014/09  長崎
  • Antarctic Bottom Water production from intense sea-ice formation in the Cape Darnley Polynya  [Invited]
    Ohshima, K. I, Y. Fukamachi, G. D. Williams, S. Nihashi, T. Tamura, Y. Kitade, D. Hirano, S. Aoki, M. Wakatsuchi
    11th Annual Meeting, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society  2014/08  Sapporo, Japan
  • 第4の南極底層水:ケープダンレー底層水  [Not invited]
    大島慶一郎, 深町康, Williams, G. D, 二橋創平, 田村岳史, 北出裕二郎, 平野大輔, 青木茂, 若土正曉
    日本地球惑星科学連合2014年大会  2014/05  横浜
  • ビンセネス湾沖南極底層水の流動特性について  [Not invited]
    白井優, 北出裕二郎, 嶋田啓資, 青木茂, 深町康, 大島慶一郎
    2014年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2014/03  東京
  • アラスカバロー沖チャクチ海ポリニヤにおける海氷・海洋の係留観測  [Not invited]
    深町康, 大島慶一郎, 清水大輔, 伊藤優人, 岩本勉之, 松村義正, Eicken, H, Mahoney, A. R
    2014年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2014/03  東京
  • Antarctic and Arctic land-fast sea ice: deriving parent water mass properties changes from sea ice cores  [Not invited]
    I. J. Smith, A. J. Gough, P. J. Langhorne, H. Eicken, A. R. Mahoney, G. H. Leonard, R. J. Van Hale, Y. Fukamachi, S. Jendersie, J. M. Jones, T. G. Haskell
    IGS International Symposium on Sea Ice in a Changing Environment  2014/03  Hobart, Australia
  • Taking a look at both sides of the ice: comparing ice thickness and drift speed as observed from above and below sea ice near Barrow, Alaska  [Not invited]
    A. R. Mahoney, H. Eicken, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, D. Simizu, C. Kambhamettu, R. MV, S. Hendricks, J. Jones
    IGS International Symposium on Sea Ice in a Changing Environment  2014/03  Hobart, Australia
  • Characteristics of sea-ice draft revealed by a moored ice-profiling sonar in the Chukchi Sea off Barrow, Alaska  [Not invited]
    Y. Fukamachi, D. Simizu, K. I. Ohshima, K. Iwamoto, H. Eicken, A. R. Mahoney
    IGS International Symposium on Sea Ice in a Changing Environment  2014/03  Hobart, Australia
  • Distribution and interannual variability of sea-ice thickness in the pack-ice zone off Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica  [Not invited]
    F. Sugimoto, H. Shimoda, D. Simizu, S. Uto, K. Tateyama, S. Hoshino, T. Ozeki, T. Tamura, Y. Fukamachi, S. Ushio, K. I. Ohshima
    IGS International Symposium on Sea Ice in a Changing Environment,  2014/03  Hobart, Australia
  • A study of formation processes of supercooled water and frazil ice in a coastal polynya  [Not invited]
    Ito M, K. I. Ohshima, Y. Fukamachi, D. Simizu, K. Iwamoto, Y. Matsumura, A. R. Mahoney, H. Eicken
    IGS International Symposium on Sea Ice in a Changing Environment  2014/03  Hobart, Australia
  • A study of formation processes of supercooled water and frazil ice in a coastal polynya  [Not invited]
    Ito M, K. I. Ohshima, Y. Fukamachi, D. Simizu, K. Iwamoto, Y. Matsumura, A. R. Mahoney, H. Eicken
    The 29th International Symposium on Okhotsk Sea & Sea Ice  2014/02  紋別
  • 沿岸ポリニヤにおける過冷却水およびフラジルアイス生成過程についての研究  [Not invited]
    伊藤優人, 大島慶一郎, 深町康, 清水大輔, 岩本勉之, 松村義正, Mahoney, A. R, Eicken,H
    第4回極域科学シンポジウム  2013/11
  • 2010年夏季北極海バロー海底谷における熱輸送  [Not invited]
    伊東素代, 菊地隆, 深町康, Pickart, R, 大島慶一郎, 清水大輔, Arrigo, K, Vagle, S, He, J, Ashjian, C
    2013年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2013/09
  • 沿岸ポリニヤにおける過冷却水およびフラジルアイス生成過程についての研究  [Not invited]
    伊藤優人, 大島慶一郎, 深町康, 清水大輔, 岩本勉之, 松村義正, Mahoney, A. R, Eicken,H
    2013年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2013/09
  • 昭和基地沖流氷域での海氷厚観測  [Not invited]
    杉本風子, 下田春人, 清水大輔, 宇都正太郎, 舘山一孝, 星野聖太, 尾関俊浩, 田村岳史, 深町康, 牛尾収輝, 大島慶一郎
    2013年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2013/09
  • ビンセネス湾ポリニヤにおける高密度陸棚水の生成について  [Not invited]
    北出裕二郎, 嶋田啓資, 田村岳史, 深町 康, 青木 茂, 牛尾 収輝, 大島 慶一郎
    2013年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2013/09
  • 第4の南極底層水: Cape Danley Bottom Water  [Not invited]
    大島慶一郎, 深町康, Williams, G. D, 二橋創平, 北出裕二郎, 平野大輔, 田村岳史, 青木茂, 若土正
    2013年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2013/09
  • 急激に変わりゆく北極海  [Invited]
    菊地隆, 原田尚美, 深町康
    2013年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2013/09  札幌
  • ビンセネス湾沖南極底層水の流動特性について  [Not invited]
    白井優, 北出裕二郎, 嶋田啓資, 青木茂, 深町康, 大島慶一郎
    2014年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2013/03  東京
  • 北極海バロー沖における海氷厚直接観測  [Not invited]
    清水大輔, 深町康, 大島慶一郎, 岩本勉之
    2013年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2013/03
  • ビンセネス湾沖での係留観測により捉えられた南極底層水の特性  [Not invited]
    北出裕二郎, 嶋田啓資, 田村岳史, 深町 康, 青木 茂, 牛尾収輝, 大島慶一郎
    第35回極域気水圏シンポジウム  2012/11
  • サハリン沖での係留系氷厚データとの直接比較によるAMSR-E薄氷厚アルゴリズムの作成  [Not invited]
    柏瀬陽彦, 大島慶一郎, 深町康, 二橋創平
    2012年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2012/09
  • ビンセネス湾沖で係留観測によって捉えた南極底層水の特性  [Not invited]
    北出裕二郎, 嶋田啓資, 田村岳史, 深町康, 青木茂, 大島慶一郎, 牛尾収輝
    日仏海洋学会学術研究発表会  2012/06
  • ケープダンレープロジェクト~第4の南極底層水起源域の同定  [Not invited]
    深町康, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 小野数也, 田村岳史, 青木茂, 北出裕一郎, 平野大輔, 牛尾収輝, 橋田元
    2012年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2012/03
  • 南極海ケープダンレーポリニヤにおける海氷・海洋の係留観測  [Not invited]
    深町康, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 小野数也, 田村岳史, 青木茂, 牛尾収輝, 橋田元
    第34回極域気水圏シンポジウム  2011/11
  • 南極海ケープダンレーポリニヤにおける海氷・海洋の係留観測  [Not invited]
    深町康, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 小野数也, 田村岳史, 青木茂, 牛尾収輝, 橋田元
    第2回極域科学シンポジウム  2011/11
  • 南極昭和基地における験潮儀とGPSブイで観測された潮位変化の比較  [Not invited]
    青山雄一, 深町康, 土井浩一郎, 青木茂, 渋谷和雄
    日本測地学会第116回講演会  2011/10
  • 南極海ケープダンレーポリニヤにおける海氷・海洋の係留観測  [Not invited]
    深町康, 清水大輔, 大島慶一郎, 小野数也, 田村岳史, 青木茂, 牛尾収輝, 橋田元
    2011年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2011/09
  • ケープダンレー沖における南極底層水の形成と流動に関する数値的研究  [Not invited]
    中山佳洋, 大島慶一郎, 松村義正, 羽角博康, 深町康
    2011年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2011/03
  • Polynya formation and sea ice production off Cape Darnley Antarctica, revealed by ALOS PALSAR and AMSR-E data  [Not invited]
    Ohshima, K. I, S. Nihashi, T. Tamura, Y. Fukamachi
    4th ALOS Joint PI Symposium  2010/11
  • 海氷厚・南極底層水の係留系観測 -温暖化で氷厚・底層水は変化しているか?-  [Not invited]
    大島慶一郎, 深町康, 牛尾収輝, 橋田元, 青木茂, 清水大輔, 小野数也
    南極観測シンポジウム  2010/09
  • オホーツク海の海氷が水塊形成・熱塩収支及びその変動に与えるインパクト  [Not invited]
    大島慶一郎, 中野渡拓也, 深町 康, 若土正曉, 二橋創平, S. C. Riser
    2010年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2010/09  網走
  • 海氷と沿岸海洋の相互作用による海氷漂流強化機構  [Not invited]
    中山佳洋, 大島慶一郎, 深町康
    2010年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2010/09  網走
  • 宗谷暖流の流速の短周期変動の下流方向への伝播  [Not invited]
    江淵直人, 深町 康, 大島慶一郎
    2010年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2010/09  網走
  • Antarctic Bottom Water revealed by mooring measurements off Cape Darnley, Antarctica  [Not invited]
    Fukamachi, Y, K. I. Ohshima, S. Aoki, Y. Kitade, T. Tamura, M. Wakatsuchi
    International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference  2010/06  Oslo (Norway)
  • Characteristics of ice in the Okhotsk coastal polynyas  [Not invited]
    Sohey Nihashi, Naoto Ebuchi, Shuhei Takahashi, Yasushi Fukamachi
    INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SEA ICE IN THE PHYSICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL SYSTEM  2010/06  Tromoso, Norway
  • ケープダンレー沖で観測された南極底層水の特性と分布  [Not invited]
    北出裕二郎, 平野大輔, 大島慶一郎, 深町康
    2010年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2010/03  東京
  • 係留観測による南極海ケープダンレー沖における南極底層水について  [Not invited]
    深町康, 大島慶一郎, 青木茂, 北出裕二郎, 田村岳史, 若土正曉
    2010年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2010/03  東京
  • 新たに発見された南極底層水とそれに関わる海氷生産の直接観測-ケープダンレープロジェクト-  [Not invited]
    大島慶一郎, 深町康
    2010年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2010/03  東京
  • 枝幸沖水温の十数日変動  [Not invited]
    西田芳則, 田中伊織, 深町康, 大島慶一郎
    2010年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2010/03  東京
  • Creation of heat/salt flux data set in the Okhotsk Sea using AMSR-E sea ice data.  [Not invited]
    Ohshima, K. I, T. Tamura, S. Nihashi, K. Iwamoto, D. Simizu, Y. Fukamachi
    US CLIVAR/SeaFlux Workshop, Surface Fluxes: Challenges for High Latitudes  2010/03  アメリカ・ボルダー
  • 海鷹丸によりダンレー沖で観測された深底層水の特性と海洋微細構造  [Not invited]
    北出裕二郎, 平野大輔, 大島慶一郎, 深町康
    第32回極域気水圏シンポジウム  2009/11  立川
  • 係留観測による南極海ケープダンレー沖における南極底層水の変動について  [Not invited]
    深町康, 大島慶一郎, 青木茂, 北出裕二郎, 田村岳史
    第32回極域気水圏シンポジウム  2009/11  立川
  • ケープダンレープロジェクト -新たに発見された南極底層水とそれに関わるか海氷生産の直接観測  [Not invited]
    大島慶一郎, 深町康
    第32回極域気水圏シンポジウム  2009/11  立川
  • 宗谷暖流の構造・流量の季節・経年変動  [Not invited]
    大島慶一郎, 森島秀太, 清水大輔, 江淵直人, 深町康, 若土正曉, Y. Volkov
    2009年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2009/09  京都
  • 南極海インド洋セクターのケルゲレン海台東側斜面域における南極底層水流量の時間変動  [Not invited]
    深町康, Stephen R. Rintoul・John, A. Church, 青木茂, Serguei Sokolov, Mark A. Rosenberg, 若土正曉
    2009年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2009/09  京都
  • GSOP report, The 5th meeting of the CLIVAR Southern Ocean Panel  [Not invited]
    Fukamachi, Y
    2009/02  University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
  • A trial of prediction of paralytic shellfish poisoning along the coast of Hokkaido in the Okhotosk Sea  [Not invited]
    Shimada, H, M. Sawada, I. Tanaka, H. Asami, Y. Fukamachi
    The 24th International Symposium on Okhotsk Sea and Sea Ice  2009/02  Shimada, H., M. Sawada, I. Tanaka, H. Asami, and Y. Fukamachi: A trial of prediction of paralytic shellfish poisoning along the coast of Hokkaido in the Okhotosk Sea, The 24th International Symposium on Okhotsk Sea and Sea Ice, Mombetsu Arts & Culture Cen
  • Mooring measurement of the deep western boundary current over the eastern flank of the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Sector of the Antarctic  [Not invited]
    Fukamachi, Y, S. Aoki, J. A. Church, S. R. Rintoul, M. Rosenberg, M. Wakatsuchi
    9th International Conference of the Southern Hemisphere Meteorology  2009/02  Melbourne Convention Center, Melbourne
  • Sea ice production in the polynya and the associated bottom water formation off the Cape Darnley, East Antarctica  [Not invited]
    Ohshima, K. I, T. Tamura, Y. Fukamachi, S. Aoki
    9th International Conference of the Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography  2009/02  Melbourne Convention Center, Melbourne
  • 南極海インド洋セクターのケルゲレン海台東側斜面域における南極底層水の流量  [Not invited]
    深町康, 青木茂・John A. Church, Stephen R. Rintoul, Mark Rosenberg, 若土正曉
    第31回極域気水圏・生物圏合同シンポジウム  2008/12  東京
  • HF-radar technology in the Sea of Okhotsk  [Not invited]
    Ebuchi, N, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, M. Wakatsuchi
    Fourth PICES (North Pacific Marine Science Organization) Workshop on the Okhotsk and adjacent areas  2008/08  Abashiri
  • Interannual material fluxes under seasonal sea ice in the Okhotsk Sea north of Hokkaido, Japan  [Not invited]
    Hiwatari, T, H. Koshikawa, K. Kohata, Y. Fukamachi, K. Shirasawa
    Fourth PICES (North Pacific Marine Science Organization) Workshop on the Okhotsk and adjacent areas  2008/08  Abashiri
  • Downslope Mixing of Antarctic Bottom Water from East Antarctic Polynyas  [Not invited]
    G. Williams, S. Aoki, S. Marsland, Y. Fukamachi, B. Galton-Fenzi, S. Rintoul, N. Bindoff
    SCAR/IASC  2008/07  St. Petersburg, Russia
  • オホーツク海サハリン北部沖における海氷厚の係留観測  [Not invited]
    深町康, 白澤邦男, 大島慶一郎, 水田元太, 若土正曉
    2008年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2008/03  東京
  • 夏季北海道オホーツク海沿岸における麻痺性貝毒発生予測の試み  [Not invited]
    嶋田宏, 澤田真由美, 田中伊織, 浅見大樹, 深町康
    2008年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2008/03  東京
  • HFレーダによる宗谷暖流の観測  [Not invited]
    江淵 直人, 深町康, 大島慶一郎, 白澤邦男, 石川正雄, 高塚徹, 若土正曉
    九州大学応用力学研究所研究集会  2007/12  春日、福岡
  • Impact of sea-ice variability on physical and biological processes in the Sea of Okhotsk  [Not invited]
    Ohshima, K. I, Y. Fukamachi, T. Nakanowatari, T. Nakatsuka, J. Nishioka, M. Wakatsuchi
    The Second Annual Meeting of the GLOBEC  2007/06  函館
  • Short-term variation in the Soya Warm Current observed by HF ocean radars and coastal tide gauges  [Not invited]
    Ebuchi, N, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, M. Wakatsuchi
    Radiowave Oceanography The 8th International Workshop  2007/05  Cancun, Mexico
  • 短波海洋レーダおよび沿岸潮位計で観測された宗谷暖流の短周期変動について  [Not invited]
    江淵直人, 深町康, 大島慶一郎, 若土正曉
    海洋理工学会平成19年度春季大会  2007/05  東京
  • 海底設置ADCPと海洋レーダを用いた宗谷暖流流量の見積り  [Not invited]
    深町康, 田中伊織, 大島慶一郎, 江淵直人, 水田元太, 吉田英雄, 若土正曉
    九州大学応用力学研究所研究集会  2006/12  春日、福岡
  • HFレーダによる宗谷暖流の観測  [Not invited]
    江淵直人, 深町康, 大島慶一郎, 白澤邦男, 石川正雄, 高塚徹, 若土正曉
    九州大学応用力学研究所研究集会  2006/12  春日、福岡
  • OOPC (Ocean Observations Panel for Climate) updates and links to panel  [Not invited]
    Fukamachi, Y
    The 4th CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability) Southern Ocean Panel Meeting  2006/11  Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Variations in the Soya Warm Current observed by HF ocean radar, coastal tide gauges and satellite altimetry  [Not invited]
    Ebuchi, N, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, K. Shirasawa, M. Wakatsuchi
    International Symposium on Remote Sensing  2006/11  Busan, Korea
  • 海底設置ADCPによる宗谷暖流の長期連続観測  [Not invited]
    深町康, 大島慶一郎, 江淵直人, 水田元太, 若土正曉
    2006年度日本海洋学会秋季大会  2006/09  名古屋
  • Observation of the Soya Warm Current combining HF ocean radar with coastal tide gauges and satellite altimetry  [Not invited]
    Ebuchi, N, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, K. Shirasawa, M. Wakatsuchi
    IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing  2006/07  Denver, U.S.A.
  • Japanese mooring plan in the Cape Darnley polynya during the International Polar Year  [Not invited]
    Fukamachi, Y, K. I. Ohshima, S. Aoki, S. Ushio, M. Wakatsuchi
    International Workshop on Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness  2006/07  Hobart, Australia
  • Observation of the Soya Warm Current using HF ocean radars  [Not invited]
    Ebuchi, N, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, K. Shirasawa, M. Wakatsuchi
    Radiowave Oceanography The 7th International Workshop  2006/05  Hamburg, Germany
  • 南極海インド洋セクターのケルゲレン海台東側斜面における深層西岸境界流の係留観測  [Not invited]
    深町康, 青木茂, 若土正曉
    2006年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2006/03  横浜
  • 短波海洋レーダ・沿岸潮位記録・衛星高度計などを用いた宗谷暖流のモニタリング  [Not invited]
    江淵直人, 深町康, 大島慶一郎, 白澤邦男, 若土正曉
    2006年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2006/03  横浜
  • Diurnal Coastal-Trapped Waves on the Eastern Shelf of Sakhalin in the Okhotsk Sea  [Not invited]
    Ono, J, K. I. Ohshima, G. Mizuta, Y. Fukamachi, M. Wakatsuchi
    American Geophysical Union (AGU) Ocean Sciences Meeting  2006/02  Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
  • 南極海インド洋セクターのケルゲレン海台東側斜面における深層西岸境界流の係留観測  [Not invited]
    深町康, 青木茂, 若土正曉
    第28回極域気水圏シンポジウム  2005/11  東京
  • 短波海洋レーダ・沿岸潮位記録・衛星高度計などを用いた宗谷暖流のモニタリング  [Not invited]
    江淵直人, 深町康, 大島慶一郎, 白澤邦男, 若土正曉
    海洋理工学会平成17年度秋季大会  2005/10  京都
  • 北海道オホーツク海沿岸域で発達する季節海氷はなにをもたらすのか? -セジメントトラップフラックスデータから-  [Not invited]
    樋渡武彦, 深町康, 白澤邦男, 永田隆一, 越川海, 木幡邦男, 渡辺正孝
    日本プランクトン学会  2005/09
  • Observation of the Soya Warm Current using HF Ocean Radar  [Not invited]
    Ebuchi, N, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, K. Shirasawa, M. Wakatsuchi
    Radiowave Oceanography 6th International Workshop  2005/05  Santa Cruz, U.S.A.
  • カラフト東岸沖における潮流特性と日周潮陸棚波  [Not invited]
    小野純, 大島慶一郎, 水田元太, 深町康, 若土正曉
    2005年度日本海洋学会春季大会  2005/03  東京
  • Seasonal variation of the Soya Warm Current observed by HF ocean radar  [Not invited]
    Ebuchi, N, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, K. Shirasawa, M. Ishikawa, T. Takatsuka, T. Daibo, M. Wakatsuchi
    International Symposium on Remote Sensing (ISRS)  2004/10  Jeju, Korea
  • Observations of the Soya Warm Current using HF Ocean Radar  [Not invited]
    Ebuchi, N, Y. Fukamachi, K. I. Ohshima, K. Shirasawa, M. Ishikawa, T. Takatsuka, T. Daibo, M. Wakatsuchi
    IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS)  2004/09  Anchorage, Alaska
  • 短波海洋レーダによる宗谷暖流の観測  [Not invited]
    江淵直人, 深町康, 大島慶一郎, 白澤邦男, 若土正曉
    2004年日本海洋学会春季大会  2004/03  つくば

Works

  • 海洋研究開発機構学術研究船「白鳳丸」KH-07-4次航海
    2008
  • 江淵 直人・深町 康・大島 慶一郎・白澤 邦男・石川 正雄・高塚 徹・若土正曉:短波海洋レーダ・沿岸潮位記録・衛星高度計などを用いた宗谷暖流のモニタリング
    2006
  • Fukamachi, Y. on behalf of Southern Ocean panel: Southern Ocean CLIVAR/CliC/SCAR panel, The 11th Session of Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (OOPC-11), Tokyo, Japan
    2006

Industrial Property Rights

  • Methods of observing sea ice
    US 7,095,359 B2

Research Grants & Projects

  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2019 -2022 
    Author : Yasushi FUKAMACHI
     
    北極海の太平洋側海域では夏季の海氷域の減少が近年になって特に顕著に見られているが、その要因は未だに良く解明されていない。その理由の一つは人工衛星データから正確に把握できる海氷の面積に較べて、その厚さの実態把握が不十分なことである。本研究ではこの海域における10 年以上の長期に渡る海氷・海洋の現場観測による海氷厚などのデータと衛星マイクロ波放射計データから見積られる海氷生産量のデータなどを用いて、海氷の力学過程(海氷同士の衝突と重なりによる氷厚の増加)と熱力学過程から決まる冬季の海氷厚分布の実態を明らかにし、それが夏季の海氷分布とどのように関係しているかを調べ、この海氷減少の要因を明らかにする。
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017 -2019 
    Author : Kiichiro OHSHIMA
     
    南極底層水の起源水を生成しているケープダンレーポリニヤにおいて、過去に取得した係留系ADCPの後方散乱強度データから、海中でのフラジルアイスの生成だけでなく、生物活動のシグナルも捉えることにも成功した。最大の発見は、2月後半から3月にかけての海氷(フラジルアイス)生成開始に同期して、最大の生物シグナルが観測されたことである。これはごく最近報告された、フラジル・ブルーミングに相当すると考えられる。第59次南極地域観測隊では、ちょうどこのタイミングで海氷サンプリングを行うことに成功し、今後の解析により、大きな生物基礎生産が生じている可能性のあるフラジル・ブルーミングのメカニズム解明が期待される。また、2018年2月、第59次隊の協力のもと、ポリニヤ内において、海底堆積物の巻き上がりが生ずると推定される海域にADCPと濁度計等を取り付けた係留系を設置することにも成功した。さらに、2018年度実施予定のケープダンレー沖の係留系設置の準備として、係留系に設置される測器の購入とそのテスト・キャリブレーションなども行った。一方、衛星マイクロ波放射計データからフラジルアイスを検知できるアルゴリズムを完成させ、係留系ADCPによる海中フラジルアイス検知ともよく対応することが示された。今後、衛星海氷データと係留系データの組み合わせによる解析から、ポリニヤでの高海氷生産システムや物質循環の理解が深まることが期待される。北極チャクチ海ポリニヤにおいても、2017年8月アラスカ大学と共同して、ADCP・氷厚計・濁度計等からなる3系の係留系を設置することに成功した。また、前年度設置していた2系の係留系の回収にも成功し、ここのポリニヤを起点とする物質循環解明に資するデータを取得できた。オホーツク海に関しては、過去に蓄積されたフロートデータの解析を開始し、中層水等の季節変動を抽出する研究を行った。
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2015 -2018 
    Author : Yasushi FUKAMACHI
     
    フィールド観測については、8月に研究分担者の大島らがアラスカ北部に出向き、アラスカ大学フェアバンクス校の研究協力者と共同で、2015年に設置した3系の係留系の回収作業を実施した。また、国際協力によって行われているアラスカ北部沖における船舶観測についても、海洋研究開発機構の「みらい」を含む複数の研究船によって実施された。 アラスカ北部の沿岸域に係留されていた超音波氷厚計の生データから海氷厚の導出処理を終えて昨年度までに整備したアラスカ北部沿岸域における2009年から2015年までの6年分の時系列データを用いて、その経年変動についての解析を行った。その結果として、海氷厚の特徴(平均値、頻度分布など)に大きな経年変動が存在することを示し、その要因がこの海域の風速場に支配される海氷の漂流パターンの変動にあることを明らかにした。 これまでにアラスカ北部沿岸域に設置した係留系から得られた海洋の時系列データ(水温・塩分と海流流速)を周辺海域で得られた同様のデータ、人工衛星搭載のマイクロ波放射計データから推定される海氷厚に気象観測データを合わせて計算される海氷生産量データ、現実的で高解像度の海氷・海洋結合モデルの結果と合わせて解析した。その結果として、この海域における海水特性の変質過程に大きな経年変動が存在し、その要因がこの海域において岸沿いに吹く北東風の変動にあることを明らかにした。この北東風は北極海中層に広く分布する大西洋を起源とする海水の湧昇をもたらすため、太平洋側北極海でありながら、アラスカ北部沿岸域における海水特性の変質には大西洋水の影響が顕著であることも示した。
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2013 -2016 
    Author : Shigeru AOKI
     
    The Antarctic continental shelf is an important region in that it provides very dense water, which is one of the sources of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) that fills the global abyssal ocean. Recently freshening of AABW is reported and the causes are suspected to be on the Antarctic margin. This study aims to clarify the changes in oceanic properties in the Antarctic margin, especially based on in-situ hydrographic surveys including a noble tracer to detect continental ice melt component. For the Ross Sea shelf, the observed freshening corresponded to the basal warming in the West Antarctic shelf. For Adelie Depression off Adelie Land coast, both sea ice production and land-ice melt could change the shelf water properties, which can affect the properties of bottom water. Hence it was proposed that ice condition changes can affect the overturning circulation originated in the south.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2013 -2016 
    Author : Kiichiro OHSHIMA
     
    Formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) caused by high sea-ice production in coastal polynyas is detailed mainly for the East Antarctica. For the Cape Darnley polynya, the second highest ice production area in the Southern Ocean, the high ice production process through underwater frazil ice formation, and mixing/modification processes of dense water into AABW are clarified by mooring observations. For the Mertz polynya, which was the third ice production area, the ice production has decreased by as much as 50%, due to the glacier tongue calving, resulting in a significant decrease in AABW production. Formation of AABW is also suggested around the polynyas in Prydz Bay and Vincennes Bay in the East Antarctica. The balance between the polynya ice production (positive effect) and melting ice shelves (negative effect) is likely a key factor for the AABW formation.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2011 -2013 
    Author : Yasushi FUKAMACHI
     
    Combining time-series oceanic data obtained by moorings off the Cape Darnley in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean during 2008-09 with concurrent sea-ice data obtained by satellite remote sensing and hydrographic data obtained by instrumented seals, we have quantitatively shown that this region is the one of the main sources of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) due to intense sea-ice production in a coastal polynya. Namely, this region is the fourth AABW source region after the Weddell and Ross Seas and the region off Adélie Land. Unlike in the other three source regions, this region is the main AABW source solely due to intense sea-ice production without any of large continental shelf, ice shelf, and large depression.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(挑戦的萌芽研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2011 -2013 
    Author : Yasushi FUKAMACHI
     
    Sea-ice thickness is generally measured by specific ice-profiling sonar (IPS). We carried out mooring observations off the northern Alaska to develop a method of sea-ice thickness measurement by widely-used oceanographic instrument, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). We have successfully obtained valid data by a pair of an IPS and an ADCP at total of four locations over three-year period and derived sea-ice draft from raw IPS data. Using sea-ice and oceanic data obtained by our mooring observations, we have investigated break-up of coastal landfast sea ice, production of supercooled water and frazil ice within a coastal polynya, and compared our ice-thickness data by IPS with those by airborne electromagnetic sensor and ice-drift data by ADCP with those by coastal radar.
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2009 -2012 
    Author : Shigeru AOKI
     
    本研究は、酸素安定同位体比測定という新しい手法を標準化した国際共同海洋観測ネットワークによりオーストラリア-南極海盆における南極底層水のここ20年間の淡水化の全体像を把握し、人工衛星や数値実験の結果とも組み合わせてその原因を明らかにすることを目的としている。本年度は、同海盆において低塩化(淡水化)が顕著に報告されている源流域・分岐域・西岸境界域での同期観測を日本とオーストラリアが共同で実施し、低塩化傾向がさらに進行していることが確認された。また同観測において、日豪あわせて約1800個の酸素同位体比用サンプルを取得した。質量分析計による酸素同位体比の継続的な分析をすすめ、南極表層水に氷山融解の影響が特定できることを示した。また、1990年代のWHP観測と2000年代に実施された観測との比較から、本海盆での淡水化率は25GGt/yr程度と見積もられた。これはロス海陸棚域で観測されている淡水化率と同程度にのぼる。水温・塩分変化に基づく評価から、この変化の原因の一つとして、幾つかの仮定の元で、ロス海から流入する底層水の低塩化が大きな割合を占める可能性が示された。もう一つの可能性として、底層水の母海水のひとつであるアデリー海谷における陸棚高密度水の変質が考えられる。陸棚水に対する氷床融解や海氷生産の時間的な変化による変質の可能性を調べるため、メルツ氷河の変動の実態を調べた。人工衛星画像...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(S))
    Date (from‐to) : 2008 -2012 
    Author : Kiichiro OHSHIMA, 江淵 直人, 青木 茂, 深町 康, 豊田 威信, 北出 裕二郎
     
    (抄録なし)
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2008 -2010 
    Author : Yasushi FUKAMACHI
     
    Based on the mooring data obtained off the eastern flank of the Kerguelen plateau in the pathway of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), we revealed that the equatorward transport of AABW in this region is comparable to that from the Weddell Sea and an important part of the meridional overturning circulation. Using the mooring data off the Cape Darnley Polynya (CDP), where sea-ice production is active, we confirmed that AABW is produced locally in this region. We have succeeded in the mooring observation of sea-ice thickness in the CDP and obtained the first high-precision data in the Antarctic c...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2007 
    Author : Yasushi FUKAMACHI, 木村 詞明
     
    Sea-ice mooring data obtained off Yubetsu in the Hokkaido coastal region during the winters of 1999-2001 revealed the mean draft of 0.60m and the high deformed ice ratio of 80%. These results were published in Fukamachi et al. (2006, Journal of Geophysical Research). Also, sea-ice mooring data obtained off Mombetsu during the winter of 2005-06 along with the sediment-trap data collected by the National Institute for Environmental Studies indicated that the quality and quantity of sinking biogenic and lithogenic materials varied with the sea-ice cover. These results were published in Hiwatar...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2007 
    Author : Keiichiro OHSHIMA, 若土 正曉, 江淵 直人, 三寺 史夫, 深町 康
     
    As the base of prediction for drifting/diffusion of sea water, sea ice and spilled oil in the Okhotsk Sea, 3-dimensional ocean model with the resolution of 1/6 degree was developed. The model is driven by daily wind stress and monthly heat flux. Comparison with surface drifter, moored ADCP, and ocean radar data shows that the model successfully reproduces the velocity field for the East Sakhalin Current (ESC) and Soya Warm Current. The turbulent velocities are represented by random-walk on the assumption of a Markov-chain model. A series of particle tracking experiments was carried out for ...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2007 
    Author : Masaaki WAKATSUCHI, 木村 詞明, 大島 慶一郎, 青木 茂, 深町 康, 牛尾 収輝
     
    The purpose of this study is to make an analysis of our observational data in which the seasonal variability of volume transport for the northward flowing Antarctic Bottom Water in the Indian sector of the Antarctic could be successfully obtained for the first time. We have done the deployment of the current-mooring systems at 8 stations off the southeastern coast of the Kerguelen Plateau for two years from February 2003 to January 2005, as an international joint project together with CSIRO in Australia. Our primary data analyses have shown that this region has completely reverse current di...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2003 -2005 
    Author : Kunio SHIRASAWA, 高橋 正征, 深町 康, 兒玉 裕二, 河村 俊行, 池田 元美, 舘山 一孝
     
    Inter-annual and year-to-year variability in hydrometeorological parameters, snow and sea-ice has been studied with AWSs (Automated Weather Stations), IPSs/ADCPs (Ice Profiling Sonar/Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler), EM (Electromagnetic Induction Sounding of snow/sea-ice thickness measurements) at/offshore Chaivo, northeastern Sakhalin and Saroma-ko lagoon, Hokkaido in the Sea of Okhotsk. The model of snow/sea-ice thickness evolution was verified to agree well with those observed data.Ice climatology was also studied in the Baltic Sea to compare that in the Sea of Okhotsk, as representati...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(奨励研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2000 -2001 
    Author : 深町 康
     
    1.係留観測データの解析2001年の冬季に、過去2年間と同じように、北海道沿岸域湧別沖6マイルの地点で得られたIce Profiling Sonar(IPS)のデータの解析を行った。この年は、オホーツク海全体における最大海氷面積が1979年以来の最大であったことからも推測されるように、1月上旬から係留観測点において海氷が観測されていたが、氷厚については、過去2年間に見られたような極端に大きいice keelはあまり見られなかった。この理由としては、海氷の密接度が高かったために、raftingやridgingのような変形プロセスが起きにくかったことが考えられる。2001年を含めたこれまでの3年間の氷厚データの特徴は、各年について大きく異なっている。このことは、北海道沿岸域に存在する海氷は、海氷面積のみならず、氷厚についても、大きな年々変動があることを示唆しており、海氷量の見積もりに対しての氷厚の重要性をも示している。2.更なる観測の実施2001年11月には、過去3年間と同様に、湧別沖にIPSとAcoustic Doppler Current Profilerを設置しており、近日中に回収の予定である。また、海氷域における氷厚観測の可能性を広げるために、自律走行型海中ロボットAUV(Autonomous Underwater Vehicle)にIPSを搭載して、紋別港周辺の海域にお...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1997 -1999 
    Author : Keiichirou OHSHIMA, 浮田 甚郎, 深町 康
     
    The heat budget analyses show that the net heat input at the water surface reaches 1OO-150 W m^<-2> in the active ice melting season due to large solar heating, while that at the ice surface is nearly zero because of the difference in surface albedo. The temporal variation of the heat input to the upper ocean corresponds well to the melting rate of sea ice. These results suggest that melting of sea ice in the Antarctic Ocean is mostly accomplished by the heat input to the upper ocean through the open water area.In the Antarctic Ocean, the anomalies in ice concentration in the retreat season...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1997 -1998 
    Author : Takeshi NAKATSUKA, 深町 康, 大島 慶一郎
     
    The research supported by this grant-in-aid mainly consists of following two parts. One is the analysis of history of the biological activity and water mixing in ocean surface layer using nitrogen isotope ratio of nitrate, and the other is the analysis of water advection and mixing processes in the intermediate and deep layers based on precise measurements of nutrient concentration. We used the surface water samples which were annually collected in Bering Sea and Alaska Bay by a merchant vessel between Japan and Canada for the former study, and the samples collected by the CTD/RMS observati...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(重点領域研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 1997 -1997 
    Author : 大島 慶一郎, 水田 元太, 深町 康, 竹内 謙介, 若土 正曉
     
    オホーツク海冬季の現場での海氷・海洋データは今までほとんど得られていなかった。1996,1997,1998年2月の3年にわたって海上保安庁の砕氷船「そうや」により、オホーツク海南西部において、海氷の諸量及び海洋構造の観測を行った。海氷の厚さは1996,1998年は平均20〜30cm程度であったが、1997年は60cmあり、年によって大きく異なることがわかった。従って、衛星データから得られる密接度のデータから海氷の量的な評価を行うことは大きな問題がある。また、この氷厚の違いが何によるのかは今後の興味深い課題である。海氷アルベド(日射に対する反射率)は1996,1997年の観測から、オホーツク海では氷状によらずほぼ0.6〜0.65程度であることがわかった。1997年2月の海氷域での海氷観測データから以下のことが明らかになった。オホーツク海では冬季、結氷温度で一様な海洋混合層が300m以上に及ぶ場合がある。これは、海氷生成による鉛直対流だけでなく、南風による岸でのエクマン収束のようなmechanicalな効果によることも示唆される。このような厚い混合層を持つ水塊は東カラフト海流として海底斜面に沿ってカラフト沿岸沿いを南下し、それに伴って厚い海氷も南へ運ばれる。移流された海氷の一部は風で周辺の暖水域へ運ばれ、初めはそこで融解され表層を低塩化するが潜熱を奪うことによって、やがてそこを結...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(一般研究(B), 基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1995 -1997 
    Author : Masaaki WAKATSUCHI, 日比谷 紀之, 深町 康, 大島 慶一郎, 河村 俊行
     
    Polynyas are the areas of open water which often occurs within the Antarctic sea ice cover. The major purpose of this study is to provide fundamental informations of actual behaviors which occur in the polynyas, and of its role in the polar regions.To investigate the polynyas, we adopted two regions, around Syowa Station and off Adelie Land as study areas. The results of our investigations are as follows ;(1) There are two types of formation and maintenance for coastal polynyas. One is produced and maintained by strong, local winds and the existence of fast ice in a region east of the polyn...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(一般研究(B), 基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1995 -1997 
    Author : 白澤 邦男, 深町 康, 田口 哲, 児玉 裕二, 石川 信敬, 青田 昌秋, 河村 俊行
     
    冬季に海氷が生成され発達する北海道のサロマ湖を、氷縁域、薄い海氷域のモデル実験フィールドとして、海氷が生成する12月から融解が始まる3月まで現場実験観測を集中的に実施した。1997年12月から1998年3月の冬は3箇年の研究計画の3年度であり、初年度、2年度にできなかった実験観測を集中的に実施した。またモデル作成に必要な基礎データを収集した。(1)海氷の生成から融解に至る過程での大気-海氷間の気象パラメータの収集、(2)海氷消長過程における海氷内部構造、特にブライン・チャンネルを中心にした物理構造の変遷、温度センサーによる海氷中、海氷下海洋境界層の温度分布の季節変動の測定、照度センサーによる海氷上、中、下の光環境の季節変動の測定、(3)温度・塩分センサー付3次元電磁流速計を繋留しての海氷生成前から融解後までの海氷消長過程における海洋構造の季節変動、海氷-海洋間の運動量、熱、塩フラックスの交換過程の把握、(4)海氷の消長とブラインの排出機構、(5)アイス・アルジ-の分布や離脱量の消長とその生物・化学組成の把握、(6)セジメント・トラップを用いてのアイス・アルジ-、動物プランクトン、沈降粒子物質フラックスの日周、潮汐、季節変化を把握するための現場実験観測を行なった。今冬のサロマ湖海氷上の現場実験観測は修了したが、データ解析は現在進行中である。また、セジメント・トラップと3次元電磁...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(重点領域研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 1996 -1996 
    Author : 大島 慶一郎, 深町 康, 河村 俊行, 若土 正曉
     
    オホーツク海では冬季海氷が覆われる時期での海氷及び海洋の観測は過去にほとんど行なわれていない。1996年2月と1997年2月に海上保安庁の砕氷船「そうや」により、オホーツク海南西部において海氷域での海氷・海洋観測を行なった。特に海氷に関しては今まで計られていない海氷の厚さ、アルベド(日射に対する反射率)の観測を行った。海氷の厚さは1996年では5〜30cmで平均20cm程度、1997年では20〜80cmで両年で大きな違いがあった。今後、この違いは何によるのかを衛星データと組み合わせた解析を行なう予定である。オホーツク海の海氷のアルベドは平均して0.59と推定された。ただし、ダ-クニラスのアルベドは約0.1という値となり、この低い値はニラスの結晶構造によることも示唆された。海洋構造の観測から、冬季のオホーツク海南西域では北方より水が流れていること、またその冬季の鉛直混合対流は300m以上にも及ぶことが観測された。また、氷縁域ではまず海氷が移流され融解して海水が低温低塩化し、それが現場結氷を生じさせる状況をつくっていることが明らかになった。マイクロ波放射計データ(DMSP SSM/I)から海氷の密接度だけでなく海氷の種類(Ice Type)の情報を用いて、海氷の結氷域に注目することによって海氷の特徴的な変動過程を調べた。氷縁域での広範囲に及ぶ結氷は、大気場の擾乱により海氷域が急速...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(奨励研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 1995 -1995 
    Author : 深町 康
     
    夏季の氷縁域において特徴的に見られるメソスケール渦などの中規模現象の形成機構を調べるために、力学・熱力学の両過程を含む水平2次元の海氷・海洋結合モデルを作成した。このモデルにおいて南極海で観測されたパラメーターを用い、外力としては熱力学過程の重要性を理解するために大気からの熱フラックスのみを与えて計算を行なった。大気からの熱フラックスに対する応答として、氷縁付近で海氷の融解が最も盛んとなり、塩分フロントが形成された。この塩分フロントと地衡流バランスで釣り合っている氷縁に沿う流れは、その流速が増加するにつれて蛇行するようになった。この蛇行は、海氷域の低温・低塩水と開水域の高温・高塩水の交換を促進すると共に、海氷を開水域に移流し舌状の海氷分布を形成した。結果として、蛇行の成長につれて、海氷の融解が更に促進されることとなった。この蛇行の形成機構を解明するために、海洋モデルの線形不安定解析を行なったところ、水平密度フロントに起因する傾圧不安定がその成因であることが明らかになった。氷縁域で見られる様々なメソスケール現象の形成には、風による力学的な効果が重要な役割を果たしていることは間違い無い。しかしながら、この研究によって、海氷が融解する夏季においては、熱力学的な効果も重要な役割を果たしていることが示された。現時点では、南極海等で夏季に海氷の分布によって可視化されるメソスケール渦そのも...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(重点領域研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 1993 -1993 
    Author : 若土 正暁, 若土 正曉, 長島 秀樹, 深町 康, 大島 慶一郎
     
    本研究では、時間的にも空間的にも最もグローバルな水循環系の一部を占める極域海洋における氷山融解過程を明らかにするために現場観測と水槽実験を試みた。(1)現場観測;研究分担者大島は第32次日本南極地域観測隊(1990〜1992)に参加し、ACR(南極気候研究)の一貫として、昭和基地周辺の海洋・海氷観測を実施した。そのうち、リュツォ・ホルム湾の定着氷に捕捉された氷山近傍で実施したCTD観測において、水温・塩分の鉛直プロファイルがステップ(階段)構造を示していることを見い出した(Ohshima et al.,1994)。これらT,Sのステップ構造は氷山が喫水している範囲内の深さにおいてのみ見られた。典型的なステップの厚さは20〜30m、その水温差、塩分差はそれぞれ0.05℃、0.05〜0.10%_0であった。このステップ構造は、海洋に対する氷山の何らかの影響を示しており、塩分成層した海洋中での氷山の側壁融解過程に伴って誘起された可能性がある。氷山に限らず、棚氷や海氷などの融解は、夏季の極域海洋における支配的な海洋現象として、その物理過程を調べることは重要である。(2)水槽実験:海洋中における氷山融解過程の研究は、今までにも極端に単純化した形の水槽実験が試みられている。それらは、密度成層か密度一様か、側壁融解か底面融解かに大きく分類される。そのうち、本研究では、今まで全くなされていな...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(一般研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1993 -1993 
    Author : 若土 正暁, 若土 正曉, 深町 康, 大島 慶一郎
     
    本研究の目的は、海象データの解析、人工衛星からの画像データによる氷状観測、さらには数値実験などによって、日本海底層水の形成機構を明らかにすることである。特に今回初めて得られたヨーロッパの地球資源衛星(ERS-1)からの合成開口レーダ(SAR)画像をはじめ、AVHRRの可視・赤外画像などを解析することによって、日本海底層水形成に本質的な役割を果たしていると考えられている、間宮海峡やシベリヤ沿岸沖の海氷生成過程についての定量的な情報を得る。幸いにも、今回解析したデータの中には、明らかに気象条件の異なる場合(強風と微風)が含まれていたので、両者を比較検討することによって、以下のような風による海氷過程の違いを観測することが出来た。まず、北風の強い時には、シベリヤ沿岸沖に形成した沿岸ポリニヤ域で、急速なフラジルアイスの生成と風による風下への吹き流しが大規模に起こっていることが観測された。一方、風がほとんど無かった時には、漂流ベクトルを求めた画像解析によって、氷が5〜15km/dayの速度で北向きに移動していることが観測された。この微風条件下にもかかわらず北向きの漂流は、連続性から、その補償流として、やや深い層を南向きに流れるプリュームが存在してるはずであることを示唆している。このプリュームは海氷生成にともなって排出されるブライン(高塩分水)によってもたらされていると考えられる。2層モデ...

Educational Activities

Teaching Experience

  • Advanced Course in Atmospheric and Oceanographic Data Analysis
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 環境科学院
    キーワード : データ解析,統計,大気,海洋,気候 Data analysis,Statistics,Atmosphere,Ocean,Climate
  • Inter-Graduate School Classes(General Subject):Natural and Applied Sciences
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 北極、地球観測、衛星リモートセンシング
  • Freshman Seminar
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 南極海、北極海、オホーツク海、南極・北極、海洋大循環、気候変動、海氷、温暖化、衛星観測、IPCC
  • Freshman Seminar
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 南極、雪氷学、地球環境学、氷床、アイスコア、気象、海洋、海氷

Campus Position History

  • 2019年4月1日 
    2021年3月31日 
    北極域研究センター長

Position History

  • 2019年4月1日 
    2021年3月31日 
    北極域研究センター長

Committee Membership

  • 2007 - Today   Polar Science (Elsevier)   Associate Editor
  • 2006 - Today   CLIVAR/CliC/SCAR Southern Ocean Region Implementation Panel   Panel member


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