Researcher Database

Kenji Ogawa
Graduate School of Humanities and Human Sciences Division of Human Sciences Department of Psychology
Associate Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings

Alias Name

    Hokkaido University

Affiliation

  • Graduate School of Humanities and Human Sciences Division of Human Sciences Department of Psychology

Job Title

  • Associate Professor

URL

J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • 運動学習   社会的認知   認知心理学   認知神経科学   fMRI   MEG   身体像   運動制御   

Research Areas

  • Humanities & social sciences / Experimental psychology
  • Life sciences / Neuroscience - general
  • Life sciences / Neuroscience - general
  • Humanities & social sciences / Cognitive sciences

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2013 - Today 北海道大学大学院 文学研究科心理システム科学講座(2019年より文学研究院心理学講座) 准教授
  • 2010 - Today Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International
  • 2011 - 2013 日本学術振興会 特別研究員 (PD)
  • 2007 - 2010 科学技術振興機構ERATO浅田プロジェクト 研究員
  • 2006 - 2007 日本学術振興会 特別研究員 (DC2)

Association Memberships

  • THE JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION   日本神経科学会   Society for neuroscience   JAPANESE NEURAL NETWORK SOCIETY   NEUROPSYCHOLOGY ASSOCIATION OF JAPAN   THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY   日本認知科学会   北海道心理学会   

Research Activities

Published Papers

  • Yusuke Haruki, Kenji Ogawa
    The European journal of neuroscience 2021/02/23 
    Prior neuroimaging studies have supported the idea that the human insular cortex plays an important role in processing and representing internal bodily states, also termed "interoception." According to recent theoretical studies, interoception includes several aspects such as attention and accuracy. However, there is no consensus on the laterality and location of the insula to support each aspect of interoception. Thus, we aimed to identify the anatomical insular subdivisions involved in interoceptive attention and accuracy; we examined 28 healthy volunteers who completed the behavioral heartbeat counting task and interoceptive attention paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging. First, interoceptive attention induced significant activation in the bilateral frontal operculum, precentral gyrus, middle insula, middle cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area. Then, we compared the activation in anatomically predefined insular subdivisions during interoceptive attention. The highest activation of the middle short gyrus was noted within the insular cortex, followed by the anterior short gyrus and posterior short gyrus, while no significant hemispheric differences were observed. Finally, the interoceptive accuracy index, measured using the heartbeat counting task, strongly correlated with the activity of the right dorsal anterior insula/frontal operculum. These findings suggest that interoceptive attention is associated with the bilateral dorsal mid-anterior insula, which supports the processing and representation of bodily signals. In contrast, the more dorsal anterior portion of the right insula plays a key role in obtaining accurate interoception.
  • Huixiang Yang, Zhengfei Hu, Fumihito Imai, Yuxiang Yang, Kenji Ogawa
    Neuroscience letters 746 135653 - 135653 2021/01/20 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Previous studies have reported that real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback using motor imagery can modulate the activity of several motor-related areas. However, the differences in these modulatory effects on distinct motor-related target regions using the same experimental protocol remain unelucidated. This study aimed to compare neurofeedback effects on the primary motor area (M1) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Of the included participants, 15 received blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals from their left M1, and the other 15 received signals from their left PMv. Both groups were instructed to try to increase the neurofeedback score (NF-Score), which reflected the averaged activation level of the target region, by executing or imagining a right-hand clenching movement. The result revealed that during imagery condition, the left M1 was deactivated in the PMv-group but not in the M1-group, whereas the left PMv was activated in the PMv-group but not in the M1-group. Our finding indicates that neurofeedback from distinct motor-related regions has different effects on brain activity regulation.
  • Ryu Ohata, Tomohisa Asai, Hiroshi Kadota, Hiroaki Shigemasu, Kenji Ogawa, Hiroshi Imamizu
    Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 30 (7) 4076 - 4091 2020/06/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The sense of agency is defined as the subjective experience that "I" am the one who is causing the action. Theoretical studies postulate that this subjective experience is developed through multistep processes extending from the sensorimotor to the cognitive level. However, it remains unclear how the brain processes such different levels of information and constitutes the neural substrates for the sense of agency. To answer this question, we combined two strategies: an experimental paradigm, in which self-agency gradually evolves according to sensorimotor experience, and a multivoxel pattern analysis. The combined strategies revealed that the sensorimotor, posterior parietal, anterior insula, and higher visual cortices contained information on self-other attribution during movement. In addition, we investigated whether the found regions showed a preference for self-other attribution or for sensorimotor information. As a result, the right supramarginal gyrus, a portion of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL), was found to be the most sensitive to self-other attribution among the found regions, while the bilateral precentral gyri and left IPL dominantly reflected sensorimotor information. Our results demonstrate that multiple brain regions are involved in the development of the sense of agency and that these show specific preferences for different levels of information.
  • Incongruence of grammatical subjects activates brain regions involved in perspective taking in a sentence-sentence verification task
    Toshiki Iwabuchi, Masato Ohba, Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui
    Journal of Neurolinguistics 55 100893  2020/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ogawa K, Mitsui K, Imai F, Nishida S
    NeuroImage 202 116051  1053-8119 2019/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hu Z, Yang H, Yang Y, Nishida S, Madden-Lombardi C, Ventre-Dominey J, Dominey PF, Ogawa K
    Frontiers in human neuroscience 13 380  2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Chang Cai, Kenji Ogawa, Takanori Kochiyama, Hirokazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Imamizu
    NeuroImage 172 654 - 662 1095-9572 2018/05/15 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Adaptively recalibrating motor-sensory asynchrony is critical for animals to perceive self-produced action consequences. It is controversial whether motor- or sensory-related neural circuits recalibrate this asynchrony. By combining magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI), we investigate the temporal changes in brain activities caused by repeated exposure to a 150-ms delay inserted between a button-press action and a subsequent flash. We found that readiness potentials significantly shift later in the motor system, especially in parietal regions (average: 219.9 ms), while visually evoked potentials significantly shift earlier in occipital regions (average: 49.7 ms) in the delay condition compared to the no-delay condition. Moreover, the shift in readiness potentials, but not in visually evoked potentials, was significantly correlated with the psychophysical measure of motor-sensory adaptation. These results suggest that although both motor and sensory processes contribute to the recalibration, the motor process plays the major role, given the magnitudes of shift and the correlation with the psychophysical measure.
  • Anne-Laure Mealier, Gregoire Pointeau, Solene Mirliaz, Kenji Ogawa, Mark Finlayson, Peter F. Dominey
    FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 8 1331  1664-1078 2017/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    It has been proposed that starting from meaning that the child derives directly from shared experience with others, adult narrative enriches this meaning and its structure, providing causal links between unseen intentional states and actions. This would require a means for representing meaning from experiencea situation modeland a mechanism that allows information to be extracted from sentences and mapped onto the situation model that has been derived from experience, thus enriching that representation. We present a hypothesis and theory concerning how the language processing infrastructure for grammatical constructions can naturally be extended to narrative constructions to provide a mechanism for using language to enrich meaning derived from physical experience. Toward this aim, the grammatical construction models are augmented with additional structures for representing relations between events across sentences. Simulation results demonstrate proof of concept for how the narrative construction model supports multiple successive levels of meaning creation which allows the system to learn about the intentionality of mental states, and argument substitution which allows extensions to metaphorical language and analogical problem solving. Cross-linguistic validity of the system is demonstrated in Japanese. The narrative construction model is then integrated into the cognitive system of a humanoid robot that provides the memory systems and world-interaction required for representing meaning in a situation model. In this context proof of concept is demonstrated for how the system enriches meaning in the situation model that has been directly derived from experience. In terms of links to empirical data, the model predicts strong usage based effects: that is, that the narrative constructions used by children will be highly correlated with those that they experience. It also relies on the notion of narrative or discourse function words. Both of these are validated in the experimental literature.
  • Ritsuko Nabata, Kenji Ogawa
    Shinrigaku Kenkyu 88 (3) 260 - 266 0021-5236 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Eidetic imagery is a kind of mental visual imagery that is externally localized and literally "seen" by the eidetiker. Previous studies have not clarified whether eidetikers have enhanced visuo-spatial memory abilities. This study compared visuo-spatial short-term memory capacities between eidetikers and non-eidetikers who were matched in terms of age, gender, and visual imagery ability. We measured the memory capacity of nine eidetikers and 18 non-eidetikers in two memory tasks (Visual Pattern Test and Corsi Block Test) that differed in the mode of presentation of visual stimuli (simultaneous and sequential, respectively). Eidetikers performed better than noneidetikers on simultaneous tasks but performed similarly to non-eidetikers on sequential tasks. This study suggests that eidetikers are better at retaining stimuli presented simultaneously.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Fumihito Imai
    EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH 234 (12) 3677 - 3687 0014-4819 2016/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Previous neuropsychological studies of ideomotor apraxia (IMA) indicated impairments in pantomime actions for tool use for both right and left hands following lesions of parieto-premotor cortices in the left hemisphere. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we tested the hypothesis that the left parieto-premotor cortices are involved in the storage or retrieval of hand-independent representation of tool-use actions. In the fMRI scanner, one of three kinds of tools was displayed in pictures or letters, and the participants made pantomimes of the use of these tools using the right hand for the picture stimuli or with the left hand for the letters. We then used MVPA to classify which kind of tool the subjects were pantomiming. Whole-brain searchlight analysis revealed successful decoding using the activities largely in the contralateral primary sensorimotor region, ipsilateral cerebellum, and bilateral early visual area, which may reflect differences in low-level sensorimotor components for three types of pantomimes. Furthermore, a successful cross-classification between the right and left hands was possible using the activities of the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) near the junction of the anterior intraparietal sulcus. Our finding indicates that the left anterior intraparietal cortex plays an important role in the production of tool-use pantomimes in a hand-independent manner, and independent of stimuli modality.
  • Ryu Ohata, Kenji Ogawa, Hiroshi Imamizu
    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 6 27416  2045-2322 2016/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Neural activity prior to movement onset contains essential information for predictive assistance for humans using brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs). Even though previous studies successfully predicted different goals for upcoming movements, it is unclear whether non-invasive recording signals contain the information to predict trial-by-trial behavioral variability under the same movement. In this paper, we examined the predictability of subsequent short or long reaction times (RTs) from magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a delayed-reach task. The difference in RTs was classified significantly above chance from 550 ms before the go-signal onset using the cortical currents in the premotor cortex. Significantly above-chance classification was performed in the lateral prefrontal and the right inferior parietal cortices at the late stage of the delay period. Thus, inter-trial variability in RTs is predictable information. Our study provides a proof-of-concept of the future development of non-invasive BMIs to prevent delayed movements.
  • Aiko Murata, Hisamichi Saito, Joanna Schug, Kenji Ogawa, Tatsuya Kameda
    PLOS ONE 11 (4) e0153128  1932-6203 2016/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A number of studies have shown that individuals often spontaneously mimic the facial expressions of others, a tendency known as facial mimicry. This tendency has generally been considered a reflex-like "automatic" response, but several recent studies have shown that the degree of mimicry may be moderated by contextual information. However, the cognitive and motivational factors underlying the contextual moderation of facial mimicry require further empirical investigation. In this study, we present evidence that the degree to which participants spontaneously mimic a target's facial expressions depends on whether participants are motivated to infer the target's emotional state. In the first study we show that facial mimicry, assessed by facial electromyography, occurs more frequently when participants are specifically instructed to infer a target's emotional state than when given no instruction. In the second study, we replicate this effect using the Facial Action Coding System to show that participants are more likely to mimic facial expressions of emotion when they are asked to infer the target's emotional state, rather than make inferences about a physical trait unrelated to emotion. These results provide convergent evidence that the explicit goal of understanding a target's emotional state affects the degree of facial mimicry shown by the perceiver, suggesting moderation of reflex-like motor activities by higher cognitive processes.
  • Sungshin Kim, Kenji Ogawa, Jinchi Lv, Nicolas Schweighofer, Hiroshi Imamizu
    PLoS Biology 13 (12) e1002312  1545-7885 2015/12/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Recent computational and behavioral studies suggest that motor adaptation results from the update of multiple memories with different timescales. Here, we designed a model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which subjects adapted to two opposing visuomotor rotations. A computational model of motor adaptation with multiple memories was fitted to the behavioral data to generate time-varying regressors of brain activity. We identified regional specificity to timescales: in particular, the activity in the inferior parietal region and in the anterior-medial cerebellum was associated with memories for intermediate and long timescales, respectively. A sparse singular value decomposition analysis of variability in specificities to timescales over the brain identified four components, two fast, one middle, and one slow, each associated with different brain networks. Finally, a multivariate decoding analysis showed that activity patterns in the anterior-medial cerebellum progressively represented the two rotations. Our results support the existence of brain regions associated with multiple timescales in adaptation and a role of the cerebellum in storing multiple internal models.
  • Hiroshi Shibata, Toshio Inui, Kenji Ogawa
    NEUROREPORT 24 (14) 803 - 807 0959-4965 2013/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We investigated the role of the prefrontal areas in recognizing hand actions performed in social contexts. We used video clips depicting the interaction between two individuals: one person (requester) requested the other person to pass one of two objects. The other person (responder) then passed the object that was congruent to the request in the congruent condition or incongruent in the incongruent condition. Both requester and responder appeared on screen in the two-person condition and only the responder appeared in the one-person condition. Participants were required to observe the clips and to judge whether the responder's actions were congruent or incongruent. Functional MRI showed the incongruency effect in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, the brain areas including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed the interaction effect; the magnitude of activation in the incongruent condition was significantly higher than that in the congruent condition, but this difference was found only in the two-person condition. These results suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex play an important role in the detection of incongruency between the requester's request and the responder's action depending on social contexts. (C) 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Hiroshi Imamizu
    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 33 (15) 6412 - 6422 0270-6474 2013/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Behavioral studies have shown that humans can adapt to conflicting sensorimotor mappings that cause interference after intensive training. While previous research works indicate the involvement of distinct brain regions for different types of motor learning (e.g., kinematics vs dynamics), the neural mechanisms underlying joint adaptation to conflicting mappings within the same type of perturbation (e.g., different angles of visuomotor rotation) remain unclear. To reveal the neural substrates that represent multiple sensorimotor mappings, we examined whether different mappings could be classified with multivoxel activity patterns of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Participants simultaneously adapted to opposite rotational perturbations (+90 degrees and -90 degrees) during visuomotor tracking. To dissociate differences in movement kinematics with rotation types, we used two distinct patterns of target motion and tested generalization of the classifier between different combinations of rotation and motion types. Results showed that the rotation types were classified significantly above chance using activities in the primary sensorimotor cortex and the supplementary motor area, despite no significant difference in averaged signal amplitudes within the region. In contrast, low-level sensorimotor components, including tracking error and movement speed, were best classified using activities of the early visual cortex. Our results reveal that the sensorimotor cortex represents different visuomotor mappings, which permits joint learning and switching between conflicting sensorimotor skills.
  • Toshiki Iwabuchi, Toshio Inui, Masato Ohba, Kenji Ogawa
    NEUROREPORT 24 (6) 298 - 302 0959-4965 2013/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Mapping the meaning of a sentence onto visual entities is a fundamental process of daily language use, but it is unclear how attention in the visual context influences sentence comprehension. Aiming to examine this problem, we conducted a picture-sentence matching experiment with scanning using functional MRI. In the experiment, a moving picture describing an event with two colored objects was presented on a screen. A visual cue was flashed at the position of an object's appearance just before the event presentation, and participants were instructed to pay attention to the visually cued object in the picture. They were then required to read a simple Japanese sentence and to verify whether it correctly described the previous event. To examine the effects of visual cueing, we defined two conditions on the basis of the relationship between the visually cued object in an event and the grammatical subject of the subsequent sentence. When comparing the conditions in which the visually cued object was incongruent with the grammatical subject to the congruent conditions, participants showed a lower hit rate, and the right frontal eye field, which is known to be the region related to attention shift, was more activated. These findings suggest that the attention was initially allocated to an object encoded as the grammatical subject in the process of linking the content of a sentence with a visual event. Therefore, the attention was shifted from the cued object to the other object under the conditions discussed above. NeuroReport 24:298-302 (C) 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui
    JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE 24 (1) 171 - 182 0898-929X 2012/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Visually guided reaching involves the transformation of a spatial position of a target into a body-centered reference frame. Although involvement of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has been proposed in this visuomotor transformation, it is unclear whether human PPC uses visual or body-centered coordinates in visually guided movements. We used a delayed visually guided reaching task, together with an fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, to reveal the reference frame used in the human PPC. In experiments, a target was first presented either to the left or to the right of a fixation point. After a delay period, subjects moved a cursor to the position where the target had previously been displayed using either a normal or a left-right reversed mouse. The activation patterns of normal sessions were first used to train the classifier to predict movement directions. The activity patterns of the reversed sessions were then used as inputs to the decoder to test whether predicted directions correspond to actual movement directions in either visual or body-centered coordinates. When the target was presented before actual movement, the predicted direction in the medial intraparietal cortex was congruent with the actual movement in the body-centered coordinates, although the averaged signal intensities were not significantly different between two movement directions. Our results indicate that the human medial intraparietal cortex uses body-centered coordinates to encode target position or movement directions, which are crucial for visually guided movements.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui
    EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH 216 (1) 61 - 69 0014-4819 2012/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Object-directed action consists of aspects that range from low-level kinematic patterns to high-level action goals. Although previous studies have suggested that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is involved in understanding or imitating an observed action, it is unclear precisely which levels of action representation are reflected in MNS activity. In this study, we used an imitation-matching task, which is previously used in behavioral experiments for infants, and fMRI to reveal the neural basis for imitation of multiple representations of observed actions. In our experiment, two video footages showing a pen being grasped and placed into one of two cups were sequentially presented. The participants judged whether an actor's action in the first movie was correctly imitated by an imitator in the second movie, regarding the following four aspects: action goal, a means of manipulation, an effector used, and movement trajectory. Although identical sets of stimuli were presented, different brain regions were activated, depending on the matching judgments made by subjects between the two actions. The current study indicates that distinct brain regions are involved in recognition of multiple aspects of transitive actions, which is largely consistent with a visuomotor circuit of action production by the observer.
  • Hiroshi Shibata, Toshio Inui, Kenji Ogawa
    EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH 211 (3-4) 569 - 579 0014-4819 2011/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Coordination of actions according to the request of another person is frequently observed in daily life. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the neural mechanisms related to the processing of this type of interpersonal action coordination by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the first experiment, participants viewed movie clips depicting two people (1st and 3rd person) involved in a joint-action situation: one person (passive agent) holding two objects asked the other person to take one object; the other person (active agent) then performing a congruent or incongruent action with regard to the request. fMRI results showed that the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and right cerebellum were more activated during the observation of incongruent actions than that of congruent actions. Greater activation in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were also found in the same contrast after small volume correction (SVC). In the second experiment, in which only the active person appeared in the movie clip (single-action situation), no significant activation in the right IFG and right cerebellum was found, although greater activation in the right pSTS and the mPFC was found during the observation of the incongruent action than that of the congruent action after SVC. Our study suggests that the right IFG, which is assumed to be a part of the mirror neuron system, is involved in understanding interpersonal action congruency.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui
    NEUROIMAGE 56 (2) 728 - 735 1053-8119 2011/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We investigated the neural representation of observed actions in the human parietal and premotor cortex, which comprise the action observation network or the mirror neuron system for action recognition. Participants observed object-directed hand actions, in which action as well as other properties were independently manipulated: action (grasp or touch), object (cup or bottle), perspective (1st or 3rd person), hand (right or left), and image size (large or small). We then used multi-voxel pattern analysis to determine whether each feature could be correctly decoded from regional activities. The early visual area showed significant above-chance classification accuracy, particularly high in perspective, hand, and size, consistent with pixel-wise dissimilarity of stimuli. In contrast, the highest decoding accuracy for action was observed in the anterior intraparietal sulcus (alPS) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Moreover, the decoder for action could be correctly generalized for images with high dissimilarity in the parietal and premotor region, but not in the visual area. Our study indicates that the parietal and premotor regions encode observed actions independent of retinal variations, which may subserve our capacity for invariant action recognition of others. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Toshiki Iwabuchi, Toshio Inui, Masato Ohba, Kenji Ogawa
    2011 IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering, CME 2011 520 - 525 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Many researchers now consider language comprehension to be the generation of mental imagery of event structures. In addition, grammatical subjects are believed to correspond to the referents that initially capture attention in these visual events. Therefore, we hypothesized that mental imagery would be activated in sentence comprehension, with a central focus on the referent encoded as the grammatical subject. We performed two experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in which participants observed an event while focusing attention on a particular referent and then subsequently read a sentence describing it. In these experiments, visual attention was guided to a particular referent in a visual scene by a spatial cue. Based on our hypothesis, when the grammatical subject of a presented sentence was incongruent with the pre-attended referent, participants had to shift their attention to reactivate imagery of the event structure. On the other hand, this shift would not occur if the subject was congruent with the referent. In both the incongruent condition and in the opposite (congruent) condition , the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was activated. This indicates that the right DLPFC was involved in this type of shifting process. © 2011 IEEE.
  • Toshiki Iwabuchi, Masato Ohba, Toshio Inui, Kenji Ogawa
    ADVANCES IN COGNITIVE NEURODYNAMICS (II) 351 - 355 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    It has been hypothesized that the subject, at the onset of a sentence, usually determines the perspective of the reader in sentence comprehension. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis underlying the mental perspective shift in sentence comprehension. Participants observed an event consisting of two objects, immediately after their perspective was guided to one particular object by a spatial cue. The participants then judged whether the displayed sentence correctly described the previous event. If the subject of the sentence did not match the reader's predetermined perspective, then a mental perspective shift should occur. We found that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (d1PFC) showed greater activation under the invalid-cue conditions requiring the mental perspective shift. The right d1PFC might therefore subserve the mental perspective shift in sentence comprehension.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Masa-aki Sato, Hiroshi Imamizu
    NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 71 E347 - E348 0168-0102 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui
    NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA 47 (4) 1013 - 1022 0028-3932 2009/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Impaired ability to draw visually presented figures by copying represents one major manifestation of constructional apraxia (CA). Previous clinical studies have indicated that CA is caused by lesions in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), but the functional roles of the PPC remain unclear. A spared ability to trace with an impaired ability to copy indicates that deficits lie not in low-level visuomotor processing, but rather in a coordinate transformation involving production of an egocentric representation of model trajectory in the drawing space, which is spatially separated from the model space. To test the hypothesis that the PPC plays a role in coordinate transformation, we compared brain activities for drawing by copying and tracing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Healthy participants traced over the visually presented model or copied the model on a separate space. To avoid potential confounders of differences in behavioral performances as well as eye movements, a memory-guided condition was introduced, resulting in four drawing conditions; tracing over or copying a model at different locations (tracing and copying), with or without an on-screen model (visual and memory guidance). As hypothesized, the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) bilaterally in the PPC showed significantly greater activations in copying than in tracing, under both visual and memory guidance, with a distinct activation pattern involving the premotor and mesial motor regions. This study indicates a role of the PPC in coordinate transformation for drawing by copying, which may be important for the copying deficit observed in CA. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui, Masato Ohba
    NEUROREPORT 19 (8) 811 - 815 0959-4965 2008/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We used functional MRI to investigate roles of left lateral premotor cortex in syntactic processing of complex sentences. Participants read left-branching (LB), center-embedded (CE), and active-conjoined (AC) sentences to determine noun-verb relationships. The main clause of CE sentences was interrupted by a relative clause, requiring noun-phrases to be maintained in the syntactic buffer until integration with verbs into sentences, whereas noun-phrases were sequentially assigned to verbs in LB/AC. Findings revealed selectively increased activation in the left premotor cortex for CE with no significant difference between LB and AC, indicating that left premotor activity is not related to general syntactic complexity, but is specific to processing of CE structure, requiring greater load in the syntactic buffer or integration cost.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui
    JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE 19 (11) 1827 - 1835 0898-929X 2007/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Internal monitoring or state estimation of movements is essential for human motor control to compensate for inherent delays and noise in sensorimotor loops. Two types of internal estimation of movements exist: self-generated movements, and externally generated movements. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate differences in brain activity for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements during visual occlusion. Participants tracked a sinusoidally moving target with a mouse cursor. On some trials, vision of either target (externally generated) or cursor (self-generated) movement was transiently occluded, during which subjects continued tracking by estimating current position of either the invisible target or cursor on screen. Analysis revealed that both occlusion conditions were associated with increased activity in the presupplementary motor area and decreased activity in the right lateral occipital cortex compared to a control condition with no occlusion. Moreover, the right and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) showed greater activation during occlusion of target and cursor movements, respectively. This study suggests lateralization of the PPC for internal monitoring of internally versus externally generated movements, fully consistent with previously reported clinical findings.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Masato Ohba, Toshio Inui
    NEUROREPORT 18 (14) 1437 - 1441 0959-4965 2007/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis underlying the sequential involvement of syntactic processing in the course of sentence comprehension. In experiments, a noun, case particle, and verb were presented one by one, constituting simple sentences in Japanese. Participants judged whether the sentence was syntactically correct (syntactic judgment) or whether the particle and verb had the same vowel (phonological judgment). During particle presentation, greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus was observed during syntactic judgment than during phonological judgment. Presentation of verbs subsequently activated the left dorsal prefrontal cortex and medial superior frontal areas in the same comparison. Our findings indicate that these regions are sequentially recruited in the syntactic processing of simple sentences in Japanese.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui, Takeshi Sugio
    CORTEX 43 (3) 289 - 300 0010-9452 2007/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    State estimation of self-movement, based on both motor commands and sensory feedback, has been suggested as essential to human movement control to compensate for inherent feedback delays in sensorimotor loops. The present study investigated the neural basis for state estimation of human movement using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants traced visually presented curves with a computer mouse, and an artificial delay was introduced to visual feedback. Motor performance and brain activities during movements were measured. Experiment 1 investigated brain activations that were significantly correlated with visual feedback delay and motor error by parametrically manipulating visual feedback delay. Activation of the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was positively correlated with motor error, whereas activation of the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed only in the group with a smaller increase in motor error with increased visual feedback delay. Experiment 2 involved parametric analysis of motor performance while controlling mouse movement speed during the task. Activity in the right TPJ showed a significant positive correlation with motor performance under the delayed visual feedback condition. In addition, activity of the PPC was greater when motor error was presented visually. These results suggest that the PPC plays a significant role in evaluating visuomotor prediction error, while the TPJ is involved in state estimation of self-movement during visually guided movements.
  • Toshio Inui, Kenji Ogawa, Masato Ohba
    NEUROREPORT 18 (5) 431 - 434 0959-4965 2007/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Particles are a crucial component of sentences in Japanese. They mainly follow nouns, and indicate their thematic role in the sentence, such as agent or patient. This study used functional MRI to investigate the neural basis of the processing of particles. We compared brain activity when participants were required to judge whether a presented character was a particle or whether the character as spoken ended with a specific vowel sound. Differential brain activity during particle judgment was found only in the left inferior frontal gyrus. We further confirmed that this activity was not a feature of categorical judgments in general. Our results indicate that the left inferior frontal gyrus is involved in the processing of thematic role indicated by Japanese particles.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui, Takeshi Sugio
    NEUROIMAGE 32 (4) 1760 - 1770 1053-8119 2006/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Online visual information of moving effectors plays important roles in visually guided movements. The present study used event-related functional resonance imaging to temporally separate neural activity associated with internally guided and visual feedback control of moving effectors. Using a cursor controlled by a computer mouse, participants traced curved lines on a screen. During this movement, vision of the moving cursor was occluded after tracing had begun and then was restored after variable intervals. The results showed that when visual feedback was unavailable, bilateral activation was significantly greater in the basal ganglia, thalamus, premotor cortex and mesial motor areas, peaking at the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA). In contrast, when visual feedback was available, significantly greater activation was observed bilaterally in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and cerebellum and in the middle and inferior frontal gyri and occipito-temporal cortex in the right hemisphere. Pre-SMA activity was significantly negatively correlated with tracing error when visual feedback was unavailable. In contrast, right PPC activation showed a significant positive correlation with tracing error after visual feedback became available. These findings suggest that the pre-SMA is involved in internally guided movements in the absence of visual feedback, and that the PPC is related to visual feedback control by evaluating online visuomotor error. The current study clarifies the different functional roles of fronto-parietal and cerebellum circuits subserving visually guided movements regarding visual feedback control of effectors. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • T Sugio, K Ogawa, T Inui
    NEUROREPORT 14 (18) 2297 - 2301 0959-4965 2003/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    This study used event-related fMRI to explore the neural basis of semantic involvement when performing a visually guided grasping movement. Three types of object images were presented in random order: familiar objects with handles (FH+) familiar objects without handles (FH-) and geometrical objects with a handle-like part (GH+). Subjects were then instructed to configure an appropriate hand shape for grasping the object. Common activations were found for all event types when contrasted with baseline. Activation of the anterior part of the rostral cingulate motor area was detected for only the FH + condition and these results imply that the appropriate selection of multiple motor schemata took place in this region. (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams Wilkins.

Books etc

  • 田山忠行, 田山忠行 (Contributor第二章 学習する脳と時間)
    北海道大学出版会 2015/08 (ISBN: 4832933949) 274
  • 認知心理学ハンドブック
    小川健二 (Contributor認知神経科学)
    有斐閣 2013/12
  • 感覚・知覚・認識の基礎
    乾敏郎, 小川健二 (Contributor身体のイメージ)
    オーム社 2012
  • 高次脳機能障害Q&A基礎編
    小川健二 (Contributor)
    新興医学出版社 2011
  • よくわかる認知科学
    小川健二 (Contributor)
    ミネルヴァ書房 2010

Conference Activities & Talks

  • 共感性と視点取得に関わる神経基盤と発達過程
    小川健二
    第10回社会神経科学研究会  2020/11
  • 心的時間測定法、運動イメージの質問紙法 および時間感覚能力の関係性に関する検討
    楊惠翔, 今井史, 小川健二
    日本イメージ心理学会第21回大会  2020/11
  • 運動実行と筋感覚運動イメージに共通した一次運動野の神経表象
    今井史, 篠崎淳, 齊藤秀和, 長濱宏史, 櫻井佑樹, 長峯隆, 小川健二
    日本イメージ心理学会第21回大会  2020/11
  • 心-身-脳の関係を探る:内受容感覚の神経基盤にかかわる基礎的検討
    晴木祐助, 小川健二
    北海道大学第6回部局横断シンポジウム  2020/10
  • 外的な聴覚刺激から内的な聴覚表象への変換に関わる脳内基盤:fMRI研究
    柴田寛, 小川健二
    日本心理学会第83会大会  2020/09

MISC

  • 今水寛, 小川健二, 大畑龍  日本生体磁気学会誌  27-  (1)  12  -13  2014/05  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 小川健二, 今水寛  電子情報通信学会技術研究報告  112-  (232(MBE2012 36-44))  11  -16  2012/10/04  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • IWABUCHI Toshiki, INUI Toshio, OGAWA Kenji  Technical report of IEICE. Thought and language  111-  (428)  1  -6  2012/01/28  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Understanding complex sentences that have hierarchical embedded structures requires switching hierarchical clauses appropriately. We performed an experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging in order to investigate how the brain processes such hierarchical structures and analyzed the data with dynamic causal modeling. The results showed that the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex interact in complex sentence comprehension. This indicates that the brain network that is composed of these regions is involved in the processing of hierarch...
  • Cortical mechanisms underlying the processing of Japanese hierarchically embedded sentence structure
    Iwabuchi, T, Inui, T, Ogawa, K  The Fourth Annual Neurobiology of Language Conference  2012  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 複文の構造処理に関する神経ネットワークの検討:fMRI研究
    岩渕俊樹, 乾敏郎, 小川健二  日本認知心理学会第10回大会  2012  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • SHIBATA Hiroshi, INUI Toshio, OGAWA Kenji  IEICE technical report. Neurocomputing  110-  (388)  69  -74  2011/01/17  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    It is assumed that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a fundamental role in understanding actions of other individuals, because it represents observed actions in the observer's brain. Recent studies have shown that the MNS areas (e.g., inferior frontal gyms [IFG]) are related to high-level action understanding such as understanding of goals and intentions. In the current study, we investigated whether the activity in the MNS areas is modulated by the differences in the context of the observed interactions between other individuals. We used movie clips depicting the interaction between two...
  • OGAWA Kenji, INUI Toshio  IEICE technical report. Neurocomputing  110-  (388)  75  -80  2011/01/17  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Several types of reference frames exist in the human brain. Previous neuropsychological case studies of hemi-neglect, in which the patient often neglects the right side of visually presented objects, have indicated the existence of neural representation of object-based coordinates in humans. The parieto-premotor regions, especially those of the right hemisphere, have consistently been reported as responsible for hemi-neglect. However, whether these areas represent visually presented stimuli in an object-centered reference frame remains unclear. We aimed to reveal neural representation of ob...
  • SHIBATA Hiroshi, INUI Toshio, OGAWA Kenji  IEICE technical report. Nonlinear problems  110-  (387)  69  -74  2011/01/17  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    It is assumed that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a fundamental role in understanding actions of other individuals, because it represents observed actions in the observer's brain. Recent studies have shown that the MNS areas (e.g., inferior frontal gyms [IFG]) are related to high-level action understanding such as understanding of goals and intentions. In the current study, we investigated whether the activity in the MNS areas is modulated by the differences in the context of the observed interactions between other individuals. We used movie clips depicting the interaction between two...
  • OGAWA Kenji, INUI Toshio  IEICE technical report. Nonlinear problems  110-  (387)  75  -80  2011/01/17  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Several types of reference frames exist in the human brain. Previous neuropsychological case studies of hemi-neglect, in which the patient often neglects the right side of visually presented objects, have indicated the existence of neural representation of object-based coordinates in humans. The parieto-premotor regions, especially those of the right hemisphere, have consistently been reported as responsible for hemi-neglect. However, whether these areas represent visually presented stimuli in an object-centered reference frame remains unclear. We aimed to reveal neural representation of ob...
  • Hiroshi Shibata, Toshio Inui, Kenji Ogawa  NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH  71-  E386  -E386  2011  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • ヒト物体中心座標の神経基盤の検証
    小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  日本認知心理学会第9回大会  2011  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 複文理解における階層処理に関わる脳領域の検討:fMRI研究
    岩渕 俊樹, 乾 敏郎, 小川 健二  日本認知心理学会第9回大会  2011  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Takafumi Sato, Toshio Inui, Hiroshi Shibata, Kenji Ogawa  ADVANCES IN COGNITIVE NEURODYNAMICS (II)  357  -360  2011  [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Auditory perception is important in human spatial recognition as well as in visual perception. This is especially true for the space behind the body, where visual cues are not available. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain areas involved in processing of sound coming from different directions, including this back space. We positioned speakers at seven locations in the MRI scanner, and the subjects performed a sound localization task. Greater activation in the right superior parietal lobule (Broadmann area [BA] 7) and inferior parietal lobule (BA40) were observed when the sound was delivered from the right space compared with the left, indicating the involvement of these regions for sound localization of the right space. Activation in the right precentral gyrus (BA6) was also seen in the interaction of right/left and front/back, indicating the role of this region for sound processing of the right-front and left-back space.
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui  ADVANCES IN COGNITIVE NEURODYNAMICS (II)  129  -133  2011  [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Previous research indicates that mirror neuron system (MNS), comprising posterior parietal (PPC) and ventral premotor (PMv) cortices, has a role in action understanding. However, action selectivity within these regions has not been elucidated. We investigated whether the MNS contains information about observed actions. Participants observed object-directed hand actions. We independently manipulated five dimensions of observed images: action (grasp/touch), object (cup/bottle), perspective (egocentric/allocentric), hand (right/left), and image size (large/small), and investigated whether this information could be decoded from multi-voxel pattern activity. The early visual area showed significant above-chance classification accuracy consistent with dissimilarity of input images. In contrast, significant decoding accuracy was observed for action, object, and mirror-image of hand in the PPC and for action and object in the PMv. Our study indicates that the MNS processes observed actions in a hierarchical manner, where the PPC represents action together with hand, and the PMv encodes more abstracted representations of transitive action.
  • IWABUCHI Toshiki, OHBA Masato, INUI Toshio, OGAWA Kenji  IEICE technical report. Natural language understanding and models of communication  110-  (245)  7  -12  2010/10/16  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    In speech or sentence comprehension, a grammatical subject is considered to correspond with the referent, which initially captures attention in a visual scene. In the present study, the visual attention of a participant was guided to a particular referent in a visual scene, and a sentence whose subject was different from the referent was subsequently presented. This allowed investigation of the brain regions involved in the shift of grammatical subject. Two experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) un...
  • IWABUCHI Toshiki, OHBA Masato, INUI Toshio, OGAWA Kenji  Technical report of IEICE. Thought and language  110-  (244)  7  -12  2010/10/16  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    In speech or sentence comprehension, a grammatical subject is considered to correspond with the referent, which initially captures attention in a visual scene. In the present study, the visual attention of a participant was guided to a particular referent in a visual scene, and a sentence whose subject was different from the referent was subsequently presented. This allowed investigation of the brain regions involved in the shift of grammatical subject. Two experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) un...
  • Kenji Ogawa, Chiyoko Nagai, Toshio Inui  JAPANESE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH  52-  (2)  91  -106  2010/05  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The neural mechanisms underlying visuomotor transformation are examined based on deficits in tracing and copying, as well as functional neuroimaging studies. The developmental process of copying and tracing, as well as lesion studies with adults showing disability in drawing, are reviewed, then two experiments are introduced. In Experiment 1, a behavioral analysis of copying and tracing by individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS) was presented. In Experiment 2, the brain activity involved in copying and tracing was measured in normal adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Based on these findings, we propose a model of visuomotor transformation to explain the neural basis of tracing and copying, as well as to provide a possible neural mechanism underlying the copying deficits and closing-in phenomenon observed in WS.
  • 文理解における心的イメージと視点変換:fMRI実験による検討
    岩渕 俊樹, 大庭 真人, 乾 敏郎, 小川 健二  日本認知心理学会第8回大会  2010  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 視覚運動変換における内側頭頂間溝の座標系の解明
    小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  日本認知心理学会第8回大会  2010  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Kenji Ogawa, Toshio Inui  NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH  68-  E93  -E93  2010  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 乾 敏郎, 永井 知代子, 小川 健二  心理学評論  53-  (2)  169  -195  2010  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 佐藤貴文, 乾敏郎, 柴田寛, 柴田寛, 小川健二  生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集  24th-  61  -64  2009/09/24  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 岩渕俊樹, 大庭真人, 乾敏郎, 乾敏郎, 小川健二  生体・生理工学シンポジウム論文集  24th-  81  -84  2009/09/24  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • OGAWA Kenji, INUI Toshio  IEICE technical report. Nonlinear problems  109-  (124)  55  -60  2009/07/06  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Previous research indicates that posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ventral premotor area (PMv) has a role in understanding of other's action. However, action selectivity that is critical for action understanding within these regions has not been elucidated. We investigated whether the parieto-premotor cortex contains information about observed actions using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) over fMRI data. Participants observed object-directed hand actions. We independently manipulated multiple dimensions of observed images: action (grasp/touch), object (cup/bottle), perspective (egocen...
  • OGAWA Kenji, INUI Toshio  IEICE technical report. Neurocomputing  109-  (125)  55  -60  2009/07/06  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Previous research indicates that posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ventral premotor area (PMv) has a role in understanding of other's action. However, action selectivity that is critical for action understanding within these regions has not been elucidated. We investigated whether the parieto-premotor cortex contains information about observed actions using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) over fMRI data. Participants observed object-directed hand actions. We independently manipulated multiple dimensions of observed images: action (grasp/touch), object (cup/bottle), perspective (egocen...
  • 要求に反する手の動作の観察に関与する脳活動の検討:fMRI研究
    柴田 寛, 小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  日本認知心理学会第7回大会  2009  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 後部頭頂皮質における観察した行為の神経表象
    小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  日本認知心理学会第7回大会  2009  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 乾 敏郎, 小川 健二  心理学評論  52-  (4)  576  -608  2009  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 小川健二, 乾敏郎, 乾敏郎  日本ロボット学会学術講演会予稿集(CD-ROM)  26th-  ROMBUNNO.1J1-02  2008/09/09  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • OTSUKI Ryo, OGAWA Kenji, INUI Toshio  IEICE technical report. Neurocomputing  107-  (413)  61  -66  2008/01/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Switching the order of noun phrases in Japanese sentence does not change the meaning of the sentence. This is because language has two levels of representation. One is phonological structure for communicating with people. The other is semantic structure for comprehending the meaning of the language. Syntactic movement between these two structures enables humans to comprehend and product the various forms of language. We investigated brain regions related to syntactic movement in Japanese with fMRI. Results showed that the left inferior frontal gyrus(BA44/45) was significantly activated with...
  • 自己視点と身体イメージに関するfMRI研究
    田中 茂樹, 乾 敏郎, 小川 健二, 中村 太戯留  第32回日本神経心理学会総会  2008  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • なぞりと模写の神経機構 (1) fMRI研究
    小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  日本認知心理学会第6回大会  2008  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 自己視点の移動をともなうイメージ課題を用いた身体化と脱身体化の検討
    田中 茂樹, 乾 敏郎, 小川 健二, 中村 太戯留  日本認知心理学会第6回大会  2008  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • なぞりと模写の神経機構 (2) ネットワークモデル
    乾 敏郎, 小川 健二  日本認知心理学会第6回大会  2008  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • なぞりと模写の脳内メカニズム:closing-inへの示唆
    小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  日本赤ちゃん学会第8回学術集会  2008  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Neural basis of hierarchical action representations for imitation: an fMRI study
    Ogawa, K, Inui, T  Society for Neuroscience, 38th Annual Meeting  2008  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • YOKOI Takashi, TAKEMURA Naohiro, OGAWA Kenji, INUI Tosio  IEICE technical report. Neurocomputing  107-  (263)  45  -50  2007/10/11  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Humans have an ability to infer other's mind called Theory of Mind (ToM), which is generally tested by a false belief task. Although many researches have reported activities of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior superior temporal sulcus/temporal parietal junction (pSTS/TPJ), and temporal pole (TP) when performing the false belief task, it has been problematic that different stimulus were used in each condition. Thus, activities of 3 regions may reflect cognitive function other than ToM. We retested activities of 3 regions with same stimulus between conditions in Experiment 1. Then, ...
  • Properties of verbal self-monitoring under delayed auditory feedback
    Taguchi, A, Sasaoka, T, Ogawa, K, Inui, T  The 1st Asada synergistic intelligence symposium  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 自己運動と外部運動の内的モニタリングに関わる神経基盤の違い:fMRI 研究
    小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  脳と心のメカニズム第8回夏のワークショップ  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 言語獲得と運用の脳内基盤メカニズムの解明 (2) 構文の複雑さに依存した処理過程の検討
    大槻 亮, 乾 敏郎, 小川 健二, 大庭 真人  科研費特定領域研究第2領域 夏の領域会議  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 共創知能機構
    乾 敏郎, 永井 知代子, 小川 健二  第25回日本ロボット学会学術講演会  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Neural correlates underlying internal monitoring of self-versus externally generated movements
    Ogawa, K, Inui, T  The 1st Asada synergistic intelligence symposium  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 自己および他者視点からの推論機構の検討:fMRI研究
    横井 隆, 竹村 尚大, 小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  日本認知心理学会第5回大会  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 基本語順文とかき混ぜ文の比較による格処理の神経基盤の検討
    大槻 亮, 森藤 大地, 小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  日本認知心理学会第5回大会  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 動作模倣における動的な視覚運動マッチングに関わる神経基盤
    小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  日本認知心理学会第5回大会  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 単文を用いた統語処理過程の検討:fMRI研究
    乾 敏郎, 小川 健二, 大庭 真人  日本認知心理学会第5回大会  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Neural correlates of dynamic visuomotor matching for meaningless gesture imitation
    Ogawa, K, Inui, T  The Society for Neuroscience, 37th annual meeting  2007  [Refereed][Not invited]
  • OGAWA Kenji, INUI Toshio  IEICE technical report. Neurocomputing  106-  (101)  13  -18  2006/06/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Internal estimation of movements is an essential component in human motor control. Movement estimation comprise two types: movement of self and movement of others. Here we investigated the neural correlates of movement estimation of the self versus others with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants tracked a target, which was moving sinusoidally on the screen, with a cursor controlled by a computer mouse. This task included a trial in which either the target (other) or the cursor (self) motion was visually occluded. The fMRI results revealed the activation in the pre-SMA...
  • OGAWA Kenji, INUI Toshio, SUGIO Takeshi  IEICE technical report. Neurocomputing  104-  (586)  67  -72  2005/01/18  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This study investigated the neural correlates of movement prediction and the effect of visual feedback in visually-guided movements with event-related fMRI. Participants traced visually-presented curves using a computer mouse. At movement onset, movement of mouse cursor was visually occluded, and after cessation of occlusion visual feedback was presented. fMRI results showed that the activations in basal ganglia, ventral premotor area (PMv) and presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) were significantlly greater when visual feedback was occluded, and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and temporo...
  • 小川 健二, 乾 敏郎, 杉尾 武志  認知心大会論文  2005-  (0)  10  -10  2005  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • SUGIO Takeshi, OGAWA Kenji, INUI Toshio  IEICE technical report. Neurocomputing  104-  (139)  13  -18  2004/06/17  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Although the reach-to-grasp movement is a fundamental movement in all types of human behaviors, it is still not clear what visual properties of familiar objects are necessary for visuo-motor transformation. The present study investigated brain regions involved in the motor imagery involved in the reach-to-grasp movement using four types of familiar objects with different structural properties, and identified regions sensitive to each object. As a result, the activations of neural circuits in the posterior parietal cortex involved in the reach-to-grasp movement changed with respect to the ob...
  • OGAWA Kenji, INUI Toshio, SUGIO Takeshi  IEICE technical report. Neurocomputing  104-  (139)  19  -24  2004/06/17  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Human movement control has been suggested to use predictive control of self-movement, based on both motor commands and sensory feedback. This study investigated the neural basis for predictive control of human movements. Participants were instructed to trace visually presented curves, and an artificial delay was introduced to visual feedback. Brain activities during movement were measured using fMRI. Analysis of motor errors and brain activity revealed significant positive correlations between activity at the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and motor performance under delayed visual feedback...
  • 小川 健二, 乾 敏郎, 杉尾 武志, 田中 茂樹  認知心大会論文  2004-  (0)  33  -33  2004  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 乾 敏郎, 大庭 真人, 小川 健二, 天野 成昭, 近藤 公久  日本認知心理学会発表論文集  2004-  (0)  20  -20  2004  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • T Sugio, K Ogawa, T Inui  PERCEPTION  32-  61  -62  2003  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 小川 健二, 乾 敏郎, 杉尾 武志, 田中 茂樹  認知心大会論文  2003-  (0)  94  -94  2003  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 杉尾 武志, 小川 健二, 乾 敏郎  認知心大会論文  2003-  (0)  96  -96  2003  [Not refereed][Not invited]

Awards & Honors

  • 2017/02 計測自動制御学会システムインテグレーション部門講演会 優秀講演賞
     
    受賞者: 小川健二
  • 2016/10 北海道心理学会奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 小川健二
  • 2014/03 国際電気通信基礎技術研究所 研究開発奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 小川健二
  • 2010/05 日本認知心理学会 優秀発表賞
     
    受賞者: 小川健二

Research Grants & Projects

  • 身体イメージを基礎とする社会的認知過程の自由エネルギー原理による統一的理解
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/04 -2023/03 
    Author : 乾 敏郎, 小川 健二, 笹岡 貴史, 朝倉 暢彦
     
    身体の線画の心的回転課題における反応時間の個人差と、内受容感覚の感度を測定する心拍弁別課題の関係を調べた。その結果、内受容感覚の感度が高い人ほど、正立した線画において、正面像と背面像との間の反応時間の差が小さく、VBM解析から左頭頂間溝の体積が大きいことが分かった。つぎに自己身体イメージに対する評価と内受容感覚の関係について調べた。その結果、内受容感覚への気づきの多次元的アセスメントの第1主成分得点と否定的な身体イメージおよび内受容感覚の感度の間に弱い正の相関が見られ、肯定的なイメージの間に弱い負の相関が見られた。また不快さ、快適さなどの身体感覚に関する気づき得点、身体感覚への注意を保ちコントロールする能力、身体感覚に注意を向けることで苦痛を調整する能力などと内受容感覚の感度の間に弱い正の相関が見られた。 次に視点取得機能の脳内ネットワークモデルを構築した。モデルでは下前頭回のミラーニューロンによって他者の対象中心表現と姿勢が決定されTPJと頭頂前庭皮質に伝えられ、内的な移動のシミュレーションが実行される。今後は内受容感覚との統合モデルを検討する。次にTPJの中で視覚的視点取得と心の理論のTPJにおける活動ピーク位置に違いが見られるのかについて同一被験者で検討した。TPJにおけるピーク位置を個人毎に比較した結果、左右半球ともに心の理論は視覚的視点取得に比べて、有意に前方かつ背側に位置していた。ところでⅠ型視覚視点取得が3才9ヶ月でも可能なのは、床面が水平である場合、視覚野を通じ遠近情報をなくして、あたかも上から見た立体図が得られる仕組みが自動的に働いているためではないかと考えられる。この仮説が立証されるかを実験で検証した。その結果、この仮説が支持された。
  • 主体的多感覚統合による知覚・認知過程の新しい枠組みの構築
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的研究(開拓)
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/06 -2022/03 
    Author : 乾 敏郎, 小川 健二, 笹岡 貴史, 朝倉 暢彦
     
    内受容感覚の自己評価の高い人は心拍追跡課題の確信度が有意に高く、模倣抑制課題の平均反応時間が有意に長かった。一方、身体感覚と感情状態との関連性への気づき得点の低群の方が模倣課題の反応時間が有意に長かった。また認知的共感、情動的共感と痛みや不快な感覚を伴う精神的苦痛を心配または経験しない傾向得点、情動的共感と自己制御得点の間で有意な相関が見られた。さらに心拍追跡精度の高い人ほど他者のNeutral 表情を不快な表情として捉えており、Angry表情の変化をより強く感じることが示された。また観察者の性別にかかわらず,同性の他者では他者が表出する感情価に対応した生理変化がみられた一方で,異性の他者ではそのような傾向はみられなかった。次に心拍追跡課題の脳活動を検討した。その結果、内受容注意に伴って島皮質でも前中部に位置する中短島回が最も高い活動値を示した。内受容正確性スコアと相関した内受容注意に関わる活動部位は,右背側島皮質/前頭弁蓋に認められた。さらにニューロフィードバックトレーニングを行った結果、フィードバックの視覚的情報により,内受容注意に伴う島皮質の活動が阻害された可能性が認められた。また一部の参加者はトレーニングによって心拍追跡課題の成績が大幅に向上した。 またわれわれは吃音者におけるより遅延聴覚フィードバックの強い順応効果を見いだしており、その原因として聴覚フィードバックの予測精度の悪さが示唆されている。そこで、因果推定を取り入れた遅延聴覚フィードバック順応のベイズモデルを構築しわれわれの実験条件に適用したところ、感覚フィードバックの遅れ時間の予測精度の悪さのパラメータの値が大きくなるほど、遅延なく呈示された音声が自己の発話運動から生成されたと推定される事後確率(自己主体感の測度)が小さくなり、遅延音声に対して強い順応が生じることも明らかとなった。
  • 図的表現を用いた思考トレーニングによる空間的知能への影響およびその客観的評価
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/04 -2022/03 
    Author : 杉尾 武志, 小川 健二
     
    本年度は、図的表現において大域的な空間関係に注意を向けることを促進する要因の一つとして、図的表現のデザインが喚起させる感情特性をとりあげ、こうした感情特性が図的表現の読み取りに与える影響について検討をおこなった。図的表現の一つであるグラフを対象に、そのデザインを構成する視覚特徴(全体的な複雑さ、および角の有無)が、グラフに対する読み取り時の方略の違いとどのように関係しているかについて調査を実施した。先行研究をふまえて、グラフのデザインによって快感情が喚起された条件では、より大域的な視覚情報処理がおこなわれ、結果としてグラフが表すデータの大域的特性について読み取りがなされるといった仮説が立てられた。本調査1では、棒グラフの横幅を操作することで全体的な複雑さについて検討がなされたが、同時に他の視覚特徴について変化が生じていた。そのため、本調査2においてはグラフを構成する角についてまるめることで角を無くしたデザインと、そのまま残したデザインとの間の比較もおこなうことで、観察者が快感情を喚起させると考えられる複雑さと角の有無が、それぞれ読み取り時の空間的範囲に同じような形で関係するのかが検討された。調査の結果、Y軸がとる値について絶対的な読み取りが必要となる場合は、より快感情を喚起させる曲線的なデザインについてグローバルな読み取り結果が報告された。本調査の結果は、効果的に視覚的思考をおこなうためには、図的表現に関してより快感情を喚起させるようなデザインが必要であることを示唆している。今後、こうしたデザイン特性の違いおよびそうした違いに対する個人の感度が視覚的思考に及ぼす影響を検討することで、空間的能力に対して情動や認知の制御といった実行機能が、どのように補完的な役割を果たすことができるかを検討する必要がある。
  • Investigation of neural correlates connecting prediction error with sense of agency
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2018/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 今水 寛, 小川 健二
     
    人間が身体を動かすとき「体を動かしているのは自分である」という感覚を得る.これは運動主体感と呼ばれる.これまで「運動結果の予測」と「実際の運動結果」とのずれ(予測誤差)が,主体感を決めるといわれてきた.この仮説は,統合失調症の妄想・幻覚なども説明しうる仮説として注目されている.本研究課題は,予測誤差がどのようなプロセスを経て主体感に至るのか,そのメカニズムと神経基盤を解明することを目的とする.2018年度は,1)運動主体感の基礎的なプロセスを調べるために,コンピュータ画面に表示される運動が,自分の運動か他人の運動なのかを曖昧にした実験状況を作り,行動データから推定した予測誤差と,運動の自他帰属の関係をモデル化することを開始した.2)運動の自他帰属を実験的に操作することで,運動そのものにどのような影響を与えるかを調べた.その結果.1)予測誤差は運動の自他帰属に影響を与えるが,確率的に曖昧な過程を含んでいることが解り,その過程をモデル化することが重要であることが解った.2)被験者に自分の運動であったかどうかを判断させ,その判断に「正しい」「間違い」というフィードバックを与えることによって,運動主体感を操作する(バイアスを与える)と,運動そのものが変化することが解った,この結果は,高次認知による判断が,予測誤差などの感覚運動情報に影響を与えることを示唆しており,予測誤差が運動主体感に影響を与えるだけでなく,運動主体感が予測誤差にも影響を与え得ることを示唆していた.その他,予測誤差と運動主体感の間をつなぐ神経基盤を調べるために,脳の領域の結合性を解析する技術の開発,基礎的な運動機能と認知機能の関係を調べる実験を行った.
  • 多感覚の表象に基づく言語の理解と表出に関わる脳機能モデルの構築
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2018/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 柴田 寛, 小川 健二
     
    感覚刺激(動物の写真と鳴き声)および言語刺激(文字と音声)を用いて、これらを内的に生成する過程を解明するためのふたつのfMRI実験を実施した。視覚刺激(写真と文字)を使用した実験では、4つの実験条件(①写真刺激から写真表象を生成、②写真刺激を変換して文字表象を生成、③文字刺激から文字表象を生成、④文字刺激を変換して写真表象を生成)に⑤統制条件を加えた実験課題を設定した。結果、4つの実験条件に共通して、左右後頭葉/側頭葉後部、左頭頂葉、左下前頭回/中前頭回において有意な活動上昇がみられた(統制条件との比較)。「変換なし条件(①③)」では「変換あり条件(②④)」に比べて、左右後頭葉/側頭葉後部、左右上側頭回前部/ローランド溝弁蓋、右縁上回での有意な活動上昇がみられた。聴覚刺激(鳴き声と音声)を使用した実験では、4つの実験条件(①鳴き声刺激から鳴き声表象を生成、②鳴き声刺激を変換して音声表象を生成、③音声刺激から音声表象を生成、④音声刺激を変換して鳴き声表象を生成)に⑤統制条件を加えた実験課題を設定した。結果、4つの実験条件に共通して、後頭葉、左右側頭葉上部(側頭極含む)、左上頭頂小葉/角回を含む領域に有意な活動上昇がみられた(統制条件との比較)。視覚関連領野の活動がみられたことから、聴覚刺激の入力から、聴覚表象だけでなく視覚表象も内的に生成していた可能性を示唆する。「変換あり条件(②④)」では「変換なし条件(①③)」に比べて、左上頭頂小葉、左中心前回/中前頭回、帯状回中部/補足運動野での有意な活動上昇がみられた。これらの領域は提示された聴覚刺激を内的に変換して別の聴覚表象を生成する過程に関与していると考えられる。ふたつの実験結果から、類似の課題であっても感覚の種類によって活動パターンが大きく異なることが示された。
  • Development of self- from bodily self to the representation of self-other distinction
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 明和 政子, 乾 敏郎, 小川 健二
     
    ヒト特有の社会的知性の根幹は,「他者について直接知覚した状態とその背後にある心的状態を自己のそれと分離表象する能力(自他分離表象)」にある.私たちは,身体と環境との相互作用経験が自他表象の分離を創発,発達させ,それを基盤としてヒト特有の社会的認知システムが構築されると予測するが,自他分離表象が起こる動的プロセスについてはいまだ科学的理解は進んでいない.本研究は,ヒト乳幼児と成人を対象とした実証研究を行い,成人の認知モデルを軸に,自他分離表象がどのように創発,発達していくのかを,観測―モデル化-シミュレーション実験により解釈し,自他分離表象の創発モデルを構築することを目的としている. 当該年度は,「自己―他者視点の相互変換時の脳内ネットワーク解明」に関する課題を遂行した.児童期の子どもを対象とした視点取得課題を考案し,fMRIを用いてその脳構造・機能的変化の計測を行った.また,implicit(知覚・無意識的)-explicit (認知・意識的)な誤信念理解および他者の心的状態に対する共感についての発達プロセスを明らかにするfMRI実験にも着手した.データの収集は当初予定をはるかに上回るスピ―ドで遂行することができ,本年度中に完了した. その一部成果については,研究代表者が主催した日本発達神経科学学会第8回学術集会,およびBar=Ilan University, University of Portsmouth,CIFER-IRCN国際セミナー等での招待講演で発表してきた.現在,国際学術誌投稿に向けた準備を進めているところである.
  • Inverse investment effect of attention
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 河原 純一郎, 小川 健二
     
    本研究は,トップダウンの認知制御が3つの注意の下位成分を変調しうるかを調べた。注意ネットワーク課題を用いて,認知エフォートをすべて投入する場合と,自分がもつ半分の認知エフォートのみを投入する(すなわち,本気を出さずに気楽に認知課題を行う)場合を設けた。行動成績は当初の通り,予定した効果を概ね再現することができたため,この手法は妥当であるといえる。一方で,前年までに実施した脳機能計測実験の結果を再分析したが,予測した部位での神経活動と,認知資源の意図的配置との関連は得られなかった。具体的には,左右頭頂側頭接合部及び内側前頭前野での活動を焦点領域とした分析を行ったが,注意の空間的低位,実行制御,および警戒の3成分のいずれとも相関を認めなかった。したがって,これらの3成分をオンラインで取りだし,ニューロフィードバックによって特定の成分の注意が関わる行動を増強することは実現できなかったといえる。こうした結果に鑑み,本年度の後半は適応的行動に限定して,注意の個人差が顕著に表れる認知活動の増強を目指す派生プロジェクトを2つ進めた。1つはオンラインでの注意の空間的焦点化成分のフィードバック,もう一つは視空間作業記憶容量と音源定位活動の対応測定である。前者については,Bernstein & Zvielli (2014)による意識的フィードバックを利用した方法を,探索効率に反映させる試みを行った。その結果,予期したフィードバック効果は全く得られなかったことから,意識的フィードバックは空間的焦点化とはうまく整合しないことがわかった。一方,音源定位課題で音源から標的までの距離を操作し,標的検出感度を測定し,同じ被験者の視空間作業記憶容量を測定したところ,増加の程度には個人差が認められた。エコロケーションによる検出能力は視空間作業記憶容量によって予測できる可能性が示された。
  • Influence of resting state brain activity and neurofeedback on motor learning
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 小川 健二
     
    本研究では、安静時脳活動が運動学習に果たす役割を、機能的磁気共鳴画像法(fMRI)のオフライン解析およびニューロフィードバックを用いて検討した。昨年度は、視覚運動学習後の安静時においても運動学習時と同じ脳活動パターンが再現されていることを示唆する結果が得られた。そこで本年度は、ニューロフィードバックを用いて安静時において運動時と類似した脳活動パターンを誘導することが可能かを検討した。学習課題には昨年度と同様、視覚運動課題としてスクリーン上をランダムに動き回るターゲットを、右手で操作するジョイスティックを使ってトラッキングする課題を用いた。その際、学習難易度を高めるため、カーソルの運動と実際の手の運動方向との間に回転変化を導入した。実験ではまず、被験者が実際に視覚運動課題を行っている際の脳活動および運動パフォーマンスをMRI装置で計測し、実行時の手と反対側の一次運動野を関心領域として、脳活動パターンを抽出した。次に、被験者がMRIスキャナで安静にしている際の脳活動を計測し、ニューロフィードバックとして実行時の脳活動との現在の脳活動との関心領域における類似度を、被験者に視覚的にフィードバック提示した。そして最後に、実際に視覚運動課題を行っている際の脳活動および運動パフォーマンスを計測した。結果から、学習後の安静時においても、実行時と類似した脳活動パターンが出現し、さらにニューロフィードバックを提示している期間中にはその脳活動パターンの類似性が高まることが明らかとなった。本結果から、実際の運動を行っていない安静時の脳活動パターンを、ニューロフィードバックで運動時と類似した活動に誘導することが可能である点が示された。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Research (Exploratory)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/06 -2019/03 
    Author : Moriguchi Yusuke, Ogawa Kenji, Yamaguchi Masanori
     
    Eidetic imagery refers to "seeing” an object that is no longer objectively present. The present study examined the developmental changes of population who experience of eidetic imagery during childhood and its biological basis. Results revealed that a) we created an evaluation method to non-verbally identify whether a person experiences eidetic imagery, b) neural basis of eidetic imagery using fMRI, and c) age-related decline of children who experience eidetic imagery.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/07 -2019/03 
    Author : Imamizu Hiroshi, KATO Motoichiro, SHIBUYA Satoshi, OGAWA Kenji, ASAI Tomohisa, OKIMURA Tsukasa, YAMASHITA Yuichi, SHIGEMASU Hiroaki, KADOTA Hiroshi, YAMASHITA Masahiro, CAI Chang, OHATA Ryu, MOCHIZUKI Kei, YOSHIDA Masatoshi, IMAIZUMI Syu
     
    When humans normally move their bodies, they get sense of agency (the subjective awareness that one is excusing and controlling one’s own actions) and sense of body ownership (the awareness that one is the owner of an action or movement). Senses of agency and body ownership constitute bodily self-awareness. Our research project found that neural substrates for bodily self-awareness mainly exist in neural networks connecting the inferior parietal lobe and the inferior frontal gyrus in the right cerebral hemisphere. This finding was obtained by our behavioral experiments, measurements of brain activity, and non-invasive brain stimulation in normal human subjects as well as our analysis of neural networks in schizophrenic patients with altered bodily self-awareness. We also revealed neural mechanisms of sensory suppression, which is the basis of bodily self-awareness, by recoding activity of individual neurons in monkeys.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research
    Date (from‐to) : 2016/04 -2018/03 
    Author : Ogawa Kenji
     
    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between individual finger movement abilities and their cortical sensorimotor map. In our experiment, participants performed individual finger-tapping of four digits (index, middle, ring, and little fingers), which was visually cued by a single Japanese character. Synchronized with the timing of this visual cue, the subjects made repeated tapping movements with the same finger 12 times, once for every second. Our results showed that the individual piano experience affects the multi-voxel pattern activities in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the neurofeedback was used to increase the activities in the primary sensorimotor cortex to enhance the motor learning.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2018/03 
    Author : Matsuoka Kazuo, KAWACHI Youshke, SON Yoruwan, OGAWA Kenji, PRIMA OKY,DICKY, IMABUCHI Takashi, MORIKAWA Mihoko
     
    The present research concerning eidetics and synesthesia yielded the following new findings. (1) The identification tests of eidetikers and synesthetes among Japanese collage students showed that the ratio of synesthetes within eidetikers was approximately 50%, synesthetes with eidetics were mostly localizer type, and eidetikers and synesthetes showed higher scores of imagination related questionnaires (VVIQ, OSlQ, CEQ). (2) Neuroimaging data (VBM and resting state fMRI) suggested that eidetikers had a specific brain structure and a functional connectivity network. In fNIRS studies, eidetikers showed stronger activation of occipital early visual areas during visualizing tasks. (3) In addition, eidetikers shows a perceptual peculiarity in imaging: that is 'eidetic smooth pursuit eye movement' occurring without real moving stimulus or a specific response to the task visualizing imaginary digit sequences. Based on these findings, a model of the related neurocognitive bases was proposed.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2018/03 
    Author : Sugio Takeshi
     
    Reading a diagram in a flexible manner requires the utilization of the conventional knowledge about the diagram for deriving its meaning. In the present study, we investigated how both visual attention and cognitive control are involved in the perception and the cognition of the diagrams at both a global and a local level. In addition, we explored the neural mechanisms of global reading of the diagrams by using fMRI. As a result, we found that the category-specific knowledge of the diagrams indeed influenced both the global and the local processing of the diagrams. Moreover, the brain activation showed that inhibitory control was involved in the global processing of the diagrams. These results suggest that the role of conventional knowledge in the flexible reading of the diagrams, and it is necessary to consider how to apply such principle to a diagram design.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/04 -2016/03 
    Author : OGAWA Kenji
     
    This study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of sensorimotor control and associated changes in sense of agency by using neurofeedback. First, a setup of real-time processing as well as feedback presentation system of fMRI was made to a newly introduced MRI machine within our research center. Using this real-time system, fMRI neurofeedback experiments were conducted, in which the participants regulated their brain activation patterns guided by with their neurofeedback score. This study showed that the participants could regulate their brain activity of the sensorimotor cortex involved in motor learning and sense of agency.
  • ヒト身体像を構成する神経表象の解明とミラーニューロンシステム仮説の検証
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費
    Date (from‐to) : 2011 -2013 
    Author : 小川 健二
     
    ヒトは,自らの身体状態のイメージ(身体像)を脳内で動的に推定しており,さらに自己の身体像は他者認知の基盤ともなっていると考えられる(ミラーニューロンシステム仮説).また身体像は,日々変化する環境,あるいは身体や道具の特性に適応する必要があり,このためには運動指令や環境変化を予測可能な脳内の内部モデルの学習が不可欠である.そこで本研究は,このような身体像の基盤となる内部モデルの神経表象を明らかにするため,ヒトが2種類の感覚運動変換に適応した後の脳活動を機能的磁気共鳴画像法(functional MRI)で計測し,それぞれの変換条件を表象する脳部位の特定を試みた. 先行研究から,ヒトは複数の運動スキルを同時並行的に学習可能な点が示されているが,これは個々のスキルに対応した複数の内部モデルが脳内に獲得されているものと考えられる.実験ではジョイスティックを使った視覚トラッキングを用い,実験参加者は2種類の相反する回転変換(+90度または-90度)に同時適応した.そして,運動中のfMRI活動に対してマルチボクセルパターン分析(MVPA)を用い,変換条件が識別可能か検討した.また回転変換条件と,低次の運動キネマティクスとの違いを明示的に区別するため,2種類のターゲット軌跡パターンを設け,異なる変換条件と軌跡パターンの組合せに対する識別器の汎化精度を調べた.結果から,感覚運動野,補足運動野,および小脳前部の活動パターンを使って回転変換の識別が可能であった.本研究から,感覚運動関連野および小脳で異なる感覚運動マッピングが表象されていることが明らかとなった.
  • ヒト身体像を構成する神経表象の解明とミラーニューロンシステム仮説の検証
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 研究活動スタート支援
    Date (from‐to) : 2010 -2011 
    Author : 小川 健二
     
    ヒトは,運動にともなって時々刻々と変化する自らの身体状態(あるいは身体像)を,脳内で内的に推定していると考えられる.このような内的な身体表象は,自己の運動指令や多種の感覚フィードバック情報を統合することにより,脳内で動的かつ統一的に保持や更新がなされる必要がある.本研究では,このようなヒト脳内の身体像を明らかにするため,ヒトの非侵襲脳機能計測法である脳磁図(MEG),および機能的核磁気共鳴画像法(fMRI)を使って,ヒトが運動を行っている際の脳活動を解析した.MEGとfMRIを組み合わせることで,時空間的に詳細な分析が可能である.本年度では,まず単純な手の運動を使って実験を行った.具体的に被験者には,スクリーン上に提示されたターゲットに対して,腕を使ったポインティング運動を行ってもらった.そして,その際の脳活動を計測し,運動実行時および運動前の準備段階での活動から,運動の方向を予測することを試みた.また,視覚座標系(スクリーンのターゲット位置)と運動座標系(手の運動方向)とを実験的に分離するため,被験者の腕を90度回転させた状態で同様の運動を行ってもらい,脳活動から予測された運動方向に対する影響を検討した.予備的結果から,脳部位に応じて異なる座標系(視覚と運動)の関与を明らかにすることができた.今後,これらの座標系がどのように動的に統合されて身体像が形成され,自己の運動制御,さらには他者の動作認知へと利用されているのかを検討する予定である.
  • ヒトの運動制御における動的な身体の状態推定機構の解明
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費
    Date (from‐to) : 2006 -2007 
    Author : 小川 健二
     
    本研究は,ヒトの巧みで正確な運動制御を実現する脳内の状態推定機構の解明を行った.ヒトが脳で生成した運動指令を末梢の効果器(身体)へと伝える遠心性経路,また効果器あるいは外界の状態を感覚情報として中枢へと伝える求心性経路には,遅延やノイズといった生体固有の制約があるため,それを補償する予測的制御が必要である.さらには実際の運動によって得られる感覚フィードバック情報を利用して,内的予測を適切に修正する必要がある.このような内的予測と感覚フィードバック情報とを動的に統合して身体の状態予測制御を実現する脳内メカニズムについて,本研究は機能的核磁気共鳴画像法(fMRI)を用いて検討した.実験では,視覚呈示された曲線のトレーシング運動((1)),またはターゲットのトラッキング運動((2))を行い,視覚フィードバックに遮断と呈示という操作を加え,その際の実験協力者の行動データ,および脳活動を分析した.主な研究成果は下記の2点である. (1)視覚フィードバック呈示後の視空間的な運動誤差と右頭頂間溝の活動に正の相関が見られ,この部位がオンラインの視覚フィードバックに基づく誤差評価に関連する点が明らかとなった.さらに視覚フィードバック遮断中の運動パフォーマンスと前補足運動野の活動に正の相関が見られ,この部位が視覚情報が得られない際の内的な視覚運動イメージ化に関わる点が示唆された. (2)自己運動と外部運動に共通して視覚遮断中に前補足運動野の活動が見られ,この部位が遮断対象の動作主に関わらない視覚運動イメージ化に関連することが示唆された.また自己運動,および外部運動の視覚フィードバック遮断中には,それぞれ左下頭頂小葉と右上/下頭頂小葉の活動が見られた.この結果から,視覚遮断に対する内的推定過程において,自己運動と外部運動とでは頭頂葉の側性が存在する点を明らかにした.

Educational Activities

Teaching Experience

  • 博士論文指導特殊演習
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 文学研究科
  • 博士論文指導特殊演習Ⅰ
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 文学院
  • 大学院共通授業科目(教育プログラム):脳科学入門
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
  • 修士論文・特定課題指導特殊演習
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 文学研究科
  • 卒業論文
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 文学部
  • 修士論文・特定課題指導特殊演習
    開講年度 : 2019
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 文学院


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