Researcher Database

Murakami Yuichi
Faculty of Public Policy Public Policy Public Policy
Associate Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings

Affiliation

  • Faculty of Public Policy Public Policy Public Policy

Job Title

  • Associate Professor

URL

J-Global ID

Research Areas

  • Humanities & social sciences / Politics

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2021/04 - Today Hokkaido University Faculty of Public Policy Associate Professor
  • 2014/04 - Today 北海道大学大学院 法学研究科・法学部 准教授
  • 2018/09 - 2020/09 Sciences Po Bordeaux Centre Émile Durkheim Chercheur invité
  • 2014/04 - 2018/03 北海道大学大学院 公共政策学連携研究部 准教授
  • 2012/10 - 2014/03 東京大学大学院 公共政策学連携研究部 特任講師
  • 2011/04 - 2012/09 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
  • 2009/04 - 2011/03 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

Education

  • 2006/04 - 2012/03  東京大学大学院
  • 2004/04 - 2006/03  The University of Tokyo  Faculty of Law
  • 2002/04 - 2004/03  The University of Tokyo  College of Arts and Sciences

Association Memberships

  • 環境法政策学会   THE JAPAN EVALUATION SOCIETY   JAPAN ASSOCIATION FOR PLANNING ADMINISTRATION   JAPANESE POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION   PUBLIC POLICY STUDIES ASSOCIATION, JAPAN   THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION   

Research Activities

Published Papers

  • Murakami Yuichi
    Annals, Public Policy Studies 北海道大学公共政策大学院 (15) 99 - 119 1881-9818 2021/03/31 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper describes and analyses interactions between CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and other related treaty regimes in the multi-level governance framework. It further examines (1) how free-trade and environment values are coordinated between CITES and the World Trade Organization in relation to Sustainable Development Goals; (2) how and why CITES and FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) set Memorandum of Understanding as an agenda, and what was left behind; and (3) how international regimes such as Office International des Epizooties, FAO, and CITES could act against the coronavirus disease pandemic in the name of the One-Health Approach. It asserts that it is meaningful to see their operations, or their transition management, as reconciliation and collaboration between international and domestic levels, or between policy life stages of rulemaking and enforcement. This paper thus clarifies that CITES is relatively effective in its consensus-building and enforcement mechanism, providing (1) abundant experience of discussion for sharing the concept of sustainability, (2) robust collaborative infrastructures for its enforcement, and (3) stronger trust in its regulatory and managerial tools to attain its mission. However, CITES must often remain passive against other treaty regimes’ approaches for collaboration, largely because of its modest authority delegated from the member states.
  • 村上 裕一
    日本評価研究 = Japanese journal of evaluation studies 日本評価学会 21 (1) 71 - 83 1346-6151 2021/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper aimed to examine how to achieve better policy evaluation regarding science, technology, and innovation (STI) considering the case of France. The paper consists of three parts, as presented below: (1) President Charles de Gaulle firstly set up an advisory body in his administration to monitor the STI policy and advise decision-makers. The policy evaluation system was established in the 1980s under a new left party government. (2) There were some trials and errors until the 1990s to make policy evaluations more robust and credible by using bottom-up, redundant, and proactive monitoring, and considering the interaction between the evaluation and the resource management of researchers and research units. (3) With a need for a national STI policy strategy development, what followed was the establishment of an integrated evaluation body (Le Haut Conseil de l'évaluation de la recherche et de l'enseignement supérieur) and a supervising body (Le Conseil stratégique de la recherche). In conclusion, policy evaluation can be improved through an integrated discussion on the aim, processes, and institutional placement of monitoring and advice.
  • Murakami Yuichi
    The Hokkaido Law Review 北海道大学大学院法学研究科 71 (3) 453 - 492 0385-5953 2020/09 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Based on case analyses, this paper first points out why the Japanese government's share of research and development (R&D) expenditures is lower than those of France, Britain, and the US: (1) its science and technology (sci-tech) system was once dismantled (just after World War II), and its legacy remains there, (2) private companies have been allowed to work on R&D relatively autonomously from the government, and (3) political and administrative leadership has been absent in sci-tech decision-making. Second, this paper clarifies why Japan's R&D investment targets have not been achieved since the second version of the Sci-Tech Basic Plan in 2001: (1) uncertainty unique to sci-tech policy, (2) continuous intervention from the Ministry of Finance in the overall budget coordination, and (3) the recent transition from a politician-centred process, which once strongly promoted sci-tech policy, to a cabinet-centred process. Third, after a comparison with innovation policy and its implementation in the European Union and Sweden, which have similar ambitions as Japan but different policy systems, this paper concludes that (1) ex-ante budgetary control on sci-tech and innovation policy should be curbed and should delegate more responsibility to the department in charge and to ex-post impact (or output, at least) assessment, (2) budgetary coordination and implementation processes should be separated to avoid excessive democratic control on the latter, and (3) top-down sci-tech policy and bottom-up innovation policy should be recognized as distinct because their recommended policy tools and favourable ways of control differ.
  • 村上 裕一
    日本評価研究 = Japanese journal of evaluation studies 日本評価学会 20 (2) 105 - 119 1346-6151 2020/07 
    This paper analyses survey results on the Local Revitalisation Policy (LRP) enacted in Japan in 2014, by focusing on differences in answers provided by the merger and non-merger municipalities of the governmental campaign that took place around 2000 (Heisei-no-Dai-Gappei). To evaluate municipality mergers as a policy tool, a case study on Japan was taken into consideration and compared with (non-)merger cases in France, aiming to construct the general theory of its conditions and effects. It was found that ‘non-mergers’ were not strongly influenced by LRP and did not feel obliged to cooperate with neighbours as the LRP desired. On the other hand, they were likely to cooperate with industries, according to their actual and potential partnerships. It cannot be determined whether ‘mergers’ have developed their own competencies as was desired, although they seem to have decreased the extent of democratic participation because their decision-making takes place inside their office. However, they can take relatively more aggressive actions towards other local and central governments without onerous coordination with neighbours.
  • Murakami Yuichi
    The Hokkaido Law Review 北海道大学大学院法学研究科 70 (6) 1009 - 1037 0385-5953 2020/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper analyses international treaty implementation in cases involving CITES. After reviewing CITES implementation, various problems in Japan, France, and the European Union (EU), and their proposals at the CoP, an analysis using static and dynamic frameworks reveals that CITES implementation should be re-evaluated to determine (1) under what conditions — such as the institutional and normative power of the international organization, or the country’s domestic circumstances in terms of their politics and interests — are international treaties not implemented as agreed upon, and (2) how the implementation system can be assessed if it is described as a continuous process of ‘coordination’ between conflicting rules and values in a global multilevel regulatory governance space. According to the analysis, CITES itself seems to have a relatively effective institution-and-implementation mechanism, but there are various political, administrative, and cultural factors in each country that restrict its enforcement. Even EU members, with their ambitious action plans and multilevel divisions of labour, recognize that enforcement should be improved to be far more effective than it is. A multilevel governance framework, working as both concept and strategy, explains why a treaty implementation system established through continuous and multilateral coordination in a global regulatory space has become more complicated. International treaty implementation needs to have an interdisciplinary approach to make the most of their respective strengths.
  • Murakami Yuichi
    Annals, Public Policy Studies 北海道大学公共政策大学院 13 99 - 116 1881-9818 2019/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper reviews responses to the co-authored book Improving the current administration’s Local Revitalisation Policy (ISBN: 9784000238953) from researchers and practitioners in and out of Hokkaido University Public Policy School (HOPS), as well as discussions that took place at symposia at Hokkaido University, Kushiro Public University of Economics and Fukuoka University following publication. The main points are: (1) a ‘division of labour’ between the central and local governments in terms of regional policy, as well as balancing local autonomy and government leadership; (2) a sustainable method for regional revitalisation under the current policy decision-making system; and (3) reconciling the incompatible functional and territorial principles, as well as a way to promote voluntary inter-municipal co-operation.
  • 村上 裕一
    季刊行政管理研究 行政管理研究センター 161 4 - 18 0386-684X 2018/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Murakami Yuichi, Koiso Shuji, Sekiguchi Manami
    Annals, Public Policy Studies 北海道大学公共政策大学院 12 49 - 72 1881-9818 2018/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper follows our study on the impacts and meanings of the recent 'Local Revitalization Policy' in Shikoku. Although we present complementary evidence based on our survey conducted last year on the Ehime and Kagawa Prefectures of Shikoku that validates the findings of Murakami et al. (2017), we find that Shikoku and Hokkaido both emphasize, in their respective strategies, economic policy (industry revitalization, and job creation), and social policy (child-care support, and immigration and settlement support). However, Shikoku places more emphasis on the latter because of a precedent partnership and 'division of labour' with prefectures that have mainly committed to the former. Further, results assert that (1) the 'national' policy, which targeted sharply shrinking areas, also lead local governments, which had not worked so hard on population decline, to recognize the seriousness of the problem; (2) Shikoku understood this seemingly 'spectacular' and 'flattering' policy that local governments saw too late rather calmly, because, unlike with Hokkaido, Shikoku did not have big expectations, and therefore, were not too disappointed with the policy; and (3) such a sudden policy implementation left bitter feelings and busy workloads for these years, and, ironically, an expectation for continuing support to deal with inter-governmental competition in a context of economic decline and population shrinkage.
  • 村上 裕一
    社会技術研究論文集 : Sociotechnica 社会技術研究会 14 95 - 104 1349-0184 2017/06 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper considers the expected role of local councillors in the age of decentralization by investigating decentralized policy implementations against ‘abandoned houses’ in Japan, which local governments are given some discretion in deciding how to deal with. This paper reviews what central and local governments have done until today, and sketches a broad picture of the ‘abandoned house’ problem. It sheds light on the policy agendas that were set and the issues discussed in an experimental policy dialog among local councillors, which the author attended. The study asserts the following: (1) the conventional ‘autonomous rule-making’ role of local councillors turns, in part, into an ‘autonomous administration’ role in collaboration with the local government bureaucracy; (2) the councillors can contribute to the reconciliation of administrative sectionalism in policies where a comprehensive approach is needed (‘government control’ role); and (3) their ‘inhabitant representation’ role stands out because such policies require fact-finding in residents’ everyday life, agenda-setting in councils, and its policy problem-structuring.
  • Murakami Yuichi, Koiso Shuji, Sekiguchi Manami
    Annals, Public Policy Studies 北海道大学公共政策大学院 11 119 - 137 1881-9818 2017/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper is one of the first and most comprehensive studies to investigate the meaning of the Abe II administration's 'Local Revitalization Policy' and to review local governments' reactions in Hokkaido. Based on our survey of all the local governments in Hokkaido during October and November 2016, this paper concludes that the policy has provided a chance for farsighted governments, especially for those experiencing a sharp decline in young people, to realise the emerging problems of a shrinking society and to work on a solution. However, the policy has also been so sudden and almost arbitrary that the local governments' respective conventional systems were forced to work hard applying for unwieldy grants and following the detailed directions given by the central government. The results of our survey imply that the Central and local governments in Japan share discretion. The Central government maintains discretion in deciding nationwide policies and provides administrative guidance to the respective local governments, whether big or small and rich or poor, allowing them to formulate policies suitable to their own requirements. This is done while maintaining the Central government's overall policy design through the use of informational, budgetary, and regulatory tools.
  • Murakami Yuichi
    Annals, Public Policy Studies 北海道大学公共政策大学院 (10) 141 - 165 1881-9818 2016/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Regulatory capture has recently been defined as 'the result by which regulation, in law or application, is consistently or repeatedly directed away from the public interest and toward the interests of the regulated industry, by the intent and action of the industry itself'. In excellent contrast to conventional capture theory, the concept of 'corrosive capture' argues that deregulation is no longer a panacea for emerging regulatory capture. This paper first reviews theoretical proposals for preventing capture such as by dividing power across multiple regulators, empowering consumers, promising diffuse interests, and conducting executive reviews of regulations based on cost-benefit analysis. Subsequently, the framework is applied to a Japanese case of regulations on drug sales through the Internet. The case study shows that values and sources of independent expertise are quite diverse in Japan, but the Supreme Court is somewhat hesitant, or more passive than expected in theory, to express substantial objections in regulatory affairs. Executive coordination and the Regulatory Reform Council in the Cabinet, chaired by a private entrepreneur, can free captured regulations from vested interests and make them more effective, although the notion of 'public interest' has not been clearly defined in the regulatory space.
  • Yuichi Murakami
    The Hokkaido Law Review 北海道大学大学院法学研究科 66 (5) 1383 - 1408 0385-5953 2016/01 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    There is a two-sided relationship between administrative discretion and control/responsibility; wide discretion for bureaucrats is argued by some to enable them to do their best to complete their missions, while others argue that it gives them ‘free hands’ to behave on their own without any consideration of the public interest. This paper firstly focuses on a substantive and conceptual enhancement of administrative discretion in history, despite some judicial and de-facto restrictions on bureaucrats from its circumstances, and it defines administrative discretion as a combination of administrative (1) ‘autonomy’ and (2) ‘discretion’ (in a narrower sense, under the delegation of the Cabinet and the Parliament). Case studies were performed on (1) the technical standard-setting process of safety regulations, (2) the organizational design of independent regulatory agencies, and (3) the executive planning and budgeting of science and technology policy. The studies show that bureaucrats today manage to maintain or even widen their discretion (as a whole) by means of making the most of their autonomy and through regulation of regulation, or ‘meta-regulation’. Although recent administrative reform strengthened administrative control from the Cabinet and the Parliament as aimed, administrative responsibility was actually fulfilled through various international organizations, private actors, and a kind of market mechanism, as they are also important in satisfying the procedural requirements of preparing scientific evidence when making decisions, and in winning consumers’ selection and ‘competition’ among various regulatory schemes (whether public or private). It is true that the government should pursue transparency to be accountable and be controlled by other institutions as widely discussed in academia, but this paper argues for widening administrative discretion for bureaucrats, on the contrary, with a sense of their mission, responsibility, and public interest in mind and a focus on a sort of bureaucratic ethics in relation to ministers, politicians, and citizens.
  • Murakami Yuichi
    Annals, Public Policy Studies 北海道大学公共政策大学院 (9) 143 - 168 1881-9818 2015/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper begins by describing the establishment of the Scientific Technical Administration Committee (STAC) in 1948, the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in 1956, and the Council for Science, Technology, and Innovation (CSTI) in 2014 in Japan. These agencies have something in common in that they were somewhat expected to work as governmental 'control towers (CTs)' of Japan's science, technology, and innovation policy, with political leadership in the contemporary Cabinet. Second, this paper shows some of the agencies' similarities and differences, including the following: (1) they have been initiated and supported mainly by the industrial sector (and the STA would not have been established without a nuclear budget), (2) the STAC and the STA emphasized 'comprehensive coordination' as an important part of their mission between related ministries, though the CSTI is expected to be a 'CT' or a 'headquarters' for the administration to initiate resource distribution or science/technology policy decisions, and (3) the STAC and the STA showed their relatively positive attitudes toward a rather wide range of science/technology policies, though the CSTI is quite passive toward some policies such as research & development of nuclear and medicine, which are in fact directed by other 'CTs' or the like. Two hypotheses emerge from the discussionabove: the 'CT' is a product of the Central Government Ministries Reform (2001); it can cause another authoritative dispute between some 'CTs' in the Cabinet Office. These two hypotheses will be tested through further research including the following: (1) investigating the background of the establishment of other 'CTs' and their relationships with the political leadership in the Cabinet, (2) analysing that leadership's impact in the existing administrative system in the bureaucracy, and (3) describing in more detail the STAC, STA, and CSTI's actual practices regarding their policy coordination/implementation and resource distribution.
  • 村上 裕一
    日本海洋政策学会誌 日本海洋政策学会 4 127 - 138 2186-3954 2014/11 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper characterizes three major aspects of discussions in International Maritime Organization (IMO) on recent amendments of the MARPOL 73/78 and SOLAS conventions such as: (1) to strengthen existing regulations in the Convention; (2) to implement the concept of Goal-Based Standard (GBS); and (3) to implement the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) as a tool for assessing regulatory options. Compared with other fields of regulation—those for wooden buildings, automobiles, electric equipment, and nuclear facilities—IMO regulation has several unique features. First, clusters of its stakeholders are so diverse and multi-layered that the regulatory disputes often turn out to be a global issue, and political pressure concerning safety/environmental protection and regulation reinforcement tends to affect the regulation rather immediately. Second, regulatory implementation or enforcement is so much more difficult than just setting a target or standards that more effective regulatory methods have been examined recently, such as the improvement of Port State Control (PSC) and additional supervision of ship operation or its human factors. Finally, probabilistic safety/risk assessment, such as FSA, has been well designed and used in order to balance the social benefits that ship transport yields, and its potential risks that can be diffused and complex.
  • 村上 裕一
    国家学会雑誌 = The journal of the Association of Political and Social Sciences 東京大学大学院法学政治学研究科 126 (11) 1064 - 1123 0023-2793 2013/12 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 村上 裕一
    国家学会雑誌 = The journal of the Association of Political and Social Sciences 東京大学大学院法学政治学研究科 126 (9) 868 - 923 0023-2793 2013/10 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 村上 裕一
    国家学会雑誌 = The journal of the Association of Political and Social Sciences 東京大学大学院法学政治学研究科 126 (7) 688 - 741 0023-2793 2013/08 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 村上 裕一
    国家学会雑誌 = The journal of the Association of Political and Social Sciences 東京大学大学院法学政治学研究科 126 (5) 438 - 499 0023-2793 2013/06 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 村上 裕一
    国家学会雑誌 = The journal of the Association of Political and Social Sciences 東京大学大学院法学政治学研究科 126 (3) 197 - 245 0023-2793 2013/04 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 村上 裕一
    国家学会雑誌 = The journal of the Association of Political and Social Sciences 東京大学大学院法学政治学研究科 126 (1) 1 - 54 0023-2793 2013/02 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • MURAKAMI Yuichi
    SOCIOTECHNICA 社会技術研究会 10 (0) 117 - 127 1349-0184 2013 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This study examines reasons why governmental organizations engaged in public administration (PA) need to be inde-pendent and shows that 'independence' can be categorized as independence from (1) other departments in government, (2) politics (e.g. partisanship), and (3) those subject to its activities. It is argued that treating PA in terms of its resources (treasures (i.e. finances), authority, organizations and nodality (i.e. information)) is meaningful for evaluating the true extent of independence. Analysis of PA in Japan identifies goals for future study, such as more sophisticated methods for quantitative evaluation and further investigation of 'independence' and institutional design to build public trust in PA.
  • 村上 裕一
    計画行政 日本計画行政学会 35 (3) 44 - 51 0387-2513 2012/08 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • MURAKAMI Yuichi
    SOCIOTECHNICA 社会技術研究会 8 124 - 137 1349-0184 2011 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Complicated forms of 'public-private division of labour' are frequently observed in regulatory activities. In this paper, I first classify the institutional alternatives of public-private work-sharing, according to the amount of discretion that remains with the government. Then, I expand on my research agenda?how the delegated regulator chooses its administrative tools for public-private collaboration, and the performance of such tools?through a comparative case study on [1] the third-party/self-certification system under the Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law, and [2] self-regulation against electromagnetic interference (EMI) managed by a private council, the Voluntary Control Council for Interference by Information Technology Equipment (VCCI). The results reveal that their differences in administrative tools are also explained by differences in [1] the resources that the industry possesses for effective regulation, such as administrative or punitive powers for appropriate implementation, and so, [2] suitable discretionary tools in the government for making the regulation productive and responsive in the regulatory space (provided by social factors such as market, consumer, and information), and [3] whether the regulatory system directly suffered from political tides of the regulatory reform in the 1980s, in addition to differences in [4] tools reasonable for the nature of the regulated technology, and [5] the respective path-dependent factor. This paper also mentions some implications for sociotechnology research.
  • MURAKAMI Yuichi, YOKOYAMA Yurie, HIRAISHI Akira
    SOCIOTECHNICA 社会技術研究会 (7) 182 - 198 1349-0184 2010 
    'Public-private collaborations' or 'governance networks' have been found indispensable in public policies such as those for introducing and diffusing new advanced technology. In particular, in recent years, policy managers have been required to make efforts with regard to the 'governance of governance' or 'metagovernance'. Comparing with Sørensen and Torfing's recent work on effective and democratic 'metagovernance', this paper researches the R&D policy on fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) in Japan observing how the stakeholders recognize the policy and its feasibility, to find evidence on the conventional theory and to modify it. Furthermore, this paper aims to examine what a 'metagovernor' has to do to attain a certain policy goal, and to analyze endogenous and/or exogenous factors (such as the difficulty in distributing resources appropriately to competing technologies, the vulnerability of the research flow to political tides and personnel reshuffles, etc.) that should be taken into consideration in the policy processes for introducing and diffusing brand-new technology. We conclude that the 'metagovernor' is only a component of the plural 'metagovernance network', which imposes on him the abovementioned limits.
  • 村上 裕一
    The journal of the Association of Political and Social Sciences 國家學會事務所 122 (9) 1266 - 1330 0023-2793 2009/10 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • KITAMURA Hidetaka, MURAKAMI Yuichi, KATO Hironori, SHIROYAMA Hideaki
    SOCIOTECHNICA 社会技術研究会 5 40 - 51 1349-0184 2008 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    This paper analyzes the problem structure in the discussions on road pricing scheme proposed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government particularly from the freight transportation viewpoint. In order to survey the problem structuring identified by the stakeholders, we interviewed the following stakeholders: the two departments in the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG), the TMG Committee on road pricing scheme, the two types of freight transportation operators and the retailers. The survey results show that the stakeholders identify the road pricing scheme in the various ways whereas the stakeholders have change in the identified problem structure during the discussions.

Books etc

Conference Activities & Talks

  • フランスの地方自治の体感  [Invited]
    村上裕一
    2021年度第1回北海道自治研究会  2021/08
  • フランスのローカル線運営:「私の列車、私の地域」の意味  [Not invited]
    村上裕一
    ウェビナー「どうする?どうなる?北海道のローカル線」  2021/07
  • コメンテータ(永見靖氏ご報告に対して)  [Invited]
    村上裕一
    環境法政策学会年次学術大会(第25回)(第一分科会:国内法)  2021/06
  • 行政の多層性をめぐって  [Invited]
    村上裕一
    東京大学行政学研究会  2021/06
  • Book Review for Ryuma Shineha's Recent Book on Responsible STI Governance  [Invited]
    Yuichi Murakami
    科学社会学会オンライン研究会(合評会)  2021/03
  • Le corona vu du Japon: Quel pays est le plus efficace contre le coronavirus?  [Invited]
    Yuichi Murakami
    北大院法学研究科附属高等法政研 公開講演会「コロナ危機から考える現代社会」  2021/01
  • Yuichi Murakami
    日本計画行政学会 全国大会(第43回)  2020/11
  • Democratic Control and Governmental Delegation: Reality and Prospects in STI Policy  [Not invited]
    Yuichi Murakami
    日本公共政策学会研究大会(第24回)  2020/06
  • CITES実施の「多層的規制モデル」  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    環境法政策学会年次学術大会(第23回)  2019/06
  • 科技庁はどこへ行ったのか:「総合調整」から「司令塔」への進化?  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    日本政治学会研究大会  2018/10
  • 地方創生の過去・現在と未来  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    日本計画行政学会第41回全国大会(企画ワークショップ:課題先進地・北海道発!「地方創生」の成果と教訓を考える」  2018/09
  • 「地方創生」を研究して:釧路開催に寄せて  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    釧路公立大学主催フォーラム「地方創生を超えて:人口減少時代に向き合う地域政策を考える」  2018/09
  • 「地方創生」を研究して:それをどう「超えて」いくか  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    北大公共政策大学院主催フォーラム「地方創生を超えて:人口減少時代に向き合う地域政策を考える」  2018/07
  • 「地方創生」の行政学的分析  [Invited]
    村上 裕一
    第137回 関西公共政策研究会  2018/03
  • 規制の「実験」と「評価」のシステム試論  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    日本評価学会 第18回全国大会(自由論題2:評価制度)  2017/12
  • 科学技術政策の「司令塔機能強化」の行政学的意義  [Invited]
    村上 裕一
    第1回 大阪大学豊中地区研究交流会 第2部 文理融合セミナー  2016/12
  • 日本版「規制監督機関」のデザイン:規制の良し悪しを評価するという観点から  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    日本評価学会 第17回全国大会(自由論題1:制度と評価)  2016/11
  • 『技術基準と官僚制』とそれ以降の取り組みについて  [Invited]
    村上 裕一
    先端行政学研究会  2016/10
  • 行政研究における法学と政治学の対話可能性について  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    北大法学会  2015/12
  • 規制を評価する仕組みについての一考察  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    日本評価学会 第16回全国大会(自由論題4:評価手法)  2015/12
  • いわゆるCorrosive Captureとその予防方策  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    日本政治学会研究会(分科会B-1:政府と市場)  2015/10
  • 「行政裁量」と現代の行政責任・行政統制について  [Not invited]
    村上 裕一
    日本行政学会研究会(分科会A:行政責任・行政統制をめぐる変容)  2015/05

MISC

Research Grants & Projects

  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2020/04 -2025/03 
    Author : 村上 裕一
  • 官僚の社会化メカニズムの解明を通じた現代日本官僚制の研究
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/04 -2024/03 
    Author : 青木 栄一, 久保 慶明, 秦 正樹, 柳 至, 北村 亘, 伊藤 正次, 砂原 庸介, 本田 哲也, 村上 裕一, 河合 晃一, 曽我 謙悟, 手塚 洋輔, 原田 久, 大谷 基道
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Challenging Research (Pioneering)
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/06 -2023/03 
    Author : 曽野 裕夫, 東山 寛, 嶋 拓哉, 児矢野 マリ, 山下 竜一, 中谷 朋昭, 小林 国之, 村上 裕一, 清水池 義治, 中山 一郎, 伊藤 一頼
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 村上 裕一
     
    今年度は、(1) 国内事例の研究発表、(2) 多層的規制モデルの理論的検討、(3) 国際比較の予備的考察の3観点から研究に取り組んだ。 (1) ①科学技術関係省庁の変遷と②地方創生の展開過程の研究をまとめた。そのうち、技官の官庁であった旧科技庁の「総合調整」と他省よりも一段高く位置付けられた内閣府の「司令塔」機能とを比較した①では、科技政策決定の場が、文科省と内閣府との「レベル」間で移ろうことをデータにより論じた(この成果は『文部科学省の解剖』で発表)。また、自治体調査等の成果のアウトリーチが中心となった②では、国・地方各「レベル」の役割分担や機能・領域主義の両立など、多層的規制を巡る課題について検討した(この成果は『年報 公共政策学』で発表)。 (2) 多層的規制モデルの特長として、①連邦制との違い、②規制決定権限の所在への着目、③「政策的思考」の採用といった点がある。①からは、縦列に並ぶ各「レベル」に一定の自律性を認めつつも、それらが互いに影響し合うことによっていかなる帰結を生むのかという視角が導かれた。また、②からはトップダウンとボトムアップ、及びその中間形態に注意することの重要性が、③からは規制が多層的であることによりその効率性や公益性が高まるのかという因果関係分析の重要性が、それぞれ示唆された。 (3) 本研究を基課題とする「日・仏・欧比較による多層的規制モデルの構築」の研究も兼ねてフランスに滞在し、理論と事例の両面から本研究を進めた。具体的には、EU・加盟各国・政策現場(自治体、民間)の各「レベル」でdiscretionを分け合っている例として、同国・同地域の(特に大都市への)地方分権改革のインパクトや地域開発基金の動向の情報収集をした。現地の研究者の力も借りながら、多層的規制の近年の変容を見るのに適した分野として、農業、競争、環境政策にも視野を広げつつある。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2020/03 
    Author : 遠井 朗子, 村上 裕一, 眞田 康弘, 鶴田 順
     
    年度前半には、市民セミナー及びシンポジウムを開催し、多様なアクターと意見交換を行った。8月にはJWCSと共催で市民セミナー(「買い物の先にある絶滅と世界の潮流」)を開催し、野生生物の密猟、違法取引の防止における市民の役割とフェアトレード認証の利用可能性について検討を行った。9月には、研究分担者(真田)が国際シンポジウム(「海産水産資源の持続可能な利用とワシントン条約:グローバルな規範形成と日本の対応」)を開催し、研究者、政府関係者、環境NGO、報道関係者等、多様な立場の人々と問題を共有し、建設的な議論を行った。これらの機会を通して、日本においては、条約の国内実施プロセスの透明性が低く、市民が意見を形成し、意思決定に反映させる機会が十分ではないことが確認された。また、第70回常設委員会にオブザーバーとして参加し、審議の観察を行った。日本の調査捕鯨(北東太平洋におけるイワシクジラ)が不遵守にあたるか、という議題については、国際協調に基づき、捕獲中止を確約した日本の対応は概ね受け入れられたが、象牙については、NIAPプロセスにより対応が改善された諸国の「卒業」が認められる一方で、法改正により規制強化を行い、市場を維持する意向の日本の対応については評価が分かれたことを確認した。年度後半には、10月に研究会、3月にスカイプ会議を各1回開催し、メンバー間で情報共有を図ると共に、各々の進捗状況について中間報告を行って、最終年度の研究成果の見通し及び公表方法を検討した。以上を踏まえて、条約の国内実施プロセスを多元的な統治の場(locus)として捉えなおすという基本方針を立てて、条約レジームに動態性をもたらす諸要因について仮説と実証を試みると同時に、他国と比べ、消極的かつ硬直的な日本の国内実施について、変化と停滞のメカニズムを、法的及び行政学的な観点から、明らかとするという目標を共有した。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Fund for the Promotion of Joint International Research (Fostering Joint International Research)
    Date (from‐to) : 2018 -2020 
    Author : 村上 裕一
     
    2018年9月からフランスのボルドー政治学院で在外研究をしている。共同研究者の協力を得ながら、今年度は、(1) 多層的規制モデルの理論的検討、(2) フランス行政の調査、(3) EU行政の調査の3観点から研究に取り組んだ。 (1) 上記モデルの特長のうち、規制決定権限の所在に関連して、ワシントン条約を念頭に置きながら、国際条約の国内実施を検討した。その成否の規定要因として、先行研究が、(a) 条約実施に有効な資源が国際機関に備わっていること、(b) 国際機関の資源の効果を邪魔する要素が各国にないこと、を挙げていることが分かったが、これが近年のワシントン条約にも当てはまるか、また、これ以外の行政的要因の有無について、各国の規制実態を踏まえて検討している。 (2) フランス行政における多層的規制の例として、①地方分権改革による国・地方関係の変化、②コンセイユ・デタによる行政の適正化、③食品の品質認証制度に係る官民関係等についての情報収集をした。①については、地方、とりわけ大都市への分権が進んだ1980年代以降、建物の老朽化対策に関して、(a) 進捗が各都市の政治状況や政策手法の巧拙によってまちまちになっていること、(b) 分権化されればされるほど責任を負うことになる自治体は、現場でその果たすべき役割と権限と責任を実感せずにはいられない状況に置かれていることが明らかになった。 (3) EU行政については、①加盟各国に対するEUの行政的意味における重み、②「民主主義の赤字」に対する欧州議会の地位向上の意義、③規制の透明化と効率化を目指すBetter Regulation Strategyの動向といった点について、情報収集をした。そうしたEU全体の近況把握と併行して、EU・加盟各国・政策現場の各「レベル」でdiscretionを分け合っている例として、地域開発基金の情報収集もした。
  • タイムユーズサーベイを応用した官僚の行動分析の革新
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Challenging Research (Exploratory)
    Date (from‐to) : 2018/06 -2019/03 
    Author : 青木 栄一, 北村 亘, 曽我 謙悟, 清水 唯一朗, 村上 裕一, 河合 晃一
     
    (1)タイムユーズサーベイのための準備作業:タイムユーズサーベイは一日の活動を時間帯別に記録するダイアリー式質問紙調査を典型とする調査方法である。本研究課題は日本で初めて官僚を調査対象とするものである。そのため、タイムユーズサーベイが官僚に対して適用可能かどうか検討することから本研究を開始した。まず、研究代表者の人的ネットワークを活用して、中央省庁職員(キャリア官僚)の3名に対してタイムユーズサーベイについて説明を行い、調査対象としての見解を聴取した。その結果、技術的に検討を要する事項が数点明らかになった。第1に、調査時期である。国会議員選挙が行われる時期は国会議員が地元選挙区での活動に注力するために、官僚は調査に協力しやすいことがわかった。第2に、調査対象である。職位によって従事する業務が異なるため、ある程度幅広い職位を調査対象とする必要があることがわかった。具体的には課長級以上はマネジメントが主体となるため、その前後の職位を含める必要がある。第3に、業務分類である。官僚の業務をどの程度細分化するかはさらに検討を要する点である。今年度の時点では、省内業務(連絡調整、打ち合わせ)と省外主体(政治家、関係団体)との接触に大別される。第4に、調査の時間帯と日数である。休日を含めるかどうか、1日24時間を対象とするか、1時間間隔か30分間隔かといった点をさらに検討していく必要があることがわかった。 (2)研究組織の立ち上げ:グループウェアを活用して研究打ち合わせを行った。
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
    Date (from‐to) : 2016/04 -2019/03 
    Author : MIYAWAKI Atsushi
     
    This study focuses mainly on Hokkaido dealing with population problems and analyses various 'collaborations'. It re-examines existing theories from new perspectives, such as territorial management and an integration of social and scientific technology. It also constructs a sturdy and sustainable model for addressing population problems for their implementation. The study has revealed that the following measures may lead to an improvement of various collaborations: 1) the establishment of a mechanism in which parties involved, by eliminating any discord regarding their understanding of the system, will appropriately share the functions, the responsibilities, and the risks associated; 2) the assuming of a coordination by a leading city to produce benefits that exceed the costs involving wide-area collaborations; 3) the establishment of a system in which broad macro policies that should be handled by the central government will be properly distinguished from policies by local governments.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2019/03 
    Author : Aoki Eiichi, Ito Masatsugu
     
    The purpose of this research is to provide academic findings on the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). First, we review the results of the empirical studies on bureaucracy in public administration and indicate the importance of conducting surveys on bureaucrats. Second, we point out that no survey has been conducted on MEXT and state the significance of studying about MEXT as a subject of research into bureaucracy. Third, we analyze the survey results of all senior officers in MEXT conducted in 2016 with studying on personnel data of MEXT and researching on policy process of education and technology. In particular, these results indicate a lack of contact with the prime minister’s office, an emphasis on the intergovernmental fiscal transfer system for local government, and difficulties in coordinating with the Ministry of Finance.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2013/04 -2017/03 
    Author : Murakami Yuichi
     
    This project clarifies the structure and transformation of ‘regulatory space’ and its background from the perspective of public administration. Examined cases of safety regulations indicate that standard-setting and enforcement are also amidst a recent wave of ‘governance’, since public and private actors share discretion in fact-finding, mutual reconciliation, and global harmonization. Although it appears that governmental regulatory discretion decreases in this situation, the government views the regulatory process from a seemingly neutral and distant position, and controls the entire regulatory system for ‘public interest’ with various substantial or procedural regulatory schemes. This implies that the government, in a sense, strategically expands their discretion on the ‘regulation of regulation’ or ‘meta-regulation’. This multi-layered regulation can be helpful in avoiding ‘corrosive capture’. The next phase of my comparative study investigates this aspect in detail.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2013/04 -2017/03 
    Author : Makihara Izuru
     
    This research clarified the characteristics of the history of governmental structural reform in postwar Japan by combining comparative research on governmental structural reform of the developed countries, based on the newly discovered administrative drafts and oral history records. Firstly, the reform of governmental structure is characterized by the balanced relationship between the coordination and the independent agencies. Secondly, the three types of policy networks, that is to say, domestic, international, and financial policy networks have been basic elements of the governmental structure. Thirdly, the issue networks, which have produced “politics of ideas”, have influenced the governmental reform in the critical era of postwar Japanese administrative history.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)
    Date (from‐to) : 2012/06 -2017/03 
    Author : Matsuura Masahiro, OKUWAKI Naoya, SHIROYAMA Hideaki
     
    This research project explored types of ocean governance that realize meaningful interaction with marine science by conducting case studies of international governance mechanisms. Through the project, we discovered the following four ingredients of ocean governance: 1) consensus for "best available scientific evidence"; 2) varieties of mechanisms for providing scientific information, including formal scientific committees to informal information gathering opportunities; 3) variety in the effect of scientific information on formal decision-making; and 4) implementing the flexibility of regulatory measures by using reference clauses. Meanwhile, the relationship between science and politics is becoming more complex as political actors are becoming more strategic about the use of scientific information for their own political advantage.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2012/04 -2015/03 
    Author : OKUWAKI NAOYA, SHIROYAMA Hideaki, KATO Hironori, HUH Sookyon, MATSUURA Masahiro, NISHIMOTO Kentaro, MURAKAMI Yuichi, KUBO Makiko, SHIBASAKI Ryuichi
     
    In this project, issues concerning integrated ocean management in the seas of Asia were examined: First, the implementation of UNCLOS in national laws and legal systems of coastal States of Asian seas was comparatively studied; Second, mechanisms of international cooperation in Asia, as well as national policies for management of marine ports and administration of small islands in Japan, were examined from the perspective of ocean governance; Third, the risk of terrorism and/or piracy in Malacca-Singapore Straits and the effects of expected transportation networks in Central Asia were evaluated. As part of the project’s outreach efforts, public symposia were organized at the end of each fiscal year.
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
    Date (from‐to) : 2010/04 -2015/03 
    Author : KOYANO Mari, TAKAMURA Yukari, KUBO Haruka, MASUZAWA Yoko, SHIMAMURA Takeshi, TSURUTA Jun, HORIGUCHI Takeo, KITAMURA Yoshinobu, TOI Akiko, YAMASHITA Ryuichi, WATARI Tadasu, SHIROYAMA Hideaki, KATO Nobuyuki, KAKU Shun, KOBAYASHI Tomohiko, FUJITANI Takeshi, SAKATA Masao, OIKAWA Hiroki, UMEMURA Yu, MURAKAMI Yuichi, ITO Kazuyori
     
    It is indispensable for managing environmental problems in globalized societies to keep appropriate linkage between relevant international law and national law and policy. However, presumably it is not always easy due to various factors. The project, a multi-disciplinary study of public international law, administrative law, public administration and environmental law and policy, aims to find some good ways to deal with the problems. It has conducted comprehensive research on Japanese practice for implementing multilateral environmental agreements and on impact of Japanese law and policy on their negotiation process from various viewpoints. Based on the thorough analysis of six main fields of environmental issues, such as climate change, ozone depletion, marine pollution, management of hazardous wastes or chemicals, biological diversity and nuclear safety, the strength and weakness of Japanese practice has been identified. The problems and future prospects have been examined as well.
  • 技術基準の策定・運用において協働する官民の規制体制の構造に関する理論的実証的研究
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows
    Date (from‐to) : 2011 -2012 
    Author : 村上 裕一
     
    本研究では、安全等の規制に係る技術基準の策定・運用において、様々な形で「協働」し合う官民アクターから構成される規制体制の構造を、理論的・実証的に検討することを目的としている。今年度は、主として(1)学位論文の公刊に向けた作業、(2)製品の安全等に関する規制システムのさらなる事例研究、(3)関連する概念として「独立性」の検討、という3つの側面から検討を進めた。 第1に、2012年3月に博士(法学)号を取得した学位論文の公刊に向けた作業である。作業に当たっては、論文提出時に「今後の課題」とした諸問題(例えば、「規制空間」の構造や規制行政機関の裁量行使戦略のあり方を規定する要因〔市場の構造等〕等について)も、追加的に考察を行った(この成果は、『国家学会雑誌〔第126巻第1・2号~第11-12号〕』で発表中)。 第2に、本研究の根源的な問いである「国際調和化、技術情報の分散化、官民関係の多元化の中で、官民が相互に作用・依存し合う『規制空間』の構造は、どのように変容しているのか。また、そのような規制空間において、規制行政機関はどのような裁量行使戦略を採っているのか」を実証的に検討するため、我が国の安全等の規制システムの実態調査をこれまでの自動車、建築、電気用品以外の分野についても行い、ある程度分野横断的に見られる現象を分析し記述した(この成果は、『計画行政〔第35巻3号・通巻112号〕』44-51頁で発表した)。 第3に、本研究でこれまで注目してきた、官民の諸組織の垣根を超えた連携・協働、調整とは一見対立する概念である「独立性」について、日本の行政の組織や活動の実態を踏まえて検討した。「独立性」の概念に関する議論と実務の状況を改めて整理・検討することで、翻って連携・協働、調整の輪郭を捉え、その範囲を画定することを試みたものである(この成果は、『社会技術研究論文集〔Vol.10〕』で発表する)。
  • 官民協働による行政:社会管理のための技術基準策定と執行のプロセス設計に向けて
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows
    Date (from‐to) : 2009 -2010 
    Author : 村上 裕一
     
    本研究では、規制行政など、社会管理活動における官民協働のあり方(その具体的手法、政策プロセスの実態、体制・制度設計のあり方など)に注目している。今年度は、主として下記の3つの側面から研究を進めた。 第1に、官民協働に関係する理論・モデルの整理とそこからの論点抽出、である。具体的には、従来「官民の相互依存の中にでき上がる社会管理のシステム」と捉えられてきた「行政指導」、階統型ガバメントと非階統型カバナンスとの関係性、及び、「行政裁量」を採り上げ、理論的側面から検討した。これらの観点から事例を比較・考察することは、「規制空間」のあり方を理論的・実証的に捉えるために重要かつ有意義だと考えている。 第2に、具体的事例の分析、である。電気用品安全法に基づく規制とVCCI協会による自主規制を採り上げ、官民協働の手段選択の条件について行った比較研究では、両者の手段・制度における違いが、初期条件の違いのみならず、規制対象の事故・障害の危険性・規模・頻度、手段選択時における規制対象技術の進展・変化(の見込み)における違い、実効的な規制を行うための資源を民(被規制者)がどれほど有しているかといった点、及び、1980年代以降の規制改革が直裁に影響したか否かという観点からも説明され得ることを明らかにした(この成果は、『社会技術研究論文集(Vol.8)』に採録決定)。 第3に、これまで観察してきた自動車・木造住宅・電気用品などの事例の比較分析、及び、一般的知見の導出である。現時点では、個別の「規制空間」のあり方とその変容を規定する諸条件を仮説的に抽出している段階であり、今後さらに事実関係の調査と考察を進めることによって、それらを実証していく計画である。 さらに、第12回国際交通学会と第7回社会技術研究シンポジウムにおいてこれまでの研究成果を発表し、国内外の研究者と意見交換ができたことも、今年度中の大きな収穫であった。

Educational Activities

Teaching Experience

  • Politics
    開講年度 : 2020
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 文学部
    キーワード : 官僚制、行政制度、行政組織、行政活動、公共政策
  • Modern Japanese Political Economy IIID
    開講年度 : 2020
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 現代日本学プログラム課程
    キーワード : 官僚制、行政制度、行政組織、行政活動、公共政策
  • Public Administration
    開講年度 : 2020
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 法学部
    キーワード : 官僚制、行政制度、行政組織、行政活動、公共政策


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