Researcher Database

Makoto Kobayashi
Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere Forest Research Station Teshio Experimental Forest
Associate Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings


  • Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere Forest Research Station Teshio Experimental Forest

Job Title

  • Associate Professor

J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • plant-soil system   disturbance   boreal forest   biogeochemistry   climate change   tree ecophysiology   

Research Areas

  • Environmental science/Agricultural science / Environmental impact assessment
  • Life sciences / Forest science

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2018/04 - Today Hokkaido University Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere Associate Professor
  • 2013/07 - 2018/03 Hokkaido University Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere Assistant Professor
  • 2012/04 - 2013/06 JSPS (Yokohama National University) Post doctral fellow
  • 2010/06 - 2012/03 Umea University Climate Impact Research Centre Post-doctral researcher
  • 2010/04 - 2010/05 Hokkaido University Research Faculty of Agriculture Post-doctral researcher
  • 2007/04 - 2010/03 Hokkaido University Division of Environmental Resources Ph.D student
  • 2007/04 - 2010/03 JSPS Doctral Fellow (DC1)


  • 2005/04 - 2010/03  Hokkaido University  Graduate School of Agriculture
  • 2000/04 - 2005/03  Hokkaido University  Department of Agriculture

Association Memberships


Research Activities

Published Papers

  • Where and when does dispersal limitation matters in primary succession?
    Makoto, K, Wilson, S.D
    Journal of Ecology 107 559 - 565 2019/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • The effect of snow reduction and Eisenia japonica earthworm traits on soil nitrogen dynamics in spring in a cool-temperate forest.
    Makoto, K, Bryanin, S.V, Takagi, K
    Applied Soil Ecology 144 1 - 7 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Harmonized data on early stage litter decomposition using tea material across Japan.
    Suzuki, S.N, authors including, Makoto, K
    Ecological Research 34 575 - 576 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Earthworms under 1 m of snow: the seasonal dynamics of earthworm abundance in cool-temperate forests with heavy snowfall
    Makoto, K, Kawakami, T
    Edaphologia 105 15 - 23 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Warming increased feeding of a root-chewing insect at soil surface and enhanced its damage on a grass.
    Tsunoda, T, Makoto, K, Suzuki, J.I, Kaneko, N
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry (in press) 2018/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Eveline J. Krab, Jonas Roennefarth, Marina Becher, Gesche Blume-Werry, Frida Keuper, Jonatan Klaminder, Juergen Kreyling, Kobayashi Makoto, Ann Milbau, Ellen Dorrepaal
    Journal of Ecology 106 (2) 599 - 612 1365-2745 2018/03/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Climate change-driven increases in winter temperatures positively affect conditions for shrub growth in arctic tundra by decreasing plant frost damage and stimulation of nutrient availability. However, the extent to which shrubs may benefit from these conditions may be strongly dependent on the following spring climate. Species-specific differences in phenology and spring frost sensitivity likely affect shrub growth responses to warming. Additionally, effects of changes in winter and spring climate may differ over small spatial scales, as shrub growth may be dependent on natural variation in snow cover, shrub density and cryoturbation. We investigated the effects of winter warming and altered spring climate on growing-season performance of three common and widespread shrub species in cryoturbated non-sorted circle arctic tundra. By insulating sparsely vegetated non-sorted circles and parts of the surrounding heath with additional snow or gardening fleeces, we created two climate change scenarios: snow addition increased soil temperatures in autumn and winter and delayed snowmelt timing without increasing spring temperatures, whereas fleeces increased soil temperature similarly in autumn and winter, but created warmer spring conditions without altering snowmelt timing. Winter warming affected shrub performance, but the direction and magnitude were species-specific and dependent on spring conditions. Spring warming advanced, and later snowmelt delayed canopy green-up. The fleece treatment did not affect shoot growth and biomass in any shrub species despite decreasing leaf frost damage in Empetrum nigrum. Snow addition decreased frost damage and stimulated growth of Vaccinium vitis-idaea by c. 50%, while decreasing Betula nana growth (p < .1). All of these effects were consistent the mostly barren circles and surrounding heath. Synthesis. In cryoturbated arctic tundra, growth of Vaccinium vitis-idaea may substantially increase when a thicker snow cover delays snowmelt, whereas in longer term, warmer winters and springs may favour E. nigrum instead. This may affect shrub community composition and cover, with potentially far-reaching effects on arctic ecosystem functioning via its effects on cryoturbation, carbon cycling and trophic cascading. Our results highlight the importance of disentangling effects of winter and spring climate change timing and nature, as spring conditions are a crucial factor in determining the impact of winter warming on plant performance.
  • Semyon Bryanin, Evgeniya Abramova, Kobayashi Makoto
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 116 1 - 3 0038-0717 2018/01/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Boreal forest soils are a huge carbon sink, but the forests are regularly subjected to fire disturbance. The fine roots in these forests substantially contribute to soil carbon accumulation. Charcoal is a fire by-product that influences ecosystem processes including soil organic matter decomposition. However, the extent to which charcoal affects fine root decomposition is unclear. We performed field litterbag experiments over 515 days involving the incubation of fine larch roots with varying concentrations of charcoal in soil. At the end of experiment the loss of root mass in samples incubated with higher concentrations of charcoal was greater (42% and 40%) than that in the control (30%) and a treatment containing the average measured soil charcoal content (27%). The degree of mass loss generally increased with increasing charcoal content. Our result provides the first field evidence that fire-derived charcoal may enhance the decomposition of fine larch roots, and consequently CO2 release from boreal forests.
  • Masayuki Ushio, Hisato Fukuda, Toshiki Inoue, Kobayashi Makoto, Osamu Kishida, Keiichi Sato, Koichi Murata, Masato Nikaido, Tetsuya Sado, Yukuto Sato, Masamichi Takeshita, Wataru Iwasaki, Hiroki Yamanaka, Michio Kondoh, Masaki Miya
    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY RESOURCES 17 (6) e63 - e75 1755-098X 2017/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Terrestrial animals must have frequent contact with water to survive, implying that environmental DNA (eDNA) originating from those animals should be detectable from places containing water in terrestrial ecosystems. Aiming to detect the presence of terrestrial mammals using forest water samples, we applied a set of universal PCR primers (MiMammal, a modified version of fish universal primers) for metabarcoding mammalian eDNA. The versatility of MiMammal primers was tested in silico and by amplifying DNAs extracted from tissues. The results suggested that MiMammal primers are capable of amplifying and distinguishing a diverse group of mammalian species. In addition, analyses of water samples from zoo cages of mammals with known species composition suggested that MiMammal primers could successfully detect mammalian species from water samples in the field. Then, we performed an experiment to detect mammals from natural ecosystems by collecting five 500-ml water samples from ponds in two cool-temperate forests in Hokkaido, northern Japan. MiMammal amplicon libraries were constructed using eDNA extracted from water samples, and sequences generated by Illumina MiSeq were subjected to data processing and taxonomic assignment. We thereby detected multiple species of mammals common to the sampling areas, including deer (Cervus nippon), mouse (Mus musculus), vole (Myodes rufocanus), raccoon (Procyon lotor), rat (Rattus norvegicus) and shrew (Sorex unguiculatus). Many previous applications of the eDNA metabarcoding approach have been limited to aquatic/semiaquatic systems, but the results presented here show that the approach is also promising even for forest mammal biodiversity surveys.
  • Interactive effects of charcoal and earthworm activity increase bioavailable phosphorus in sub-boreal forest soils.
    Pingree, M.R.A, Makoto, K, DeLuca, T.H
    Biology and Fertility of Soils 53 (8) 873 - 884 2017/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Semyon V. Bryanin, Kobayashi Makoto
    PLANT AND SOIL 416 (1-2) 409 - 418 0032-079X 2017/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Fine roots are only a small part of total ecosystem biomass, but substantially contributing to soil carbon accumulation in boreal forests. Wildfires may influence fine root dynamics directly via heating and indirectly via interactions with wildfire-deposited charcoal. We tested if the presence of charcoal in a recently burned larch forest affected fine root vitality. This study was stratified across vegetation type (understorey and overstorey), soil depth (upper and lower layers), and root diameter classes: fine (ae0.5 mm but < 2 mm diameter), and very fine (diameter < 0.5 mm) in a recently surface-burned Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) forest in the Russian Far East. Charcoal content and fine root vitality were positively correlated for overstorey vegetation, but negatively correlated for understorey vegetation. On the other hand, total charcoal content did not significantly correlate with very fine root vitality, biomass or necromass. Our study provides the first field evidence that fine root dynamics are influenced by fire-derived charcoal in frequently burned boreal forest. Furthermore, the effect of charcoal on fine root vitality depends on the vegetation type, root diameter, and soil depth, which indicates the necessity of complicated modeling of soil organic carbon derived from fine roots in post-fire boreal forests.
  • Tomoya Kawakami, Kobayashi Makoto
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 32 (4) 603 - 610 0912-3814 2017/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Calcium (Ca)-rich food can increase feeding of Lumbricidae. Earthworms can be genetically differentiated at a small spatial scale and acclimatize to the local environment during growth. Soil feeding and subsequent cast production by earthworms affects soil N mineralization. Here, we hypothesized that soil feeding and subsequent cast production by Lumbricidae species increases with high soil Ca content and that this increase is stronger in worms from high-Ca soil. We also hypothesized that changes in the soil feeding of Lumbricidae species along with the Ca content affects the soil N mineralization via changes in the cast production. Using a geophageous earthworm species (Eisenia japonica) originated from two different Ca environments (calcareous soil and sedimentary soil), we investigated cast production and soil N mineralization in three soils (sedimentary soil, sedimentary soil with Ca addition, and calcareous soil). The soil feeding of E. japonica from both origins did not always increase despite the high soil Ca content. We suggest that both the Ca content and other soil conditions (e.g., soil C:N) might be major factors in increasing soil feeding by E. japonica. Furthermore, the influence of Ca addition on cast production varied according to the earthworm origin. As expected, these differences in cast production are linked to soil N mineralization (especially nitrification). In summary, our study suggests that the acclimatization and/or adaptation of Lumbricidae species to local environmental factors not only soil Ca content explains spatially heterogeneous soil N mineralization in forest soil.
  • Saori Fujii, Akira S. Mori, Dai Koide, Kobayashi Makoto, Shunsuke Matsuoka, Takashi Osono, Forest Isbell
    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY 54 (1) 80 - 90 0021-8901 2017/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Biodiversity has been elucidated to be one of the major factors sustaining ecosystem functioning. The vast majority of studies showing a relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have come from experiments, and this knowledge has not yet been applied to most real-world cases of conservation and management. This is especially true in forest ecosystems, characterized by the dominance of long-lived organisms (trees) and high levels of structural complexity and environmental heterogeneity. To apply biodiversity-function relationships to actual forest management, there are several issues to be considered. These include employing a cross-taxon perspective, as some functions (e.g. soil biogeochemical processes) cannot be maintained by a narrow set of organisms, as is usually the case with experimental systems. More specifically, although the interaction between above- and below-ground diversity is important for many functions in forests, there are few studies that evaluated the roles of diversity in both subsystems in a manner that could be informative in practice. To evaluate the roles of above- and below-ground diversity to support natural soil ecosystem functions, we conducted a decomposition experiment in the northern forests of Japan, which are currently under restoration management. The restoration area consists of mosaics of different vegetation types by various revegetation activities and establishment of ungulate exclosures. Using structural equationmodelling and linear mixed-effects models, we assessed direct and indirect pathways from diversity to functions by focusing on both of taxonomic and functional diversity indices. To put our findings into practice, we utilized a trait-based approach, which provides a link between the functional consequences of human influences and ecosystem structure. We found little direct effects of tree diversity on below-ground functions such as decomposition rate and litter stabilization. However, once the diversities of understorey herbaceous plants and soil fungi were considered as a possible mediating explanatory factor, we found a significant effect of tree diversity to indirectly support these functions by supporting these other types of biodiversity. Particularly, we found that the models based on functional trait diversity, rather than on taxonomic species richness, best explained the variation in below-ground processes.Synthesis and applications. Forest restoration in the northern forests of Japan has had no explicit objective to restore soil functions. Nevertheless, afforestation, and the associated increase in tree diversity as a measure of forest restoration, was, although often unintentionally, proven effective for the maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions, such as soil biogeochemical processes. This finding suggests a great potential for management to make local tree assemblages functionally dissimilar and diverse for the sake of supporting and enhancing fundamental ecosystem functions in forests.
  • 長谷川元洋, 藤井佐織, 金田哲, 池田紘士, 菱拓雄, 兵藤不二夫, 小林真
    日本生態学会誌 67 95 - 118 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Masahiro Nakamura, Kobayashi Makoto, Motonobu Tanaka, Taiki Inoue, Yowhan Son, Tsutom Hiura
    TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 30 (5) 1535 - 1541 0931-1890 2016/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Tall birch trees allocate extra resource due to aboveground temperature elevation to bud and male flower production rather than to plant growth. Saplings increased only plant growth under warming. Size-dependent response should be considered. We experimentally heated canopy organs of tall birch trees (Betula ermanii Cham.; 18-20 m high) growing at a high latitude to determine how leaf phenology, plant growth, and bud and male flower production might shift in response to increases in aboveground temperature during global climate change. We warmed the canopies with infrared heat lamps fixed to steel pipe scaffolds built around the trees. The temperature of the warmed canopies increased by approximately 1 A degrees C. Warming extended the length of the growing season of canopy leaves (by accelerating leaf flush and delaying leaf fall), and significantly increased the numbers of buds and male flowers per shoot. Bud production and shoot length were positively correlated in both warmed and control branches. However, warming did not increase canopy shoot lengths. The intercept value of the positive regression slope between bud production and shoot length for warmed branches was higher than that for control branches. Thus, canopy warming had a direct positive effect on the bud production but had no indirect effect via increases in shoot length. Our experiment showed that tall birch trees allocated extra resources made available by increased aboveground temperature to bud and male flower production rather than to plant growth.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Yukio Minamiya, Nobuhiro Kaneko
    PLANT AND SOIL 404 (1-2) 209 - 218 0032-079X 2016/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Aims The magnitude of the change in tree growth caused by climate warming can be highly dependent on biological context, including factors such as the presence of associated decomposers and their behaviors. We test the hypothesis that 1) the presence of earthworms modifies the response of soil inorganic N and tree growth to warming via the change of cast production; and furthermore 2) the type of soil as food for earthworm differentiate the earthworm response and its effects on the plant-soil system. Methods We conducted a microcosm experiment rearing a geophageous earthworm species (Aporrectodea rosea) and birch (Betula ermanii) seedlings with two types of soil (sedimentary soil and serpentine soil) under two temperature regimes (ambient and ambient +3.3 degrees C). Results While the warming increased the cast production by the earthworms in the serpentine soil, it did not influence cast production in the sedimentary soil. The net nitrogen mineralization rate and the net inorganic N production showed similar dynamics to cast production under the warmer conditions, although the net nitrification rate did not. A significant increase in tree height from warming was observed only in the serpentine soil with earthworms, and the tree height was positively correlated with inorganic N production. Conclusions The context-dependent change of soil N dynamics to warming could be caused by differential feeding activity of earthworm, and it results in the modification of the growth characteristics of birch seedlings.
  • K. Makoto, Scott D. Wilson
    AMERICAN NATURALIST 187 (6) 804 - 811 0003-0147 2016/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Primary succession is limited by both ecosystem development and plant dispersal, but the extent to which dispersal constrains succession over the long-term is unknown. We compared primary succession along two co-occurring arctic chronosequences with contrasting spatial scales: sorted circles that span a few meters and may have few dispersal constraints and glacial forelands that span several kilometers and may have greater dispersal constraints. Dispersal constraints slowed primary succession by centuries: plots were dominated by cryptogams after 20 years on circles but after 270 years on forelands; plots supported deciduous plants after 100 years on circles but after >400 years on forelands. Our study provides century-scale evidence suggesting that dispersal limitations constrain the rate of primary succession in glacial forelands.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, S. V. Bryanin, V. V. Lisovsky, K. Kushida, N. Wada
    TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 30 (2) 431 - 439 0931-1890 2016/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Climate warming may directly and indirectly affect the large carbon stock in discontinuous permafrost soil at high latitudes. In recent decades, Siberian dwarf pine [Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel] has been invading dry heath alpine tundra in the northern Amur region of Far East Russia. Siberian dwarf pine is known to have high aboveground productivity, comparable to that of tall coniferous trees. We hypothesised that the invasion of Siberian dwarf pine into alpine tundra could increase soil carbon stocks via an increase in fine roots. Contrary to our expectations, the invasion of dwarf pine did not significantly increase the fine root biomass and productivity of the tundra, probably due to the belowground competitive exclusion between the dwarf pine and alpine tundra plants. Furthermore, the invasion of the dwarf pine did not affect soil carbon in the alpine tundra ecosystem. These results show that the recent invasion of Siberian dwarf pine into tundra did not influence the fine root dynamics or the soil carbon stock in the study site. Together, these results implied that (1) it takes a long time for pine invasion to change the belowground ecosystem properties of tundra vegetation to that of pine thickets and therefore (2) the lack of an increase in soil carbon from recent tree invasion should be taken into account when modelling future carbon dynamics in alpine tundra.
  • Akira S. Mori, Forest Isbell, Saori Fujii, Kobayashi Makoto, Shunsuke Matsuoka, Takashi Osono
    ECOLOGY LETTERS 19 (3) 249 - 259 1461-023X 2016/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Theory suggests that biodiversity might help sustain multiple ecosystem functions. To evaluate possible biodiversity-multifunctionality relationships in a natural setting, we considered different spatial scales of diversity metrics for soil fungi in the northern forests of Japan. We found that multifunctionality increased with increasing local species richness, suggesting a limited degree of multifunctional redundancy. This diversity-multifunctionality relationship was independent of the compositional uniqueness of each community. However, we still found the importance of community composition, because there was a positive correlation between community dissimilarity and multifunctional dissimilarity across the landscape. This result suggests that functional redundancy can further decrease when spatial variations in identities of both species and functions are simultaneously considered at larger spatial scales. We speculate that different scales of diversity could provide multiple levels of insurance against the loss of functioning if high-levels of local species diversity and compositional variation across locations are both maintained. Alternatively, making species assemblages depauperate may result in the loss of multifunctionality.
  • 初冬期に北海道北部の河川水中で発見された大量の陸棲ミミズ: 一斉移動への示唆.
    小林真, 南谷幸雄, 竹内史郎, 奥田篤志, 金子信博
    Edaphologia 97 37 - 40 2015 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Masayuki Ushio, Kobayashi Makoto, Jonatan Klaminder, Hiroyuki Takasu, Shin-ichi Nakano
    SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY 76 53 - 56 0038-0717 2014/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
    In the present study, we perform the first direct analysis on how the composition of the prokaryotic soil community differs depending on whether high-throughput sequencing or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) is used. Soil samples were collected along short (<3 m) tundra vegetation gradients from Northern Sweden. Relative abundances of Acid-obacteria and Bacteroidetes estimated by the high-throughput sequencing were higher than those estimated by CARD-FISH, while relative abundances of Archaea and alpha-Proteobacteria estimated by high-throughput sequencing were lower than those estimated by CARD-FISH. The results indicated that the high-throughput sequencing overestimates/underestimates the relative abundance of some microbial taxa if we assume that CARD-FISH can provide potentially more quantitative data. Great caution should be taken when interpreting data generated by molecular technologies (both of high-throughput sequencing and CARD-FISH), and supports by multiple approaches are necessary to make a robust conclusion. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kobayashi Makoto
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 29 (4) 511 - 515 0912-3814 2014/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Kobayashi Makoto
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 29 (4) 517 - 527 0912-3814 2014/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    It is essential that scientists be able to predict how strong climate warming, including profound changes to winter climate, will affect the ecosystem services of alpine, arctic and boreal areas, and how these services are driven by vegetation-soil feedbacks. One fruitful avenue for studying such changing feedbacks is through plant functional traits, as an understanding of these traits may help us to understand and synthesise (1) responses of vegetation (through 'response traits' and 'specific response functions' of each species) to winter climate and (2) the effects of changing vegetation composition (through 'effect traits' and 'specific effect functions' of each species) on soil functions. It is the relative correspondence of variation in response and effect traits that will provide useful data on the impacts of winter climate change on carbon and nutrient cycling processes. Here we discuss several examples of how the trait-based, response-effect framework can help scientists to better understand the effects of winter warming on key ecosystem functions in cold biomes. These examples support the view that measuring species for their response and effect traits, and how these traits are linked across species through correspondence of variation in specific response and effects functions, may be a useful approach for teasing out the contribution of changing vegetation composition to winter warming effects on ecosystem functions. This approach will be particularly useful when linked with ecosystem-level measurements of vegetation and process responses to winter warming along natural gradients, over medium time scales in given sites or in response to experimental climate manipulations.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Takuya Kajimoto, Lina Koyama, Gaku Kudo, Hideaki Shibata, Yosuke Yanai, J. H. C. Cornelissen
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 29 (4) 593 - 606 0912-3814 2014/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The winter climate is changing in many parts of the world, and it is predicted that winter climate change will modify the structure and function of plant-soil systems. An understanding of these changes and their consequences in terrestrial ecosystems requires knowledge of the linkage between above- and below-ground components as well as the species interactions found in plant-soil systems, which have important implications for biogeochemical cycles. However, winter climate-change studies have focused on only a part of the ecosystem or ecological process. We summarize here recent findings related to the effects of winter climate and its changes on soil nitrogen (N) dynamics, greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions from the soil, N use by individual plants, vegetation development, and interactions between vegetation and pollinators to generate an integrative understanding of the response of the plant-soil system to winter climate change. This review indicates that the net effects on plants, soil microbes, pollinators, and the associated biogeochemical cycles are balanced among several processes and are highly variable depending on the context, such as the target species/functional group, original winter condition of the habitat, and type of climate change. The consequences of winter climate change for species interactions among plants, associated animals, and biogeochemical cycles are largely unknown. For further research, a large-scale comparative study to measure ecosystem-level functions is important, especially in less-cold ecosystems.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Miwa Arai, Nobuhiro Kaneko
    SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY 72 19 - 25 0038-0717 2014/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Although the direct effects of global warming on carbon and nutrient cycling between vegetation and soil have received much research attention, little is known about the indirect effects that occur through trophic interactions. The combined effects of air warming (+3.3 degrees C) and millipedes on plant soil nitrogen cycling and the millipede species dependency of the warming effects were assessed for two millipede species in a laboratory microcosm experiment. Warming accelerated cast production derived both from leaf litter and also probably soil, by millipedes, which resulted in an increase in inorganic nitrogen in the soil. However, the changes in millipede feeding and cast production due to warming did not have any significant effects on plant properties. Furthermore, the effects of warming on the cast production by millipedes and coincidental changes in soil inorganic nitrogen were similar for both of the evaluated millipede species. Interestingly, however, warming altered the way of food consumption differently for the two species: litter consumption by Parafontaria tonominea was increased, whereas that by Parafontaria laminata decreased under the warmer regime. Such species-specific consequences of warming on food consumption may cause a change in the structure and function of the organic horizon and surface soil. To predict the consequences of a warming climate on plant-soil nutrient feedback via millipedes, it is suggested that attention should be given to the relationship between behavioral traits, such as species-specific feeing behavior and environmental changes. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • QiaoZhi Mao, Makoto Watanabe, Kobayashi Makoto, Kazuhito Kita, Takayoshi Koike
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 10 (1) 1 - 8 1860-1871 2014/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
    A recently developed hybrid larch F-1 (F-1: Larix gmelinii var. japonica x L. kaempferi) is being planted widely in re- and afforestation projects in northeast Asia. Nitrogen (N) deposition to forest ecosystems has been rapidly increasing in this region, due mainly to industrialization and overuse of N fertilizer. Together with excess N, phosphorus (P) is considered to be the key determinant of tree growth in northeast Asia, because most soils have originated from immature volcanic ash. To predict the response of the F-1 to increasing N deposition and its relation with soil P availability related to immature volcanic ash soil in northern Japan, planting stocks of F-1 were grown in potted brown forest soil and categorised into eight treatments, comprising four N treatments covering the amount of N deposition observed and predicted in northeast Asia in combination with two P levels. N application increased the biomass and the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (A (sat)) of the F-1 at all concentrations. Despite expectations, P did not have any effect on these parameters. As N application increased the content of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and chlorophyll (Chl) in needles, a positive correlation was found between the content of N, K, P and A (sat). These results suggest that N deposition improves the growth of the hybrid larch F-1 at least by improving the needle N condition, as well as the concentration of other macronutrients in the initial stage of plantation.
  • Masayuki Ushio, Kobayashi Makoto, Jonatan Klaminder, Shin-Ichi Nakano
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 64 147 - 154 0038-0717 2013/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The size and composition of soil microbial communities have important influences on terrestrial ecosystem processes such as soil decomposition. However, compared with studies of aboveground plant communities, there are relatively few studies on belowground microbial communities and their interactions with aboveground vegetations in the arctic region. In this study, we conducted the first investigation of the abundance and composition of prokaryotic communities along small-scale vegetation gradients (ca. 1-3m) in a dry arctic tundra ecosystem in Northern Sweden using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD). The number of prokaryotic cells increased with increasing vegetation cover along vegetation gradients, mainly as a function of increased amounts of soil carbon and moisture. Eubacteria and Archaea constituted approximately 59.7% and 33.4% of DAPI-positive cells, respectively. Among the analyzed bacterial phyla and sub-phyla, Acidobacteria and α-proteobacteria were the most dominant groups, constituting approximately 13.5% and 10.7% of DAPI-positive cells, respectively. Interestingly, the soil prokaryotic community composition was relatively unaffected by the dramatic changes in the aboveground vegetation community. Multivariate analyses suggested that the prokaryotic community composition depended on soil pH rather than on aboveground vegetation. Surface plants are weak predictors of the composition of the soil microbial community in the studied soil system and the size of the community is constrained by carbon and water availability. In addition, our study demonstrated that CARD-FISH, which is still a rarely-used technique in soil ecology, is effective for quantifying soil microbes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Hiroshi Tani, Naoto Kamata
    SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 28 (6) 581 - 585 0282-7581 2013/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Alaskan spruce forests are exposed to both fire and spruce beetles [Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)]. To understand the influence of spruce beetles on the process through which fire affects ecosystem function, we developed a reconstruction technique to measure prefire damage to trees caused by the spruce beetle. We validated our evaluation of prefire tree conditions using a high-resolution multispectral satellite image by comparing our results with a postfire ground survey. The prefire tree conditions determined by the two methods coincided well with each other. This result suggests that combining high-resolution multispectral imaging and postfire ground surveys of spruce beetles on snags is a powerful tool to determine the prefire condition of a forest in a changing boreal forest ecosystem.
  • Klaminder J, Giesler R, Makoto K
    SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY 57 922 - 924 0038-0717 2013/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • K. Makoto, J. Klaminder
    POLAR BIOLOGY 35 (11) 1659 - 1667 0722-4060 2012/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Non-sorted circles (NSCs), also known as frost boils, are common soil frost features that create a small-scale mosaic of vegetation zones in periglacial landscapes. The causes of variation in plant diversity within NSCs are poorly understood. This lack of understanding hampers our ability to predict how arctic plant communities respond to changing soil frost conditions. We hypothesised that plant communities of different ages develop at a micro-site scale within NSCs as soil frost periodically exposes uncolonised soil or fatally offsets plant succession. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the species diversity of plant communities (vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens) from the sparsely vegetated centre of the circles to the densely vegetated outer domain in conjunction with estimates of the age of the plant communities (inferred using lichenometry). Our results suggest that the variation in species diversity and density can largely be explained by the occurrence of progressively older plant communities from the centre towards the vegetated rim. Here, the high species diversity was observed to occur in communities having the ages approximately around 150 years. Our findings suggest that soil frost disturbances are important for maintaining successional gradients several centuries long within the arctic landscape at a small spatial scale (< 3 m). The termination of soil frost activity as a result of a warmer future winter climate is therefore most likely to result in a loss of micro-sites having young vegetation communities with high plant diversities and a subsequent establishment of mature shrub-dominated plant communities.
  • K. Makoto, H. Shibata, Y. S. Kim, T. Satomura, K. Takagi, M. Nomura, F. Satoh, T. Koike
    BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS 48 (5) 569 - 577 0178-2762 2012/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Ecological function of charcoal has been mainly investigated by adding charcoal to soil, which is not fully adequate to understand in situ the role in fire-prone forest ecosystem. To determine in situ effects of charcoal on ecosystem functions, such as nutrient availability, we conducted an experimental burning in a Japanese white birch forest with dense coverage of dwarf bamboo in the understory with or without removal of charcoal. Ammonium-N in the remaining humus layer increased immediately after the burning, but decreased to the level of unburnt plots within 1 month of the burning. Removal of charcoal had no significant effect on the NH4 (+)-N dynamics. Although burning did not affect NO3 (-)-N dynamics during the sampling period, charcoal removal led to a slight increase in NO3 (-)-N. The available P increased immediately after the burning, but then fell at 1 month after burning. Charcoal inhibited the available P depletion and prolonged the high availability of P. Greater availability of P might be due to the adsorption of phosphate in charcoal pores. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased gradually; charcoal appeared to extend the period of higher concentration of exchangeable Ca and Mg. Charcoal deriving from fire is a key factor in influencing available nutrient in the humus layer of post-fire forests.
  • E. Novriyanti, M. Watanabe, K. Makoto, T. Takeda, Y. Hashidoko, T. Koike
    PHOTOSYNTHETICA 50 (2) 273 - 281 0300-3604 2012/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
    The ecophysiological traits of acacia and eucalypt are important in assessing their suitability for afforestation. We measured the gas-exchange rate, the leaf dry mass per area (LMA) and the leaf nitrogen content of two acacia and four eucalypt species. Relative to the eucalypts, the acacias had lower leaf net photosynthetic rate (P-N), lower photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), higher water-use efficiency (WUE), higher LMA and higher leaf nitrogen per unit area (N-area). No clear differences were observed within or between genera in the maximum rate of carboxylation (V-cmax) or the maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)), although these parameters tended to be higher in eucalypts. PNUE and LMA were negatively correlated. We conclude that acacias with higher LMA do not allocate nitrogen efficiently to photosynthetic system, explaining why their P-N and PNUE were lower than in eucalypts.
  • K. Makoto, N. Kamata, N. Kamibayashi, T. Koike, H. Tani
    SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 27 (1) 30 - 35 0282-7581 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Alaskan boreal forests frequently suffer from outbreaks of bark beetles and fires, factors that appear to combine to alter charcoal production. Charcoal (black carbon) production in forest ecosystems is an important pathway to clarify for a more complete understanding of the effects of fire on carbon cycling in boreal forests. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of prevalent outbreaks of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), on charcoal production during forest fires in boreal forests. Snags with prefire damage by the spruce beetle (infested snags) have significantly more charcoal than those undamaged before fire (noninfested snags). This increased amount of charcoal in spruce beetle-damaged trees was probably the result of dried biomass in the canopies of these trees. The results of this study suggest that with changing environmental conditions, the proliferation of insect damage in the boreal forest can modify the effects of fire on carbon sink via a change in the amount of charcoal production.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Muneto Hirobe, Thomas H. DeLuca, Semyon V. Bryanin, Valentina F. Procopchuk, Takayoshi Koike
    JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS 11 (8) 1317 - 1322 1439-0108 2011/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Purpose Fire is a primary form of disturbance in boreal ecosystems. Charcoal is an important by-product of forest fire and has been reported to have the potential to influence the plant community establishing after fire. To date, however, no study has effectively tested the relationship between charcoal and plant regeneration in the actual post-fire forests. To determine the contribution of charcoal to soil properties and plant regeneration after forest fires, we conducted in situ investigations concerning the relationship between charcoal and the plant-soil system. Materials and methods We conducted a field investigation in a recently burnt Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii)/Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest in the Russian Far East to investigate charcoal contents, pH, water contents, and nutrient availability in soil together with the regeneration of larch and pine seedlings. Results and discussion Positive correlations were found between charcoal contents and soil pH, water contents, and available P contents. Additionally, charcoal contents and the number of pine seedlings were positively correlated. There was, however, no significant relationship between charcoal content and extractable NH(4) (+) content or the number of larch seedlings. These results suggest that while charcoal influences are somewhat obscure in the field, charcoal significantly contributes to the amelioration of water and nutrient availability together with the success of regeneration of pine seedling. Conclusions Charcoal produced during fire events in Gmelin larch and Scots pine forests of eastern Russia has a modest influence on soil properties, but has the potential to improve regeneration in these fire-prone ecosystems.
  • Yong Suk Kim, Kobayashi Makoto, Fumiaki Takakai, Hideaki Shibata, Takami Satomura, Kentaro Takagi, Ryusuke Hatano, Takayoshi Koike
    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 130 (6) 1031 - 1044 1612-4669 2011/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Forest fires affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forest ecosystems, and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). To determine changes in the soil GHG fluxes following a forest fire, we arranged a low-intensity surface fire in a white birch forest in northern Japan. We established three treatments, having four replications each: a control plot (CON), a burned plot (BURN), and a plot burned with removal of the resulting charcoal (BURN-CHA). Soil GHG fluxes and various properties of the soil were determined on four or five occasions during a period that spanned two growing seasons. We observed increased concentrations of ammonium-N (NH(4)-N) in BURN and BURN-CHA after the fire, while nitrate-N (NO(3)-N) concentration was only increased in BURN-CHA after the fire. The soil CO(2) flux was significantly higher in CON than in BURN or BURN-CHA, but there was no difference in soil CH(4) uptake between the three treatments. Moreover, the N(2)O flux from BURN-CHA soil was slightly greater than in CON or BURN. In BURN-CHA, the soil N(2)O flux peaked in August, but there was no peak in BURN. We found temporal correlations between soil GHG fluxes and soil variables, e.g. soil temperature or NO(3)-N. Our results suggest that environmental changes following fire, including the increased availability of N and the disappearance of the litter layer, have the potential to change soil GHG fluxes. Fire-produced charcoal could be significant in reducing soil N(2)O flux in temperate forests.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Dongsu Choi, Yasuyuki Hashidoko, Takayoshi Koike
    BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS 47 (4) 467 - 472 0178-2762 2011/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Fires burn forest with spatially heterogeneous intensity and charcoals generated at various temperatures during fires exhibit variable physical and chemical characteristics. These variable properties of charcoal may, in turn, influence germination and growth of tree seedlings. To examine the effects of different charcoal properties on the growth of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii) seedlings, we conducted an experiment with larch-branch-derived charcoals produced at 400A degrees C (low charcoal) and 800A degrees C (high charcoal); charcoal was combined with sand at three different rates (5%, 20% and 50%, v/v charcoal in sand). The high charcoal had no significant effects on any measured property while the low charcoal application stimulated growth and the effect increased with the addition rate. The low charcoal application resulted in the greater available P content, a lower N/P in needles and the greater growth of seedlings than high charcoal application. The growth of seedlings was not affected by the application of the high charcoal at any rate probably because the high charcoal inhibited the seedling growth due to its high pH. These results indicate that charcoal produced at different temperatures during forest fires can affect the growth of Gmelin larch seedlings differently.
  • 小林真
    大気環境学会誌 46 (4) 217 - 223 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • L. Y. Qu, S. Kitaoka, K. Makoto, M. Kuromaru, M. Osaki, K. Sasa, H. Utsugi, T. Koike
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 5 (2) 115 - 123 1860-1871 2009/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    We studied the effects of soil temperature (7, 15, and 25A degrees C) on the growth and photosynthesis of seedlings of the Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) and its hybrid larch (L. gmelinii x L. kaempferi) to simulate early stages of regeneration after disturbance. At a soil temperature of 7A degrees C, the root length per unit root biomass, chlorophyll concentration, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) were markedly lower in the Japanese larch than in the hybrid larch, which may indicate that the hybrid larch is better at acquiring water and nutrients. At ambient temperatures of 17-25A degrees C, the light-saturated photosynthesis rate (P (sat)) of both seedlings grown at a soil temperature of 7A degrees C was lower than at 15 or 25A degrees C. By the 16th week, the needle area, root area, and biomass in seedlings of both types were lower at a soil temperature of 7A degrees C than at soil temperatures of 15 or 25A degrees C. At a soil temperature of 25A degrees C, P (sat) and nitrogen uptake were lower in both larch species than at 15A degrees C. The growth of the Japanese larch declined sharply from 15 to 25A degrees C; however, the growth of the hybrid larch decreased only slightly from 15 to 25A degrees C. We conclude that an increased soil temperature may retard larch growth in cold regions, especially in the case of the Japanese larch.
  • Dongsu Choi, Kobayashi Makoto, Ali M. Quoreshi, Laiye Qu
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 5 (2) 107 - 113 1860-1871 2009/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    We investigated the effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization, charcoal and CO2 levels on the germination of seeds of Larix kaempferi and Pinus densiflora, and also their subsequent physiological activity and growth. The seeds were sown in brown forest soil or brown forest soil mixed with charcoal, at ambient CO2 (360 mu mol mol(-1)) or elevated CO2 (720 mu mol mol(-1)), with or without ectomycorrhiza. The proportions of both conifer seeds that germinated in forest soil mixed with charcoal were significantly greater than for seeds sown in forest soil grown at each CO2 level (P < 0.05; t-test). However, the ectomycorrhizal colonization rate of each species grown in brown forest soil mixed with charcoal was significantly lower than in forest soil at each CO2 treatment [CO2] (P < 0.01; t-test). The phosphorus concentrations in needles of each seedling colonized with ectomycorrhiza and grown in forest soil were greater than in nonectomycorrhizal seedlings at each CO2 level, especially for L. kaempferi seedlings (P < 0.05; t-test), but the concentrations in seedlings grown in brown forest soil mixed with charcoal were not increased at any CO2 level. Moreover, the maximum net photosynthetic rate of each seedling for light and CO2 saturation (P (max)) increased when the seedlings were grown with ectomycorrhiza at 720 mu mol mol(-1) [CO2]. Ectomycorrhizal colonization led to an increase in the stem diameter of each species grown in each soil treatment at each CO2 level. However, charcoal slowed the initial growth of both species of seedling, constraining ectomycorrhizal development. These results indicate that charcoal strongly assists seed germination and physiological activity.
  • Masazumi Kayama, Kobayashi Makoto, Mutsumi Nomura, Fuyuki Satoh, Takayoshi Koike
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 5 (2) 125 - 135 1860-1871 2009/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) grows at a relatively high rate in northern Japan, even in serpentine soil. Serpentine soil has high concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cr), excessive Mg, and is nutrient deficient. These factors often suppress plant growth. We examined the mechanisms of Japanese larch's tolerance to serpentine soil. We compared growth, photosynthetic capacity, and concentrations of elements in needles and roots between larch seedlings growing in serpentine soil and in nonserpentine (i.e., brown forest) soil. Dry mass of needles, stems, and branches were lower in seedlings grown on serpentine soil than in those grown on brown forest soil. There were lower concentrations of phosphorus and potassium in seedlings grown on serpentine soil than in those grown on brown forest soil. Seedlings growing on serpentine soil had lower Ni in plant organs. Our results suggest that larch seedlings grown on serpentine soil were able to exclude toxic elements. Moreover, the photosynthetic capacity and nitrogen concentration in needles was almost the same for seedlings grown in the two soil types. A wide range in growth was observed among individuals grown on both soil types. This may be regulated by nitrogen storage in the roots.
  • Yong-Suk Kim, Myong-Jong Yi, Yoon-Young Lee, Makoto Kobayashi, Yowhan Son
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 5 (2) 157 - 166 1860-1871 2009/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Alder is a typical species used for forest rehabilitation after disturbances because of its N-2-fixing activities through microbes. To investigate forest dynamics of the carbon budget, we determined the aboveground and soil carbon content, carbon input by litterfall to belowground, and soil CO2 efflux over 2 years in 38-year-old alder plantations in central Korea. The estimated aboveground carbon storage and increment were 47.39 Mg C ha(-1) and 2.17 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Carbon storage in the organic layer and in mineral soil in the topsoil to 30 cm depth were, respectively, 3.21 and 66.85 Mg C ha(-1). Annual carbon input by leaves and total litter in the study stand were, respectively, 1.78 and 2.68 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The aboveground carbon increment at this stand was similar to the annual carbon inputs by total litterfall. The diurnal pattern of soil CO2 efflux was significantly different in May, August, and October, typically varying approximately twofold throughout the course of a day. In the seasonally observed pattern, soil CO2 efflux varied strongly with soil temperature; increasing trends were evident during the early growing season, with sustained high rates from mid May through late October. Soil CO2 efflux was related exponentially to soil temperature (R (2) = 0.85, P < 0.0001), but not to soil water content. The Q (10) value for this plantation was 3.8, and annual soil respiration was estimated at 10.2 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1).
  • Masazumi Kayama, Kobayashi Makoto, Mutsumi Nomura, Kaichiro Sasa, Takayoshi Koike
    TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 23 (1) 145 - 157 0931-1890 2009/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
    Sakhalin spruce (Picea glehnii), a native species typically found in northern Japan, has been used in reforestation on hillsides exposed to strong winds. In the reforestation areas, there are south-facing (S-slope) and northwest-facing slopes (NW-slope). Climatic conditions are contrasting between the two slopes, with shallower snow cover on the S-slopes. We compared growth responses of the spruce to micro-environment between the S- and NW-slopes through soil nutrients, needle longevity, water status, photosynthesis, and nutrients in the needles. These parameters were measured in needles exposed above the snow in winter and in lower needles protected by snow cover. High-position needles suffered from drought stress, especially in winter, and needles were shed early in the year on both slopes. Low-position needles did not suffer from drought stress, and maintained a high photosynthetic rate on both slopes. However, needle longevity was reduced on the S-slope, and concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the needles decreased with needle age. Soil nutrient concentrations were low on the S-slope, which suggests that the needles on the S-slope may remobilize nutrients from aged needles to younger needles prior to shedding. This characteristic is probably an adaptation in Sakhalin spruce to poor soil conditions.
  • K. Makoto, T. Koike
    PHOTOSYNTHETICA 45 (1) 99 - 104 0300-3604 2007 [Refereed][Not invited]
    We investigated the responses of photon-saturated photosynthesis rate (P-sat) and its simultaneous acclimation of anatomy and nitrogen use patterns of current needles of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seedlings grown under factorial combinations of two nitrogen levels and irradiances. Although N supply resulted in a significant increase of N content in needles under both irradiances, the increase of P-sat tended to be suppressed only in shade (S). The significant increase of P-sat in full sunlight (0) was associated with the increase of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCO) and chlorophyll (Chl) contents. In contrast, small increase of Chl content and no increase of RuBPCO content were found in S (90 % cut of full irradiance), which would result in a small increase Of P-sat. This result suggests that extra N is stocked in needles under shade for the growth in next season. With N supply, a significant decrease of specific leaf area (SLA) was detected only in O. This decrease of SLA was due to the increase of density of needle. Furthermore, the increase of needle density was not due to the increased number and size of mesophyll cells, but the increased density of each mesophyll cell. Therefore, although SLA changed in O, the change did not involve anatomical adaptation to use increased N effectively, at least observable by light microscopy. Hence, even though the SLA would change, N deposition will improve the photosynthetic capacity of Korean pine seedlings, not through the development of needle anatomy but through improvement of the allocation of N in both irradiances.

Books etc

  • 生態系生態学(第2版)
    小林真 (Joint translation第11章 生態系プロセスへの種の影響)
    森北出版株式会社. 2018/08
  • 生物学者、地球を行く
    小林真, 工藤岳 (Joint editor)
    文一総合出版 2018/03
  • 北海道の森林
    小林真 (Joint work木炭の利用)
    北海道新聞出版部 2011/12
  • Permafrost Ecosystems: Siberian Larch Forests
    Qu, L, Makoto, K, Choi, D.S, Quoreshi, A.M, Koike T (Joint workThe role of ectomycorrhiza in boreal forest ecosystem)
    Springer 2010
  • 北の森づくりQ&A
    小林真 (Joint work山火事の功罪は?)
    北方林業会 2009


  • 和歌山県固有植物キイシモツケの蛇紋岩土壌への適応と分子系統学によるイワシモツケおよびトサシモツケとの比較
    明渡絵里朱, 平田智子, 上井和幸, 髙木祐子, 水野隆文, 水野直治, 小林真, 小池孝良, 大和勝幸, 秋田求, 泉井桂  近畿大学先端技術総合研究所紀要  21-  33  -47  2016  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 冬の温暖化と北国の森
    小林真  森林科学  50-  50  -51  2014  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 窒素負荷に対するグイマツ雑種F1幼木の生理生態学的応答は立地環境により異なるか?—リンの利用可能量に注目して—
    小林真, 毛 巧芝, 渡辺誠, 来田和人, 小池孝良  森林遺伝育種  2-  149  -153  2013  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • バイオ炭の効能
    小林真  森林技術  383-  238  2011  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 土壌中の放射性セシウムを木炭・竹炭で浄化する
    小林真  森林技術  385-  23  -27  2011  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Allometric relationships and carbon and nitrogen contents for three major tree species (Quercus crispula, Betula ermanii, and Abies sachalinensis) in northern Hokkaido, Japan
    Takagi, K, Kotsuka, C, Fukuzawa, K, Kayama, M, Makoto, K, Nomura, M, Fukazawa, T, Takahashi, H, Hoyo, H, Ashiya, D, Naniwa, A, Sugata, S, Kamiura, T, Sugishita, Y, Sakai, R, Ito, K, Kobayashi, M, Maebayashi, M, Mizuno, M, Murayama, T, Kinoshita, K, Fujiwara, D, Hashida, S, Shibata, H, Yoshida, T, Sasa, K, Saigusa, N, Fujinuma, Y, Akibayashi, Y  Eurasian Journal of Forest Research  13-  1  -7  2010  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • The structure and biodiversity after fire disturbance in Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr forests, Northern Asia
    Zyryanova, O.A, Yaborov, V.T, Tchikhacheva, T.L, Koike, T, Makoto, K, Matsuura, Y, Satoh, F, Zryanov, V  Eurasian Journal of Forest Research  10-  19  -29  2007  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Regeneration after forest fires in mixed conifer broad-leaved forests of the Amur region of Far Eastern Russia: the relationship between species specific traits against fire and recent fire regimes
    Makoto, K, Nemilostiv, Y.P, Zyryanova, O.A, Kajimoto, T, Matsuura, Y, Yoshida, T, Satoh, F, Sasa, K, Koike T  Eurasian Journal of Forest Research  10-  51  -58  2007  [Not refereed][Not invited]

Awards & Honors

  • 2018/03 The Japanese Forest Society The Japanese Forest Society Encouragement Award
    受賞者: Makoto Kobayashi
  • 2018/03 Ecological Society of Japan Miyadi Award
    受賞者: Makoto Kobayashi
  • 2016/11 信州山の環境研究センター 信州フィールド科学賞
    受賞者: 小林真
  • 2011/03 The Japanese Forest Society Encouraging Prize for Studenty
    受賞者: Makoto Kobayashi

Research Grants & Projects

  • 山腹崩壊後の植生遷移の制限要因の解明と多様な窒素固定植物による植林技術の開発
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/04 -2024/04 
    Author : 小林真
  • 生物群集における共進化過程に着目した生態系復元の実証研究
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 (基盤B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2019/04 -2024/03 
    Author : 内海俊介
  • 病虫害による大量枯死が森林生態系のCO2放出におよぼす影響の解明
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2022/03 
    Author : 深澤遊
  • 衛星観測データの解析技術等を活用したロシア極東における総合的かつ持続可能な森林情報システムの開発
    Date (from‐to) : 2017 -2019 
    Author : 松浦陽次郎
  • 寒冷環境における樹木の地上部—地下部の物質の伝達
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 挑戦的萌芽研究
    Date (from‐to) : 2016/04 -2018/03 
    Author : 高木健太郎
  • The differential influence of nutrient availability along two arctic successional gradients
    Umeå University, Climate Impact Research Center:CIRC platform
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/07 
    Author : 小林真
  • 雪解けの早まりが土壌動物を介して樹木に及ぼす影響
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 (若手B)
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2017/03 
    Author : 小林真
  • 緯度の異なるN2O放出ホットスポットでの窒素循環要因の探査と環境修復生物資源調査
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 (基盤研究B, 海外学術)
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/04 -2017/03 
    Author : 橋床泰之
  • 雪解けの早まりが森林の純一次生産および生物多様性に及ぼす影響の包括的解明
    Asahi Glass Foundation:Research Fund, Kondo Grant
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/04 -2017/03 
    Author : Makoto Kobayashi
  • ミミズの腸内細菌活性に注目した土壌改良指針の提案
    Date (from‐to) : 2016 -2017 
    Author : 小林真
  • 水生生物がアミノ酸を飲む -見落とされていた窒素循環プロセスの解明-
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 挑戦的萌芽研究
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/04 -2015/03 
    Author : 岸田治
  • 窒素を介した樹木-土壌のつながりが温度上昇によって受ける影響
    Date (from‐to) : 2012/04 -2014/06 
    Author : 小林真
  • 極東ロシア高山生態系における地球温暖化の影響評価とモニタリング
    Date (from‐to) : 2012 
    Author : 和田直也
  • 森林火災が森林土壌の炭素動態へ及ぼす影響
    Date (from‐to) : 2009/04 -2010/03 
    Author : 里村多香美
  • 変動環境下における炭-微生物関係を利用した緑化技術の高度化に関する研究
    文部科学省:特別研究員奨励費 (DC1)
    Date (from‐to) : 2007/04 -2010/03 
    Author : 小林真
  • 山火事の発生が炭の生成を通じて北方林の物質循環へ与える影響の解明
    Date (from‐to) : 2010 
    Author : 小林真

Educational Activities

Teaching Experience

  • 国際農学概論Ⅱ
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
  • Fundamental Lecture in Biological Diversity
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 環境科学院
    キーワード : 生物多様性、生態系、生物種、生物群集、海洋、陸域、地球環境変化 biodiversity, ecosystem, species, community, ocean, land, global-change
  • Inter-Graduate School Classes(General Subject):Natural and Applied Sciences
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 生物多様性、生態系、生物種、生物群集、海洋、陸域、地球環境変化
  • Inter-Graduate School Classes(General Subject):Inter-Disciplinary Sciences
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 森、研究者、クリエイター、ものづくり、プロセス、物語、表現
  • Advanced Course in Forest Sphere Science IV (Regional Resources Management)
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 環境科学院
    キーワード : 地域資源、地域資源管理、森林管理、森林資源の多様な利用、リモートセンシング regional resources, regional resource management, forest management, diverse use of forest resources, remote-censing
  • Forest Influence
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 森林、環境保全機能、生物多様性保全、野生生物保全、土地利用、流域保全、森林利用
  • Seminar on Forest Influence
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 森林の種類と分布、森林空間、環境保全機能、森林保全、資料作成方法、発表方法、ディスカッション
  • Practical Field Work on Forest Dynamics
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 天然林、人工林、森林動態、更新、撹乱、森林再生

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