Researcher Database

Toshiya Matsushima
Faculty of Science Biological Sciences Behavioral Neuroethology
Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings

Affiliation

  • Faculty of Science Biological Sciences Behavioral Neuroethology

Job Title

  • Professor

Degree

  • PhD

J-Global ID

Profile

  • Education

    1976-1981 Faculty of Science - Department of Biology (Zoology), University of Tokyo

    1981-1986 Graduate School of Science (Zoology), University of Tokyo


    Research Career

    1986-1989 Research Associate, Zoological Institute, University of Tokyo

    1989-1990 Research Fellow (Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany) at University of Bremen

    1990-1992 Research Fellow (Swedish Institute) at Karolinska Institute (Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology)

    1992-1995 Research Associate at Sophia University (Life Science Institute)

    1995-2005 Associate Professor at Nagoya University (Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences), Nagoya, JAPAN

    2006- present position in Hokkaido University, Sapporo, JAPAN

Research Interests

  • thyloid hormone   serotonin   行動経済学   進化   発声   自動計測   神経修飾   神経修飾物質   最適採餌理論   連合野   テストステロン   最初期遺伝子   神経行動学   ド-パミン   線条体   可塑性   選択   刷り込み   リスク   採餌行動   強化学習   情動   長期増強   インプリンティング   衝動性   基底核   鳥   認知   シナプス   記憶   行動   脳   包括脳ネットワーク   統合脳・統合脳   

Research Areas

  • Humanities & social sciences / Experimental psychology
  • Life sciences / Animals: biochemistry, physiology, behavioral science
  • Life sciences / Neuroscience - general
  • Life sciences / Neuroscience - general

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2007 北海道大学 大学院・理学研究院 教授
  • 2006 Hokkaido University Faculty of Science
  • 1995 - 2005 名古屋大学 大学院・生命農学研究科 助教授
  • 1992 - 1994 Sophia University Faculty of Science and Technology
  • 1986 - 1987 The University of Tokyo Faculty of Science

Association Memberships

  • International Society for Neuroethology   Society for Neuroscience   JAPAN ETHOLOGICAL SOCIETY   JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY   THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   

Research Activities

Published Papers

  • Toshiya Matsushima
    Frontiers in Physiology 9 1740  2018/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ogura, Y. Amita, H, Matsushima, T
    Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics 4 49  2018/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Naoya Aoki, Toshiya Matsushima, Koichi J. Homma
    Hormones and Behavior 102 120 - 128 1095-6867 2018/06/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Filial imprinting is the behavior observed in chicks during the sensitive or critical period of the first 2–3 days after hatching however, after this period they cannot be imprinted when raised in darkness. Our previous study showed that temporal augmentation of the endogenous thyroid hormone 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) in the telencephalon, by imprinting training, starts the sensitive period just after hatching. Intravenous injection of T3 enables imprinting of chicks on days 4 or 6 post-hatching, even when the sensitive period has ended. However, the molecular mechanism of how T3 acts as a determinant of the sensitive period is unknown. Here, we show that Wnt-2b mRNA level is increased in the T3-injected telencephalon of 4-day old chicks. Pharmacological inhibition of Wnt signaling in the intermediate hyperpallium apicale (IMHA), which is the caudal area of the telencephalon, blocked the recovery of the sensitive period following T3 injection. In addition, injection of recombinant Wnt-2b protein into the IMHA helped chicks recover the sensitive period without the injection of T3. Lastly, we showed Wnt signaling to be involved in imprinting via the IMHA region on day 1 during the sensitive period. These results indicate that Wnt signaling plays a critical role in the opening of the sensitive period downstream of T3.
  • Qiuhong Xin, Yukiko Ogura, Toshiya Matsushima
    BEHAVIOURAL PROCESSES 140 127 - 132 0376-6357 2017/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To examine how resource competition contributes to patch-use behaviour, we examined domestic chicks foraging in an I-shaped maze equipped with two terminal feeders. In a variable interval schedule, one feeder supplied grains three times more frequently than the other, and the sides were reversed midway through the experiment. The maze was partitioned into two lanes by a transparent wall, so that chicks fictitiously competed without actual interference. Stay time at feeders was compared among three groups. The "single" group contained control chicks; the "pair" group comprised the pairs of chicks tested in the fictitious competition; "mirror" included single chicks accompanied by their respective mirror images. Both "pair" and "mirror" chicks showed facilitated running. In terms of the patch-use ratio, "pair" chicks showed precise matching at approximately 3:1 with significant mutual dependence, whereas "single" and "mirror" chicks showed a comparable under-matching. The facilitated running increased visits to feeders, but failed to predict the patch-use ratio of the subject. At the reversal, quick switching occurred similarly in all groups, but the "pair" chicks revealed a stronger memory-based matching. Perceived competition therefore contributes to precise matching and lasting memory of the better feeder, in a manner dissociated from socially facilitated food search.
  • Qiuhong Xin, Yukiko Ogura, Leo Uno, Toshiya Matsushima
    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 45 (3) 365 - 380 0953-816X 2017/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To investigate the neural basis of socio-economic behaviors in birds, we examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of arcopallium (Arco, the major descending pallial area of the avian telencephalon) and the surrounding nuclei in domestic chicks. We tested foraging effort (running distance) in an I-shaped maze with two food patches that delivered food in a biased manner according to a variable interval schedule. Normally, chicks run back and forth between the patches, and the patch use time matches the respective food delivery rate. In the paired phase, even without actual interference of food, chicks showed social facilitation of running effort compared with the single phase. Chicks with lesions in the Arco and lateral Arco showed significant reductions in social facilitation. The lesion effects of the lateral Arco were particularly selective, as it was not accompanied by changes in running distance in the single phase. Lesions of the nidopallium and nucleus taeniae of the amygdala produced no changes in foraging behavior. On the other hand, the Arco lesion did not impair social facilitation of operant peck latency. In accordance with this, anterograde tracing revealed characteristic projections from the lateral Arco to the extended amygdala, hippocampus, and septum, as well as wide areas of limbic nuclei in the hypothalamus and medial areas of the striatum including the nucleus accumbens. Pathways from the lateral Arco could enable chicks to overcome the extra effort investment of social foraging, suggesting functional and anatomical analogies to the anterior cingulate cortex and basolateral amygdala in mammals.
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Shin Hayase, Naoya Aoki, Akihiko Takehara, Jun Ishigohoka, Toshiya Matsushima, Kazuhiro Wada, Koichi J. Homma
    PLOS ONE 12 (1) e0169643  1932-6203 2017/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T-3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds. Here, we determined the changes in serum and brain thyroid hormone levels of a passerine songbird species, the zebra finch using radioimmunoassay. In the serum, we found a gradual increase in thyroid hormone levels during post-hatching development, as well as differences between male and female finches. In the brain, there was clear surge in the hormone levels during development in males and females coinciding with the time of fledging, but the onset of the surge of thyroxine (T-4) in males preceded that of females, whereas the onset of the surge of T-3 in males succeeded that of females. These findings provide a basis for understanding the functions of thyroid hormones during early development and learning in altricial birds.
  • Ryo Mizuyama, Leo Uno, Toshiya Matsushima
    ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 120 143 - 151 0003-3472 2016/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Previous studies have shown that domestic chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus, trained in a competitive foraging condition would subsequently develop a high degree of impulsiveness in an intertemporal choice paradigm. Competition inevitably causes variance in the amount of food that the foragers gain. However, it is not known whether the food variance is causally linked with the impulsiveness. In experiment 1, we compared four groups of chicks trained in combinations of two social conditions (pseudocompetition or isolated) and two food conditions (variable or constant food). The food variance was introduced by varying the number of grains in each trial according to a binomial distribution. The subject chick was separated from the competitors by a transparent wall, and no actual interference occurred. Chicks were subsequently tested in binary choices between a small reward after a short delay (SS) and a large reward after a long delay (LL) in an isolated and constant food condition. If chicks had been trained under the pseudocompetition and variable food, they chose LL significantly less frequently than the other three groups. The effect disappeared when the LL delay was omitted, suggesting that chicks accurately memorized the food amount. The food variance is thus a necessary condition for the stronger temporal discounting. Otherwise, the observed effect could be ascribed to a paradoxical risk proneness associated with the variable option. In experiment 2, we compared four groups of chicks in which food amount varied either in SS or LL, or both. The subsequent binary choice tests revealed that the chicks chose SS irrespective of whether SS or LL had varied. These results cannot be explained in terms of a greater risk-prone choice of the variable option. Coincidence of perceived competition and food variance, at least in one option, is sufficient for chicks to develop choice impulsiveness. (C) 2016 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Momoko Miura, Toshiya Matsushima
    ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 116 171 - 180 0003-3472 2016/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To study the functional role of the predisposed preference for Johansson's biological motion (BM) at an early stage of life, newly hatched domestic chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus, were exposed to a variety of motion pictures composed of light points (in red or yellow), and then tested for their learned colour preference. Point-light animations depicting the BM of a walking hen successfully facilitated both the approach activity during imprinting and the learned preference in the test, although significant positive correlations did not appear between these at the individual level. Furthermore, scrambling the light points did not significantly reduce the effects, whereas linear motion of a hen-shaped set of points had no effect. If pretreated with the linear motion, those chicks primed with a high BM preference score showed a high learning score in subsequent imprinting. We conclude that the local movement feature of the BM animation is critical in making chicks approach and learn the associated colour. We propose a scenario wherein naive chicks have an innate preference for BM, which arises prior to imprinting through nonspecific visual experience in the early posthatch period. The induced BM preference then allows chicks to form a learned colour preference for the associated colour more effectively, leading to the development of tighter social attachment. (c) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
  • Chentao Wen, Yukiko Ogura, Toshiya Matsushima
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 10 476  1662-453X 2016 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD) method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards. We recorded neuronal activities from the medial striatum or tegmentum in a freely behaving condition and examined how reward omission changed neuronal firing. To compare neuronal activities with the signals assumed in the TD method, we simulated the behavioral task in the form of a finite sequence composed of discrete steps of time. The three signals assumed in the simulated task were the prediction signal, the target signal for updating, and the TD-error signal. In both the medial striatum and tegmentum, the majority of recorded neurons were categorized into three types according to their fitness for three models, though these neurons tended to form a continuum spectrum without distinct differences in the firing rate. Specifically, two types of striatal neurons successfully mimicked the target signal and the prediction signal. A linear summation of these two types of striatum neurons was a good fit for the activity of one type of tegmental neurons mimicking the TD-error signal. The present study thus demonstrates that the striatum and tegmentum can convey the signals critically required for the TD method. Based on the theoretical and neurophysiological studies, together with tract-tracing data, we propose a novel model to explain how the convergence of signals represented in the striatum could lead to the computation of TD error in tegmental dopaminergic neurons.
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Naoya Aoki, Akihiko Takehara, Masaru Mori, Akio Kanai, Toshiya Matsushima, Koichi J. Homma
    NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS 612 32 - 37 0304-3940 2016/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Filial imprinting is a behavior characterized by the sensitive or critical period restricted to the first few days after hatching. Once the sensitive period is closed, it is widely believed that chicks can never be imprinted under natural conditions. Previously, we showed that the exogenous injection of T-3 reopened the sensitive period which was already closed. That study suggested that T-3 functioned by way of a rapid non-genomic action; however, the molecular mechanism of how T-3 reopens the sensitive period remains unknown. Here, we show that the phosphorylation level of nucleotide diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) was upregulated following T-3 injection. Pharmacological deprivation of the kinase activity of NDPK hampered the molecular process prerequisite for the reopening of the sensitive period of filial imprinting. Moreover, it is shown that the kinase activity of NDPK2 participates in the priming process by T-3 signaling which endows the potential for learning. Our data indicate that NDPK2 plays a crucial role downstream of T-3 action and that its phosphorylation is involved in the non-genomic signaling during imprinting. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Yu Ohmura, Takeshi Izumi, Toshiya Matsushima, Hidetoshi Amita, Taku Yamaguchi, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
    BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 296 361 - 372 0166-4328 2016/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Poor impulse control is a debilitating condition observed in various psychiatric disorders and could be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. The rat infralimbic cortex (IL), located in the ventral portion of the medial prefrontal cortex, has been implicated in impulse control. To elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control, we recorded single unit activity in the IL of a rat performing a 3-choiceserial reaction time task (3-CSRTT) and 2-choice task (2-CT), which are animal models for impulsivity. The inactivation of IL neuronal activity with an injection of muscimol (0.1 mu g/side) disrupted impulse control in the 3-CSRTT. More than 60% (38/56) of isolated IL units were linked to impulse control, while approximately 30% of all units were linked to attentional function in the 3-CSRTT. To avoid confounding motor-related units with the impulse control-related units, we further conducted the 2-CT in which the animals' motor activities were restricted during recording window. More than 30% (14/44) of recorded IL units were linked to impulse control in the 2-CT. Several types of impulse control-related units were identified. Only 16% of all units were compatible with the results of the muscimol experiment, which showed a transient decline in the firing rate immediately before the release of behavioral inhibition. This is the first study to elucidate the neurophysiological basis of impulse control in the IL and to propose that IL neurons control impulsive actions in a more complex manner than previously considered. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • N. Aoki, S. Yamaguchi, T. Kitajima, A. Takehara, S. Katagiri-Nakagawa, R. Matsui, D. Watanabe, T. Matsushima, K. J. Homma
    NEUROSCIENCE 308 115 - 124 0306-4522 2015/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Filial imprinting in precocial birds is a useful model for studying early learning and cognitive development, as it is characterized by a well-defined sensitive or critical period. We recently showed that the thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T-3) determines the onset of the sensitive period. Moreover, exogenous injection of T-3 into the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) region (analogous to the associative cortex in mammals) enables imprinting even on post-hatch day 4 or 6 when the sensitive period has been terminated. However, the neural mechanisms downstream from T-3 action in the IMM region remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the functional involvement of the intermediate hyperpallium apicale (IMHA) in T-3 action. Bilateral excitotoxic ablation of the IMHA prevented imprinting in newly hatched chicks, and also suppressed the recovery of the sensitive period by systemic intra-venous or localized intra-IMM injection of T-3 in day-4 chicks. In contrast to the effect in the IMM, direct injection of T-3 into the IMHA did not enable imprinting in day-4 chicks. Moreover, bilateral ablation of IMHA after imprinting training impaired recall. These results suggest that the IMHA is critical for memory acquisition downstream following T-3 action in the IMM and further, that it receives and retains information stored in the IMM for recall. Furthermore, both an avian adeno-associated viral construct containing an anterograde tracer (wheat-germ agglutinin) and a retrograde tracer (cholera toxin subunit B) revealed neural connections from the IMM to the IMHA. Taken together, our findings suggest that hierarchical processes from the primary area (IMM) to the secondary area (IMHA) are required for imprinting. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of IBRO.
  • Yukiko Ogura, Takeshi Izumi, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Toshiya Matsushima
    BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 294 162 - 176 0166-4328 2015/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The frequency or intensity of behavior is often facilitated by the presence of others. This social facilitation has been reported in a variety of animals, including birds and humans. Based on Zajonc's "drive theory," we hypothesized that facilitation and drive have shared neural mechanisms, and that dopaminergic projections from the midbrain to striatum are involved. As the ascending dopaminergic projections include the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways, we targeted our lesions at the medial striatum (MSt) and substantia nigra (SN). We found that a bilateral electrolytic lesion of the MSt suppressed baseline foraging effort, but social facilitation was intact. Conversely, an electrolytic lesion targeted at the unilateral SN (on the right side) partially suppressed social facilitation, while baseline foraging effort remained unaffected. However, selective depletion of catecholaminergic (thyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive) terminals by micro-infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to bilateral MSt had no significant effects on foraging behavior, whereas it impaired formation of the association memory reinforced by water reward. Neurochemical assay by high-perfromance liquid chromatography also revealed a significant decrease in the dopamine and noradrenaline contents in MSt after 6-OHDA micro-infusion compared with intact control chicks. Thus, we conclude that the neural substrate of social facilitation can be dissociated from that responsible for reward-based foraging effort, and that ascending dopaminergic pathways do not appear to contribute to social facilitation. Based on our detailed analysis of the lesion areas, we discuss fiber tracts or neural components of the midbrain tegmental area that may be responsible for social facilitation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Hidetoshi Amita, Toshiya Matsushima
    BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 268 139 - 149 0166-4328 2014/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To investigate the role of social contexts in controlling the neuronal representation of food reward, we recorded single neuron activity in the medial striatum/nucleus accumbens of domestic chicks and examined whether activities differed between two blocks with different contexts. Chicks were trained in an operant task to associate light-emitting diode color cues with three trial types that differed in the type of food reward: no reward (S-), a small reward/short-delay option (SS), and a large reward/long-delay alternative (LL). Amount and duration of reward were set such that both of SS and LL were chosen roughly equally. Neurons showing distinct cue-period activity in rewarding trials (SS and LL) were identified during an isolation block, and activity patterns were compared with those recorded from the same neuron during a subsequent pseudo-competition block in which another chick was allowed to forage in the same area, but was separated by a transparent window. In some neurons, cue-period activity was lower in the pseudo-competition block, and the difference was not ascribed to the number of repeated trials. Comparison at neuronal population level revealed statistically significant suppression in the pseudo-competition block in both SS and LL trials, suggesting that perceived competition generally suppressed the representation of cue-associated food reward. The delay- and reward-period activities, however, did not significantly different between blocks. These results demonstrate that visual perception of a competitive forager per se weakens the neuronal representation of predicted food reward. Possible functional links to impulse control are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ai Kawamori, Toshiya Matsushima
    ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 84 (4) 1001 - 1012 0003-3472 2012/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Divergent diet menus could cause sympatric divergence of risk sensitivity; however, evidence is not yet available for the functional link between diet menu and risk sensitivity. We investigated risk sensitivity (measured as the discount intensity for probabilistic rewards) and diet menu (insectivory and granivory) among three sympatric species of tits (family Paridae): varied tits, Poecile varius, marsh tits, Poecile palustris, and great tits, Parus major, which form mixed-species foraging flocks in Japan. Binary choice tests, offering rewards of differing amount and probability, were conducted in the laboratory. Great tits and marsh tits were found to be risk prone (and more insectivorous), whereas varied tits were risk averse (and more granivorous). Diet menus were examined in the laboratory using behavioural titration tests between sunflower seeds and mealworms. The results of these tests were similar to patterns of food exploitation determined using stable isotope analysis (delta C-13 and delta N-15 contents) of blood samples from birds collected in the wild. Possibly, the dominant varied tits drove the other two species of tits towards different diet menus and unusually high risk proneness. In future, we should examine whether different interspecies interactions cause different risk sensitivity in other geographical environments. (C) 2012 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Naoya Aoki, Takaaki Kitajima, Eiji Iikubo, Sachiko Katagiri, Toshiya Matsushima, Koichi J. Homma
    NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 3 1081  2041-1723 2012/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Filial imprinting in precocial birds is the process of forming a social attachment during a sensitive or critical period, restricted to the first few days after hatching. Imprinting is considered to be part of early learning to aid the survival of juveniles by securing maternal care. Here we show that the thyroid hormone 3,5,3'- triiodothyronine (T-3) determines the start of the sensitive period. Imprinting training in chicks causes rapid inflow of T-3, converted from circulating plasma thyroxine by Dio2, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, in brain vascular endothelial cells. The T-3 thus initiates and extends the sensitive period to last more than 1 week via non-genomic mechanisms and primes subsequent learning. Even in non-imprinted chicks whose sensitive period has ended, exogenous T-3 enables imprinting. Our findings indicate that T-3 determines the start of the sensitive period for imprinting and has a critical role in later learning.
  • Momoko Miura, Toshiya Matsushima
    ANIMAL COGNITION 15 (5) 871 - 879 1435-9448 2012/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To examine the effects of early visual experience on preference for biological motion (BM), newly hatched chicks were exposed to a point-light animation (a visual stimulus composed of identical light points) depicting the following features of a hen: a walking hen (a BM stimulus), a rotating hen (a non-BM stimulus), a pendulum stimulus, a random motion stimulus and a stationary pattern. Chicks were then tested in a binary choice task, choosing between walking-hen and rotating-hen stimuli. Males exhibited a preference for BM if they had been trained with any animation except the stationary pattern stimulus, suggesting that the BM preference was not learned, but induced by motion stimuli. We found a significant positive correlation between the number of approaches in training and the preference in the test, but locomotion alone did not cause preference for BM. In contrast, females exhibited a particularly strong preference for walking-hen stimuli, but only when they had been trained with it. Furthermore, females (but not males) trained with random motion showed a preference for walking hen over walking cat (a biological motion animation depicting a cat), possibly suggesting that females are choosier than males. Chicks trained with a stationary pattern and untrained controls did not show a significant preference. The induction of BM preference is discussed in terms of possible ecological background of the sex differences.
  • Shohei Matsunami, Yukiko Ogura, Hidetoshi Amita, Takeshi Izumi, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Toshiya Matsushima
    BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 233 (2) 577 - 586 0166-4328 2012/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Behavioural effects of fluvoxamine (FLV, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) were examined in 1-2 week old domestic chicks. Chicks were tested in an I-shaped maze equipped with a feeder (ON feeder) that served 1 or 2 grains of millet at gradually increasing intervals, so that a depleting food patch was mimicked. By leaving the feeder, the food delivery program was reset, and chicks gained food at short intervals only after a travel to a dummy feeder (OFF feeder) placed on the opposite side of the maze. Chicks quickly learned to actively shuttle between the ON and the OFF feeders. FLV (intra-peritoneal injection, 20 mg/kg BW) acutely caused chicks to stay longer at the gradually depleting ON feeder. Inter-temporal choices were also tested, whereby two coloured beads were simultaneously presented, each associated with a small/short-delay reward or a large/long-delay alternative. FLV suppressed the choice of the short-delay option. It is suggested that an enhanced level of serotonin (5-HT) makes chicks more tolerant of the delayed food item in both behavioural paradigms. Furthermore, the decision to leave a depleting patch cannot be equated to choosing the long-delay option of the choice paradigm. Furthermore, FLV suppressed work efforts (velocity and running distance) in uncued shuttle and number of distress calls. In vivo microdialysis experiments revealed that FLV enhanced the extracellular concentration of 5-HT as well as dopamine (DA) locally in the medial striatum/nucleus accumbens. Underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms of behavioural control are examined in relation to locomotion, behavioural tolerance and interval timing. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Naoya Aoki, Daisuke Kobayashi, Takaaki Kitajima, Eiji Iikubo, Sachiko Katagiri, Toshiya Matsushima, Koichi J. Homma
    NEUROREPORT 22 (17) 929 - 934 0959-4965 2011/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Newly hatched domestic chicks serve as an important model for experimental studies of neural and behavioral plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation, which underlies learning and memory in rodents. Here we show that BDNF mRNA levels increased in the intermediate medial hyperpallium apicale (IMHA), which is the caudal area of the visual Wulst, of imprinted chick brains, and the upregulation of gene expression correlated with the strength of the learned preference to the training object. In addition, activation of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling was associated with filial imprinting. However, pharmacological deprivation of TrkB phosphorylation in IMHA did not impair memory formation, suggesting that activation of BDNF/TrkB signaling in IMHA is not involved in memory acquisition in filial imprinting. NeuroReport 22:929-934 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Hidetoshi Amita, Toshiya Matsushima
    FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE 5 (101) 1 - 8 1662-453X 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0 and 4.5 s), and were tested in binary choices between a small short delay option (SS) and a large long delay alternative (La To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1) the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2) the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2 weeks according to a "behavioral titration" procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3) choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4) the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness.These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsiveness remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified) factors may be indirectly involved.
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Sachiko Katagiri, Naoya Aoki, Eiji Iikubo, Takaaki Kitajima, Toshiya Matsushima, Koichi J. Homma
    NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 69 (1) 32 - 40 0168-0102 2011/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene-silencing can be a tool for elucidating the role of genes in the neural basis of behavioral plasticity. Previously, we reported that exogenous DNA could be successfully delivered into newly-hatched chick brains via electroporation. Here, we used this in vivo gene-transfer technique and showed that transfected microRNA vectors preferentially silence exogenous DNA expression in neuronal cells. Using this system, the up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) accompanying filial imprinting was suppressed in vivo, which impaired the filial imprinting in chicks. In addition, the phosphorylation of MAP2 was found to increase in parallel with filial imprinting, and lithium chloride, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), was found to impair filial imprinting. Our results suggest that the regulation of MAP2 expression and its phosphorylation are required for filial imprinting and may modify microtubule stability, thereby leading to cytoskeletal reorganization during imprinting. This in vivo RNAi-mediated gene-silencing system will facilitate the analysis of gene function in the living chick brain and provides further clues regarding the molecular mechanisms underpinning avian learning. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.
  • Yukiko Ogura, Toshiya Matsushima
    FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE 5 (91) 1 - 12 1662-453X 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Social influences on foraging efforts were examined in domestic chicks by investigating the frequency of runs made to feeders and the amount of pecking to gain food. Single or paired chicks foraged in an I-shaped maze equipped with a millet feeder on each end, that distributed one or two grains at variable intervals. Regardless of when the grain(s) were dispensed, chicks ran back and forth between the feeders. Analyses of their movement patterns revealed: (1) running patterns were not directly synchronized with the dispensing of grain(s), (2) running distance was longer in paired chicks than in single chicks, (3) paired chicks partially synchronized their runs between feeders, and (4) social effects were immediate but cumulative after repeated blocks. We further examined the social effects on running by dividing the I-maze into two parallel lanes separated by a transparent wall, so that kleptoparasitic interference of food did not occur. Again, the chicks increased their running speed and were even more synchronized with their partner's movements, indicating that food competition alone was not responsible for increased foraging effort. The number of pecks to get grains was also assessed under conditions where the food tray was gradually replaced, from an easy one to more difficult ones. When tested in the separated I-maze, paired chicks pecked more in the difficult food situation without increase in the number of gained grains. Results suggest that (i) social facilitation leads to increased foraging efforts and (ii) the presence of a conspecific is alone may lead to enhanced foraging efforts in chicks. These findings are discussed in terms of possible ecological background of social facilitation.
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Eiji Iikubo, Naoki Hirose, Takaaki Kitajima, Sachiko Katagiri, Ai Kawamori, Ikuko Fujii-Taira, Toshiya Matsushima, Koichi J. Homma
    NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 67 (2) 192 - 195 0168-0102 2010/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Bioluminescence imaging is a powerful tool for examining gene expression in living animals. Previously, we reported that exogenous DNA could be successfully delivered into neurons in the newly hatched chick brain using electroporation. Here, we show the in vivo bioluminescence imaging of c-fos promoter activity and its upregulation, which is associated with filial imprinting. The upregulation of c-fos gene expression correlated with both the strength of the chicks' approach activity to the training object and the acquisition of memory. The present technique should be a powerful tool for analyzing the time changes in neural activity of certain brain areas in real-time during memory formation, using brains of living animals. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.
  • Ai Kawamori, Toshiya Matsushima
    ANIMAL COGNITION 13 (3) 431 - 441 1435-9448 2010/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    For animals to decide which prey to attack, the gain and delay of the food item must be integrated in a value function. However, the subjective value is not obtained by expected profitability when it is accompanied by risk. To estimate the subjective value, we examined choices in a cross-shaped maze with two colored feeders in domestic chicks. When tested by a reversal in food amount or delay, chicks changed choices similarly in both conditions (experiment 1). We therefore examined risk sensitivity for amount and delay (experiment 2) by supplying one feeder with food of fixed profitability and the alternative feeder with high- or low-profitability food at equal probability. Profitability varied in amount (groups 1 and 2 at high and low variance) or in delay (group 3). To find the equilibrium, the amount (groups 1 and 2) or delay (group 3) of the food in the fixed feeder was adjusted in a total of 18 blocks. The Markov chain Monte Carlo method was applied to a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the subjective value. Chicks undervalued the variable feeder in group 1 and were indifferent in group 2 but overvalued the variable feeder in group 3 at a population level. Re-examination without the titration procedure (experiment 3) suggested that the subjective value was not absolute for each option. When the delay was varied, the variable option was often given a paradoxically high value depending on fixed alternative. Therefore, the basic assumption of the uniquely determined value function might be questioned.
  • Hidetoshi Amita, Ai Kawamori, Toshiya Matsushima
    BIOLOGY LETTERS 6 (2) 183 - 186 1744-9561 2010/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Social factors involved in the control of impulsiveness were examined in domestic chicks. In binary choices between a large/long-delay option (LL) and a small/short-delay alternative (SS), chicks that had been competitively trained in groups of three individuals showed fewer choices of LL than did those trained in isolation (experiment 1), suggesting that competition causes impulsive choice. In experiment 2, in order to identify the critical factor involved, we tested the effects of perceived competition (coincident feeding without interruption) and scrounging (gaining food without pecking bead) separately. To examine the effects of risk/noise that individual chicks experienced in competition, the food amount varied randomly in trials according to a binomial distribution around the expected mean. Perceived competition primarily contributed to the influence on the impulsive choice, whereas the contribution of scrounging was weaker. Collection risk did not explain the social influences since the perceived competition was not accompanied by actual interruption of the delayed food reward. The risk owing to variable food per se did not cause impulsive choices. Coincident foraging during competition is thought to play a critical role.
  • Hidetoshi Amita, Toshiya Matsushima
    COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 151 (4) 459 - 459 1096-4959 2008/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Shohei Matsunami, Toshiya Matsushima
    COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 151 (4) 459 - 459 1096-4959 2008/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Marie E. Gibbs, Colin Gibbs, Andras Csillag, Toshiya Matsushima, Lesley Rogers, John Rostas
    BRAIN RESEARCH BULLETIN 76 (3) 167 - 169 0361-9230 2008/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Toshiya Matsushima, Ai Kawamori, Tiaza Bem-Sojka
    BRAIN RESEARCH BULLETIN 76 (3) 245 - 252 0361-9230 2008/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Studies on the foraging choices are reviewed, with an emphasis on the neural representations of elementary factors of food (i.e., amount, delay and consumption time) in the avian brain. Domestic chicks serve as an ideal animal model in this respect, as they quickly associate cue colors with subsequently supplied food rewards, and their choices are quantitatively linked with the rewards. When a pair of such color cues was simultaneously presented, the trained chicks reliably made choices according to the profitability of food associated with each color. Two forebrain regions are involved in distinct aspects of choices; i.e., nucleus accumbens-medial striatum (Ac-MSt) and arcopallium intermedium (AI), an association area in the lateral forebrain. Localized lesions of Ac-MSt enhanced delay aversion, and the ablated chicks made impulsive choices of immediate reward more frequently than sham controls. On the other hand, lesions of AI enhanced consumption-time aversion, and the ablated chicks shifted their choices toward easily consumable reward with their impulsiveness unchanged; delay and consumption time are thus doubly dissociated. Furthermore, chicks showed distinct patterns of risk-sensitive choices depending on the factor that varied at trials. Risk aversion occurred when food amount varied, whereas consistent risk sensitivity was not found when the delay varied; amount and delay were not interchangeable. Choices are thus deviated from those predicted as optima. Instead, factors such as amount, delay and consumption time could be separately represented and processed to yield economically sub-optimal choices. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Ikuko Fujii-Taira, Sachiko Katagiri, Ei-Ichi Izawa, Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Hideaki Takeuchi, Tatsuya Takano, Toshiya Matsushima, Koichi J. Homma
    BRAIN RESEARCH BULLETIN 76 (3) 275 - 281 0361-9230 2008/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In newly hatched chicks, gene expression in the brain has previously been shown to be up-regulated following filial imprinting. By applying cDNA rnicroarrays containing 13,007 expressed sequence tags, we examined the comprehensive gene expression profiling of the intermediate medial mesopallium in the chick cerebrum, which has been shown to play a key role in filial imprinting. We found 52 up-regulated genes and 6 down-regulated genes of at least 2.0-fold changes 3 h after the training of filial imprinting, compared to the gene expression of the dark-reared chick brain. The up-regulated genes are known to be involved in a variety of pathways, including signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization, nuclear function, cell metabolism, RNA binding, endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi function, synaptic function, ion channel, and transporter. In contrast, fewer genes were down-regulated in the imprinting, coinciding with the previous data that the total RNA synthesis increased associated with filial imprinting. Our data suggests that the filial imprinting involves the modulation of multiple signaling pathways. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Ikuko Fujii-Taira, Akio Murakami, Naoki Hirose, Naoya Aoki, Ei-Ichi Izawa, Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Tatsuya Takano, Toshiya Matsushima, Koichi J. Homma
    BRAIN RESEARCH BULLETIN 76 (3) 282 - 288 0361-9230 2008/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Using cDNA microarrays, we have identified elsewhere the genes of microtubule-associated proteins as a group up-regulated in newly hatched chick brains after filial imprinting training. Here we show by in situ hybridization that the mRNA for the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) gene was enriched in the mesopallium and the hippocampus in the trained chick brain. The regionally specific enrichments of MAP2 mRNA were not observed in the brain of dark-reared or light-exposed chick as controls, implying an association between the degree of expression and the strength of the learned preference. In agreement with the gene expression, MAP2 protein was accumulated in the mesopallium of the trained chick brain, but not in the brains of the controls. The accumulation of MAP2 was found in the cytosol of neurons and co-localized with beta-tubulin, suggesting a change in nricrotubule assembly. Our results suggest a postnatal reorganization of cytoskeleton following filial imprinting. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • SSRI (fluvoxamine) elongates food-patch residence time in chicks
    Shohei Matsunami, Hidetoshi Amita, Toshiya Matsushima
    NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH 61 S188 - S188 0168-0102 2008 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Shinji Yamaguchi, Sachiko Katagiri, Naoki Hirose, Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Masahiro Mori, Ikuko Fujii-Taira, Tatsuya Takano, Toshiya Matsushima, Koichi J. Homma
    NEUROREPORT 18 (8) 735 - 739 0959-4965 2007/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Newly hatched domestic chicks serve as ideal models for studies of the neural basis of behavioral plasticity, particularly for understanding the mechanisms of learning such as filial imprinting. To elucidate the molecular basis and gene functions involved in learning, we developed an in-vivo gene-transfer system in the brain of a living chick using electroporation. When green fluorescent protein-encoding plasmids were transfected to a chick brain, green fluorescence was clearly observed, and expression at the protein level was confirmed by immunoblotting. Most of the transfected brain cells were neuronal cells with dendrites. This neuron-selective electroporation system will facilitate the analysis of gene functions in the living chick brain and provide further clues as to the molecular mechanisms of avian learning.
  • Saboro Kageyama, Toshiya Matsushima
    COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY B-BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 145 (3-4) 411 - 411 1096-4959 2006/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Naoya Aoki, Andras Csillag, Toshiya Matsushima
    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 24 (8) 2314 - 2326 0953-816X 2006/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Behavioral effects of handling cost (time and/or energetic cost for food consumption) on choice were examined using domestic chicks trained in operant task reinforced by delayed food rewards. When scattered sesame was delivered in more demanding conditions, a colored cue bead associated with six grains ('large' and 'costly' reward) was chosen progressively less frequently against another bead associated with one grain ('small' and 'not costly' reward). The choice thus proved to be highly sensitive to the anticipated handling cost. Excitotoxic lesion of the bilateral arcopallium intermedium also selectively reduced the choice of the six grains, while leaving actual cost investment (number of pecks and handling time) unaltered. No significant changes occurred in choices between one grain of sesame ('small' and 'not costly' reward) and one grain of barley (or a ball composed of six sesame grains glued by starch; 'large' and 'not costly' reward), indicating that choice based on anticipated food amount was not impaired. On the other hand, lesion of the ventral striatum did not change the choice ratio in any trial types. Operant peck latencies somewhat depended on food rewards, but were not affected by lesions of the arcopallium or the ventral striatum. The arcopallium could contribute to foraging behaviors by enabling chicks to overcome the handling cost, thus gaining more beneficial food. Furthermore, the present results indicate doubly dissociated functional roles of the ventral striatum and the arcopallium, the former in the cost of traveling for food and the latter in the cost of handling food, respectively.
  • N Aoki, R Suzuki, EI Izawa, A Csillag, T Matsushima
    BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 168 (1) 1 - 12 0166-4328 2006/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The effects of bilateral chemical lesions of the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and the surrounding areas in the media] striatum) and arcopallium (major descending area of the avian telencephalon) were examined in 1-2-weeks old domestic chicks. Using a Y-maze, we analyzed the lesion effects on the choices that subject chicks made in two tasks with identical economical consequences, i.e., a small-and-close food reward vs. a large-and-distant food reward. In task 1, red, yellow, and green beads were associated with a feeder placed at various distances from the chicks; chicks thus anticipated the spatial proximity of food by the bead's color, whereas the quantity of the food was fixed. In task 2, red and yellow flags on the feeders were associated with various amount of food; the chicks thus anticipated the quantity of food by the flag's color, whereas the proximity of the reward could be directly visually determined. In task 1, bilateral lesions of the ventral striatum (but not the arcopallium) enhanced the impulsiveness of the chicks' choices, suggesting that choices based on the anticipated proximity were selectively changed. In task 2, similar lesions of the ventral striatum did not change choices. In both experiments, motor functions of the chicks remained unchanged, suggesting that the lesions did not affect the foraging efficiency, i.e., objective values of food. Neural correlates of anticipated food rewards in the ventral striatum (but not those in the arcopallium) could allow chicks to invest appropriate amount of work-cost in approaching distant food resources. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • EI Izawa, N Aoki, T Matsushima
    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 22 (6) 1502 - 1512 0953-816X 2005/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To identify the neuro-cognitive substrates of valuation and choice, we analysed the neural correlates of anticipated food rewards in the ventral striatum of freely behaving chicks. One-week-old chicks were trained in a color-discrimination task using four color cues (red, yellow, green and blue), each of which was associated with a different food reward. Choosing a red bead was immediately rewarded with a large amount of food, choosing a yellow bead resulted in an immediate-small food reward, and choosing a green bead resulted in a late-large food reward. We selected chicks that consistently chose a large and immediate food reward (red over yellow, and red over green), with the proximity of the food valued higher than the size of the food reward (yellow over green). Of the 47 neurons recorded from the ventral striatum of these chicks, 20 neurons selectively showed cue-period responses to cues associated with food rewards. Five of these 20 neurons responded differentially during the cue period according to the expected delay to reward, and were thus assumed to code for the proximity of the reward. Additionally, three other neurons responded to the quantity of the reward. Furthermore, in the post-operant delay period, many of these 20 neurons showed reward-related activities that were linked to the proximity or presence of the food reward. We therefore propose that impulsive choice and behavioral perseveration observed after lesions of the ventral striatum could be due to impaired anticipation of rewards in the cue and delay periods, respectively.
  • Y Ichikawa, EI Izawa, T Matsushima
    COGNITIVE BRAIN RESEARCH 22 (1) 76 - 83 0926-6410 2004/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To reveal the functional roles of the striatum, we examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions to the bilateral medial striatum (mSt) and nucleus (Ac) in a food reinforcement color discrimination operant task. With a food reward as reinforcement, 1-week-old domestic chicks were trained to peck selectively at red and yellow beads (S+) and not to peck at a blue bead (S-). Those chicks then received either lesions or sham operations and were tested in extinction training sessions, during which yellow turned out to be nonrewarding (S-), whereas red and blue remained unchanged. To further examine the effects on postoperant noninstrumental aspects of behavior, we also measured the "waiting time", during which chicks stayed at the empty feeder after pecking at yellow. Although the lesioned chicks showed significantly higher error rates in the nonrewarding yellow trials, their postoperant waiting time gradually decreased similarly to the sham controls. Furthermore, the lesioned chicks waited significantly longer than the controls, even from the first extinction block. In the blue trials, both lesioned and sham chicks consistently refrained from pecking, indicating that the delayed extinction was not due to a general disinhibition of pecking. Similarly, no effects were found in the novel training sessions, suggesting that the lesions had selective effects on the extinction of a learned operant. These results suggest that a neural representation of memory-based reward anticipation in the mSt/Ac could contribute to the anticipation error required for extinction. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • T Ichihashi, Y Ichikawa, T Matsushima
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 21 (7) 723 - 729 0289-0003 2004/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Effects of rearing conditions were examined in the development of agonistic behaviors in the male fighting fish. In group-I (highly social), fish were communally reared. In group-II (highly social and isolate), fish were individually housed and exposed to the group-I fish through transparent walls until the sexual maturity (from 6 to 12 weeks post-hatch). In group-III (social and isolate), individually housed fish were similarly exposed to other fish within the group. In group-IV (non-social and isolate), individually housed fish were further visually isolated. Agonisitc behaviors were compared among males of the groups-II, -III, and -IV in their fights against the group-I male. The group-IV males showed significantly higher rate of wins than the groups-II and -III males, without differences in the incidence of agonistic behaviors (butt-or-bite, chase, and gill-cover erect) before the termination of the mutual fights. Increased incidence of agonistic behaviors was found after the termination (particularly in the unilateral chase), suggesting that the group-IV males continued to fight even after the opponent male displayed a submission. The aggression was also enhanced in the group-II, when they were thereafter reared in a social isolation after the sexual maturation; a critical period was thus not found. The enhanced aggression was not reversed in the group-IV, when they were thereafter exposed to social stimuli; shift to the continued fights was irreversible. Possible fitness gain of the enhanced aggression was discussed in terms of the adjustability to altered biological resources.
  • S Nakajima, EI Izawa, T Matsushima
    NEUROREPORT 14 (11) 1475 - 1480 0959-4965 2003/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Effects of bilateral chemical lesion of the hippocampus was examined in 1- to 2-week-old domestic chicks. Chicks were trained and tested in an egocentric spatial task, in which subject chicks should memorize location of a rewarding object in reference to the subject's viewpoint. Two beads were simultaneously presented on a wall, and chicks pecked at one of them based on relative location (left-right or above-below) to gain a reward. Comparison of training curves revealed that the lesion significantly delayed, but did not impair, the acquisition. Recall of the spatial cue, as well as conditioning with color cues, was not impaired. Hippocampus could thus be involved in memory formation of spatial relationships between nearby objects.
  • N Aoki, EI Izawa, S Yanagihara, T Matsushima
    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 17 (9) 1935 - 1946 0953-816X 2003/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The archistriatum mediates a neural pathway from the medial part of intermediate hyperstriatum ventrale (in the dorsal pallium) to the lobus parolfactorius (in the medial striatum), thus is possibly involved in memory formation in the domestic chick. To elucidate the functional roles, we examined single neuron activities from archistriatum in unconstrained chicks during execution of a GO/NOGO task. In this task, a brief motor sound was given as initial cue, and immediately followed by presentation of a coloured bead. Chick was required to recall the memorized associations between the colour and reward, and pecked at the bead to gain food after a delay (GO trials) or stayed not pecking (NOGO trials). The ventral part of intermediate archistriatum proved to contain a group of neurons that selectively responded to the reward-associated colours before the reward was actually presented, possibly coding the memorized associations. Another group of neurons fired during the reward period, thus could code aspects of the food reward. Yet another group of neurons started to fire immediately on the cue sound and prior to the cued movements nonselectively in both GO and NOGO trials, thus could be involved in the sensori-motor link between the sound and the targeted body movements. It is concluded that even a subregion of archistriatum contains diverse neural codes for memorized associations and food rewards, and neural codes of movements cued by sounds, suggesting that archistriatum is a complex of different functional systems, possibly corresponding to striatum, limbic amygdala, and prefrontal cortex in mammals.
  • T Matsushima, EI Izawa, N Aoki, S Yanagihara
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 20 (4) 395 - 408 0289-0003 2003/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To understand the animal mind, we have to reconstruct how animals recognize the external world through their own eyes. For the reconstruction to be realistic, explanations must be made both in their proximate causes (brain mechanisms) as well as ultimate causes (evolutionary backgrounds). Here, we review recent advances in the behavioral, psychological, and system-neuroscience studies accomplished using the domestic chick as subjects. Diverse behavioral paradigms are compared (such as filial imprinting, sexual imprinting, one-trial passive avoidance learning, and reinforcement operant conditioning) in their behavioral characterizations (development, sensory and motor aspects of functions, fitness gains) and relevant brain mechanisms. We will stress that common brain regions are shared by these distinct paradigms, particularly those in the ventral telencephalic structures such as AN (in the archistriatum) and LPO (in the medial striatum). Neuronal ensembles in these regions could code the chick's anticipation for forthcoming events, particularly the quality/quantity and the temporal proximity of rewards. Without the internal representation of the anticipated proximity in LPO, behavioral tolerance will be lost, and the chick makes impulsive choice for a less optimized option. Functional roles of these regions proved compatible with their anatomical counterparts in the mammalian brain, thus suggesting that the neural systems linking between the memorized past and the anticipated future have remained highly conservative through the evolution of the amniotic vertebrates during the last 300 million years. With the conservative nature in mind, research efforts should be oriented toward a unifying theory, which could explain behavioral deviations from optimized foraging, such as "naive curiosity", "contra-freeloading," "Concorde fallacy' and "altruism."
  • Localized lesion of caudal part of lobus parolfactorius caused impulsive choice in the domestic chick: Evolutionarily conserved function of ventral striatum
    EI Izawa, G Zachar, S Yanagihara, T Matsushima
    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 23 (5) 1894 - 1902 0270-6474 2003/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Effects of bilateral chemical lesions of the medial basal ganglia [lobus parolfactorius (LPO)] were examined in 7- to 14-d-old domestic chicks. Chicks were trained in a color discrimination task, in which the subject had to peck one of the two colored beads associated with rewards that differed in quantity (amount of food) and/or temporal proximity (delay of food delivery from peck). In experiment 1, food was given without delay, and chicks successfully learned to choose a colored bead that was associated with a larger reward than the other. In experiment 2, a colored bead (red) was associated with a large reward delivered after a delay (D = 1, 2, or 3 sec), whereas another (yellow) was associated with a small reward delivered immediately. In intact and sham-operated conditions, chicks with a longer D chose the red bead progressively fewer times. Selective lesions to the caudal LPO (but not the rostral LPO) caused impulsive choice, and the ablated chicks chose the yellow bead and gained a small-immediate reward regardless of D. However, when retrained in a null-delay condition (D = 0 sec), the lesioned chick chose the red bead again. Ability to associate novel colors with reward was also unimpaired. These results suggest that the LPO may be responsible for the anticipation of reward proximity and involved in a suppression of impulsiveness by which animals seek immediate gains. The present results also indicate a striking similarity in functional roles between the avian LPO and the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum in mammals.
  • EI Izawa, G Zachar, N Aoki, K Koga, T Matsushima
    BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH 136 (2) 405 - 414 0166-4328 2002/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Effects of bilateral chemical lesions of the ventro-medial basal ganglia (lobus parolfactorius, LPO) were examined in 3-9-day-old domestic chicks. In experiment-1, chicks were trained to peck at a blue bead that was associated with drops of water as a reward. Addition of passive avoidance training using a bitter yellow bead resulted in highly selective pecking between blue and yellow. LPO lesion (given 3-5 h after training) did not impair the selectivity when chicks were tested 24 h afterwards, while the novel reinforcement using a red bead was severely impaired. In experiment-2, chicks were trained in a GONO-GO color discrimination task with food reward. Trained chicks received bilateral LPO lesions, and they were tested 48 h afterwards for the number of pecks and latency of the first peck in each trial. The LPO lesion did not impair the recall of memorized color discrimination in tests, while the chicks were severely deficient in post-operative novel training. These results confirm that: (1) bilateral LPO ablation does not interfere with selective pecking based on the memorized color cues; but (2) it impairs reinforcement in novel training. LPO is thus supposed to be involved in acquisition, rather than execution of memorized behaviors. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • M Mori, T Matsushima
    NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS 329 (1) 73 - 76 0304-3940 2002/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To study development of the cerebellum in precocial birds during the early post-hatch period, dendritic arborization of Purkinie neurons was analyzed by intracellular Lucifer-yellow filling in fixed slices. Purkinje neurons were sampled from parasagittal slices of the cerebellar vermis of quail chicks (from 1 day pre-hatch to 14 days post-hatch). Confocal images revealed that the dendritic arborization expanded two-fold during the initial 3 days post-hatch, whereas the growth of cell bodies was much smaller. The dendritic expansion was accompanied by significant elongation of distal dendritic segments (5th and more distal segments), while the length of proximal dendrites (1st-4th segments) and the number of dendritic branches remained unchanged. Active synaptogenesis may occur selectively in distal dendrites during the early post-hatch period. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Y Ono, Hayashi, I, T Matsushima
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 19 (7) 719 - 725 0289-0003 2002/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Newly hatched chicks spontaneously peck at conspicuous objects, and soon learn to discriminate between edible food particles and inedible objects. To examine whether :his discrimination is based on a chick's ability to memorize objects by shape cues, we analyzed the pecking behavior. One- to 3-day old quail chicks (Coturnix japonica) were presented with dry objects of different shapes (ball, disk, triangle and T-shape) of similar size (4 mm) and color (green). Habituation occurred after repeated presentation of any one of these objects (duration: 30 sec; interval: 4 min). When chicks showed significantly more pecks at a novel object (dishabituation), we assumed that chicks had memorized the habituated shapes and distinguished the novel object. Chicks did not show dishabituation between a ball and a disk. On the other hand, chicks discriminated a triangle or T-shape from the memorized image of disk, but did not memorize either triangle or T-shape by its shape. Similarly, chicks did not memorize the size of disks as a reference for subsequent pecking behavior. Chicks proved to have a limited ability to memorize shape and size cues for selective pecking behavior, in strong contrast to their accurate memorization of colors.

Books etc

  • 行動生物学辞典
    松島 俊也 (Editor)
    東京化学同人社 2013/11
  • 動物に心はあるだろうか 初めての動物行動学
    松島 俊也 (Single work)
    朝日学生新聞社 2012/11

MISC

  • 松島俊也  比較内分泌学  43-  (160)  24‐27(J‐STAGE)  2017  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 三浦桃子, 松島俊也  日本動物学会大会予稿集  85th-  106  2014/08/07  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 小倉有紀子, 松島俊也  日本動物学会大会予稿集  85th-  106  2014/08/07  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 渡邉綱介, 松島俊也  日本動物行動学会大会発表要旨集  33rd-  50  2014  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 三浦桃子, 松島俊也  日本動物行動学会大会発表要旨集  33rd-  74  2014  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 小倉有紀子, 松島俊也  日本動物学会大会予稿集  84th-  191  2013/08/12  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 網田英敏, 松島俊也  日本動物学会大会予稿集  84th-  129  2013/08/12  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 松島俊也, WEN Chentao, 小倉有紀子, 網田英敏  計測と制御  52-  (3)  189  -194  2013/03/10  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • MATSUSHIMA Toshiya, WEN Chentao, OGURA Yukiko, AMITA Hidetoshi  計測と制御 = Journal of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers  52-  (3)  189  -194  2013/03/10  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 本間光一, 山口真二, 青木直哉, 松島俊也  日本動物学会大会予稿集  83rd-  146  2012/08/20  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • ニワトリヒナ刻印付けに伴う神経栄養因子(BDNF)/TrkBシグナリングの活性化(Activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB signaling accompanying filial imprinting in domestic chicks)
    山口 真二, 青木 直哉, 小林 大亮, 北島 孝明, 松島 俊也, 本間 光一  日本生化学会大会プログラム・講演要旨集  84回-  3P  -0604  2011/09  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 刻印付けは生物的運動への生得的選好を誘導する 孵化直後の初生雛を用いた研究(Imprinting induces predisposed preference to biological motion in newly-hatched domestic chicks)
    松島 俊也, 三浦 桃子, Regolin Lucia, Vallortigara Giorgio  神経化学  49-  (2-3)  512  -512  2010/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 内側前頭前野腹側部には衝動的行動の抑制制御に関与する神経細胞が存在する(Infralimbic cortex contains neurons relating for inhibitory control of impulsive behavior)
    木村 生, 泉 剛, 大村 優, 松島 俊也, 山口 拓, 吉田 隆行, 吉岡 充弘  神経化学  49-  (2-3)  662  -662  2010/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 脳由来神経栄養因子(BDNF)/TrkBシグナリングのニワトリヒナ刻印付けへの関与(Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB signaling is involved in filial imprinting of domestic chicks)
    山口 真二, 青木 直哉, 小林 大亮, 飯久保 栄二, 松島 俊也, 本間 光一  神経化学  49-  (2-3)  739  -739  2010/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 競争採餌は衝動的選択を高める ニワトリ雛を用いた研究(Competitive foraging enhances impulsive choices in domestic chicks)
    網田 英敏, 松島 俊也  神経化学  49-  (2-3)  745  -745  2010/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 競争はヒヨコの運動投資量を増やし採餌効率を下げる(Competition deteriorates foraging efficiency by increased work investment in domestic chicks)
    小倉 有紀子, 松島 俊也  神経化学  49-  (2-3)  745  -745  2010/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 松島俊也, 川森愛  科学  79-  (6)  674  -677  2009/06  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 松島 俊也  比較生理生化学  25-  (4)  2008/11/20  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • RNAiによるニワトリヒナ大脳での特異的遺伝子発現抑圧系の確立
    片桐 幸子, 山口 真二, 平 郁子, 廣瀬 直樹, 神垣 ひろこ, 松島 俊也, 高野 達哉, 本間 光一  日本薬学会年会要旨集  128年会-  (3)  99  -99  2008/03  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 刻印付け学習に関与する大脳遺伝子群の機能解析
    片桐 幸子, 山口 真二, 伊澤 栄一, 藤本 康之, 村上 明男, 高野 達哉, 松島 俊也, 本間 光一  日本薬学会年会要旨集  126年会-  (3)  104  -104  2006/03  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • MATSUSHIMA Toshiya  IEICE technical report  105-  (543)  25  -27  2006/01/16  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Do animals mind? Do non-mammalian animals, in particular, have internal process akin to our mental activities? This question has long been left unchallenged, simply because the issue was often ill defined. Recent advances in cognitive studies of birds have suggested that they (birds) have cognitive processes analogous to ours (human). In this review article, I will discuss experimentally-controlled studies on foraging choices in domestic chicks. Ecological backgrounds and relevant neural processes will be described. Neural representations of aspects of anticipated food reward have been searched, trying to reveal the choice algorithm. Possible selective pressure on foraging choice will be discussed.
  • 松島 俊也, 青木 直哉  Cognitive studies  12-  (3)  177  -187  2005/09  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    孵化後1週間のニワトリのヒヨコは、餌によって強化される色弁別課題を容易に獲得する。連合が成立した後に二つの色手がかりの択一選択を行わせたところ、短期的な採餌効率を正しく予期して選択することが分かった。さらに大脳の腹側線条体・側座複合(基底核)と弓外套腹側部(大脳連合野のひとつ)は、採餌効率の予期値の異なる時間因子に預かることが判明した。基底核を破壊すると、餌までの待ち時間を忌避するように選択がシフトした。他方、連合野を破壊した場合には、採餌局面における処理時間を忌避するように選択がシフトした。以上の結果から、ヒヨコの選択は①待ち時間(報酬遅延)と処理時間(労働コスト)の和を分母とする採餌効率の予期値に基づくこと、②これら二つの時間要素は脳内の別の領域に神経的基盤を持ち、神経生態学的に独立な因子であること、が判明した。Week-old chicks quickly learn to peck colored beads when reinforced by food rewards. In binary choice tests, the trained chicks made choices based on anticipated values of foraging efficiency. Two forebrain regions proved to be involved in the anticipation, i.e., ventral striatum / nucleus accumbens complex (basal ganglia) and arcopallium (an association area of lateral forebrain). Localized lesions of the basal ganglia caused an impulsive choice away from a long waiting time. On the other hand, lesions of the association area caused an impulsive choice away from a long consumption time. These results suggest that 1) chicks make choices based on foraging efficiency, in which sum of the waiting time (or time-to-reward) and the consumption time (or work cost) serve significant denominator, and 2) these two time domains have distinct neural substrates, thus are assumed to be neuro-ecologically distinct factors.
  • Toshiya Matsushima  Behavioral and Brain Sciences  28-  604  -605  2005/08/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    It is argued in the target article that hemispheric lateralization is advantageous when faced with conflicting choices. As decision-making processes must have been subject to a strong selection pressure, the sensitivity of response latencies could suggest a modular and hierarchical organization of behavioral execution, as was formulated by Tinbergen (1951).
  • 松島 俊也  比較生理生化学  22-  (1)  2005/03/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 伊澤栄一, 松島俊也  動物心理学研究  54-  (2)  2004/12/25  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 脳の社会適応化機構:環境・ホルモン情報と遺伝情報の統合と破綻 報酬予期の神経表象と衝動的行為決定(Mechanisms of Adaptive Socialization in the Brain: Integration and Disruption among Environmental,Hormonal and Gene Informations: Neural correlates of reward anticipation and impulsive choice)
    松島 俊也  神経化学  43-  (2-3)  351  -351  2004/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • S Nakajima, EI Izawa, T Matsushima  NEUROREPORT  14-  (11)  1475  -1480  2003/08  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Effects of bilateral chemical lesion of the hippocampus was examined in 1- to 2-week-old domestic chicks. Chicks were trained and tested in an egocentric spatial task, in which subject chicks should memorize location of a rewarding object in reference to the subject's viewpoint. Two beads were simultaneously presented on a wall, and chicks pecked at one of them based on relative location (left-right or above-below) to gain a reward. Comparison of training curves revealed that the lesion significantly delayed, but did not impair, the acquisition. Recall of the spatial cue, as well as conditioning with color cues, was not impaired. Hippocampus could thus be involved in memory formation of spatial relationships between nearby objects.
  • 大森康弘, 松島俊也, 田中利治, 宮田正  日本応用動物昆虫学会大会講演要旨  (47)  2003/03/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 松島 俊也  比較生理生化学  19-  (3)  210  -212  2002/12/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 松島俊也  比較生理生化学  19-  (3)  210  -212  2002  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Hayashi, I, Y Ono, T Matsushima  ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE  18-  (8)  1065  -1071  2001/11  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    When socially isolated from siblings, newly hatched chicks emit distress calls at a high frequency. As a step toward identifying brain mechanisms responsible for recognition of conspecifics, we analyzed sensory cues critical for suppressing distress calls in socially isolated quail chicks at post-hatch day 2 to 4. Each subject of wild-type chicks was reared with another wild-type companion chick for 1-2 nights before tests. As the first step, we found that distress call was completely suppressed when accompanied by another wild-type chick, irrespective of whether the subject had previously been familiarized with the chick or not. When paired with an albino chick, on the other hand, the subject emitted significantly more calls, suggesting that the wild-type plumage is important. As the next step, in search of the critical sensory modality, we found that visual display of a conspecific chick suppressed the distress call even without accompanying acoustical stimuli. On the other hand, the acoustical stimuli alone were without effects. Olfactory as well as tactile sensations also proved irrelevant. As the final step, we tried to identify the significant sub-modalities in the visual images of conspecifics. Degraded visual image of a moving chick (degraded in fine details) caused a significant but incomplete suppression, whereas an anesthetized chick was without effects. On the other hand, distress calls were completely suppressed even without behavioral correspondence or exact plumage coloration. All of these data suggest that visual image of a moving chick should be given at a high spatial resolution, and wild-type plumage pattern might provide important visual cues.
  • T Matsushima, EI Izawa, S Yanagihara  NEUROREPORT  12-  (13)  2831  -2837  2001/09  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Properties of local synapses were analyzed in lobus parolfactorius (LPO; avian homologue of caudate-nucleus) of quail chicks by using slice preparations in vitro. Field-potential extracellular and whole-cell intracellular recordings revealed excitatory synaptic inputs converging from dorsal and ventral regions within LPO. With exogenous dopamine (100 muM) in the perfusate, synchronized conditioning stimulation induced biased changes in the dorsal and the ventral inputs; potentiation in the dorsal input and depression in the ventral input in average. On the other hand, de-synchronized conditioning failed to induce such biased changes, although the differences were not statistically significant. SCH-23390 (3 muM) blocked the dorsal potentiation, while AP-5 (100 muM) tended to block both of these changes. The plastic nature may underlie the memory formation in appetitive/aversive learning tasks. NeuroReport 12:2831-2837 (C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • 伊澤栄一, 柳原真, 松島俊也  比較生理生化学  18-  (2)  113  -118  2001/08/31  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • EI Izawa, S Yanagihara, T Atsumi, T Matsushima  NEUROREPORT  12-  (8)  1743  -1747  2001/06  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Effects of bilateral kainate lesions of telencephalic basal ganglia (lobus parolfactorius, LPO) were examined in domestic chicks. In the imprinting paradigm, where chicks learned to selectively approach a moving object without any explicitly associated reward, both the pre- and post-training lesions were without effects. On the other hand, in the water-reinforced pecking task, pre-training lesions of LPO severely impaired immediate reinforcement as well as formation of the association memory. However, post-training LPO lesions did not cause amnesia, and chicks selectively pecked at the reinforced color. The LPO could thus be involved specifically in the evaluation of present rewards and the instantaneous reinforcement of pecking, but not in the execution of selective behavior based on a memorized color cue. NeuroReport 12:1743-1747 (C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • S Yanagihara, EI Izawa, K Koga, T Matsushima  NEUROREPORT  12-  (7)  1431  -1435  2001/05  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    We aimed to reveal what is coded in the basal ganglia of domestic chicks. In the water-reinforced 'go' task, chicks learned to peck selectively at a colored bead in order to obtain a drop of water. Out of 38 units obtained, seven showed excitatory activities specifically during the reward period. In the food-reinforced go/no-go task, chicks learned to discriminate two colors to obtain mash food after a delay period. They also learned to ignore another color, which was not associated with a reward. Out of 27 units obtained, four showed excitatory activities during the cue period, specifically when a food reward was anticipated. LPO neurons may code qualities of the obtained rewards, and also chick's anticipation of the forthcoming rewards. NeuroReport 12:1431-1435 (C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • 松島 俊也  比較生理生化学  18-  (1)  2001/04/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • S Yanagihara, K Koga, T Matsushima  ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE  17-  (9)  1221  -1229  2000/12  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Functional significance of an immediate early gene ZENK (zif/268) was examined in telencephalic regions (homologues of neocortex and basal ganglia) of newly-hatched quail chicks; hyperstriatum accessorium (HA), hyperstriatum ventrale (HV), neostriatum (N) and lobus parolfactorius (LPO). Chicks were trained by a green bead soaked either in a strong aversant (methylanthranilate, MeA), in a weak aversant (MeA diluted by ethanol, 1/3MeA), or in water. Chicks were then tested at 45-50 min post-training, and immediately processed for ZENK immunostaining. Neither the training condition (MeA, 1/3MeA, or water) nor the responses at test (recall or amnesia) significantly contributed to the immunopositive cell densities in all of these regions. On the other hand, single intraperitoneal injection of metrazole (CNS convulsant) induced a transient epileptiform seizure, and caused significantly enhanced ZENK expression in HV and LPO but not in HA and N. However, the metrazol-induced seizure did not interfere with the following passive avoidance training, and chicks successfully learned to avoid the aversive bead when tested at 24 hr subsequently. Among three groups of chicks (metrazol-treated, saline control, and untreated chicks), no significant differences were found in their responses at test (recall, generalized avoidance, or amnesia). These results suggest that enhanced ZENK expression may represent lasting neural activities, but may not be involved specifically in the passive avoidance memory formation.
  • M Aoki, E Izawa, K Koga, S Yanagihara, T Matsushima  ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE  17-  (8)  1053  -1059  2000/11  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Animals are predisposed to memorize specific features of objects they encounter, and to link them with behavioral outputs in a selective manner. In this study, we examined whether chicks memorize objects by colors, and how they exploit the memorized color cues for selective pecking in 1- to 2-days-old quail chicks (Coturnix japonica). Ball-shaped beads painted in green (G), yellowish green (YG) and the intermediate color (YGG) were used. Repetitive presentation of a bead (interval: 4.5 min) resulted in gradually fewer pecks (habituation). Subsequent presentation of a different color caused proportionately more pecks (dishabituation); e.g., after habituation to the G bead, the YG bead caused a stronger dishabituation than the YGG bead did. The dishabituation appeared symmetric; e.g., the YG bead caused as strong dishabituation after the G-habituation, as was caused by the G bead after the YG-habituation. Number of pecks could thus reveal the memory-based color perception in chicks. Similar discrimination of beads by memorized color cues was found after one-trial passive avoidance training, where chicks learned to avoid a bitter-tasting object without any differential pre-training experiences. However, proportion of the chicks that discriminated between different colors became progressively smaller at test 15 min, 1 hr, and 24 hr post-training. On the other hand, proportion of chicks that distinguished beads by non-color cues remained unchanged. Chicks may primarily form an accurate memory of colors, but gradually change the link between the color memory and the pecking behavior.
  • S Sakai, S Yanagihara, P Kabai, K Koga, T Matsushima  ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE  17-  (8)  1045  -1051  2000/11  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Newly hatched chicks will spontaneously peck at conspicuous objects in their field of view, and soon learn to distinguish between edible food particles and unpleasant tasting objects. To examine whether the selective pecking is based on the ability to memorize shapes, we analyzed pecking behavior of 1- to 2-days-old quail chicks (Coturnix japonica) by using ball- and triangle-shaped beads both painted in green. Repeated presentation of dry bead (either ball or triangle) resulted in a progressively fewer number of pecks (habituation). When chicks were tested by triangle after repeated presentation of ball, chicks showed a significant increase in the number of pecks at the triangle (dishabituation). On the other hand, when tested by ball after a series of triangle presentations, pecking frequency did not increase (nb dishabituation). Chicks thus distinguished the triangle as a novel object after being habituated to ball, but did not respond to the ball after triangle. A similar asymmetry was found in one-trial passive avoidance task. Chicks were pre-trained by water-coated (neutral) triangle and then trained by methylanthranilate-coated (aversive) ball. In this case, most chicks learned to avoid the ball, and half of these successful learners pecked at the triangle; they distinguished triangle from ball. When chicks were pre-trained by neutral ball and trained by aversive triangle, on the other hand, most chicks did not distinguish the ball from triangle, and showed a generalized avoidance for both beads. Chicks may be innately predisposed to memorize a limited category of shapes such as ball, and associate them with selective avoidance.
  • Y Ishikawa, K Koga, T Matsushima  COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY A-MOLECULAR AND INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY  124-  (1)  81  -88  1999/09  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Field potential responses to local electrical stimulation were analyzed in slices of goldfish optic tectum (OT) in vitro. The post-synaptic component of retino- tectal origin was suppressed by DNQX, suggesting glutamatergic field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP). Repetitive stimulation at 0.1 Hz for 30 min resulted in a slowly developing potentiation in the fEPSP in a population of slices examined. When stimulation at a lower frequency (0.017 Hz for 30 min) preceded the conditioning, the 0.1 Hz stimulation failed to induce the potentiation even though the 0.017 Hz stimulation by itself caused no lasting changes. Induction of the potentiation was partially blocked by AP5 (100 mu M), suggesting an involvement of NMDA receptors, however the effect was not significant. We also examined a possible involvement of adenosine, which is supposed to be co-released with glutamate at synaptic terminals. Exogenously applied adenosine (200 mu M) slowly depressed fEPSP, and the depression was blocked bq DPCPX (Al receptor antagonist: 400 nM) but not by DMPX (A2 antagonist: 4 mu M). However, DPCPX failed to unmask the potentiation after low-frequency stimulation (0.017 Hz for 30 min). Moreover, the potentiability was not correlated with sensitivity to exogenous adenosine. The Al depression may not underlie the masking effect. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
  • A Matsuura, T Ohno, T Matsushima, T Namikawa, A Ishikawa  EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS  48-  (3)  191  -197  1999/07  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The autosomal recessive mutation waltzing (wz), displaying abnormal circling and head-shaking behavior, has previously been reported in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). Postnatal development of reflexes and locomotor patterns in an open arena were examined in wz/wz mutant shrews. The wz/wz shrews showed extreme developmental delays in surface-righting reflex and negative geotaxis until 10-16 days after birth, but both reflexes eventually recovered to the levels of +/wz normal. Nevertheless, the wz/wz adults exhibited bi-directional circling behavior 59 times, head-tossing behavior 22 times and horizontal head-shaking behavior 6 times more frequent than in the +/wz controls. Although the wz/wz adult shrews were extremely hyperactive with daily spontaneous locomotor activity exceeding 4-7 times control shrew activity, they appeared to have a normal circadian rhythm. This shrew mutant may therefore be useful as a model for hyperactivity syndromes in humans.
  • 松島 俊也  Newsletter of Japan Society for Comparative Endocrinology  93-  13  -19  1999/05  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Y Yazaki, T Matsushima, K Aoki  JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY A-SENSORY NEURAL AND BEHAVIORAL PHYSIOLOGY  184-  (1)  13  -19  1999/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Japanese quails have a variety of calling patterns depending on sex and age. Sexually mature adult males emit a characteristic crow which has a frequency-modulated acoustical trill element. Recently we reported that the incercollicular nucleus of the mesencephalon is the vocal neural system for producing the distress call in untreated chick and the crowing vocalization in testosterone-treated chick in Japanese quails. We postulated that the intercollicular nucleus could mediate this testosterone action on vocal behavior. The present study showed histologically that the intercollicular nucleus neurons of adult males have many more dendrites than those of females. The adult males produced the call with trill element with electrical stimulation of the intercollicular nucleus alone. Females produced the simple call, which has no frequency modulation, with electrical stimulation; 4 days after the testosterone treatment together with electrical stimulation, they also produced the call with trill element, the characteristic call of males. We suggest that the vocal neural system in the intercollicular nucleus is modulated by testosterone during development and produces the crow in males, and the intercollicular nucleus neurons in adults mediate the action of testosterone on vocal behavior. The crow of adult males could therefore be due to effects of testosterone on the neural mechanism in the intercollicular nucleus.
  • Y Yazaki, K Yamamoto, T Matsushima, K Aoki  PROCEEDINGS OF THE JAPAN ACADEMY SERIES B-PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES  74-  (6)  132  -135  1998/06  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The nucleus intercollicularis (ICo) is a critical region for avian vocalization. Implantation of a testosterone pellet into a specific area in the midbrain of Japanese quail chicks rapidly alters their vocal behavior to crowing from distress calling. The speed with which this change occurs cannot be accounted for by the genomic action of testosterone. We found and purified testosterone binding proteins in the membrane of neurons within the ICo. We suggest that this protein mediates the action of testosterone on vocal behavior. This is the direct evidence that neural membrane protein mediates the action of steroid hormones.
  • S Yanagihara, T Yagi, T Matsushima  BRAIN RESEARCH  779-  (1-2)  240  -253  1998/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    In the intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV), a telencephalic region essentially involved in the initial processes of early learning tasks in poultry chicks, induction of an immediate early gene c-fos correlates significantly with the degree of learning (K.V. Anokhin, R. Mileusnic, I.Y. Shamakina, S.P.R. Rose, Effects of early experience on c-fos gene expression in the chick forebrain, Brain Res. 544 (1991) 101-107; B.J. McCabe, G. Hem, Learning-related changes in Fos-like immunoreactivity in the chick forebrain after imprinting, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 (1994) 11417-11421). In slices of IMHV in vitro, on the other hand, tetanic stimulation at a low frequency induces a potentiation of synaptic responses (P.M. Bradley, B.D. Bums, A.C. Webb, Potentiation of synaptic responses in slices from the chick forebrain, Proc. R. Sec. Lend. B. 243 (1991) 19-24; T. Matsushima, K. Aoki, Potentiation and depotentiation of DNQX-sensitive fast excitatory synaptic transmission in telencephalon of the quail chick, Neurosci. Lett. 185 (1995) 179-182). In this study, we have examined a possible causal link between these two forms of activity-dependent processes, c-fos expression and synaptic potentiation. C-fos was visualized immunohistochemically using antibody raised against the Fos-protein, and potentiation was evaluated on the basis of field potential responses to local electrical stimulation. Tetanic stimulation (5 Hz x 300 pulses) was required for potentiation, but not for c-Sos expression. Conversely, a negative correlation appeared between them, and slices with relatively high density of Fos-like immunoreactive cells around the stimulation site failed to show potentiation. Furthermore, drugs similarly effective in blocking potentiation (such as AP5 (NMDA receptor antagonist) and bicuculline (GABA(A) receptor antagonist)) had different effects On the c-fos induction. While AP5 had minor, if any, effects on c-fos expression, bicuculline enhanced it selectively around the site of stimulation. Our results suggest that these two processes are basically distinct, and could represent different aspects in the formation of memory traces in IMHV. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
  • 松島 俊也  比較生理生化学  14-  (3)  232  -235  1997/09/30  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Y Yazaki, T Matsushima, K Aoki  ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE  14-  (2)  219  -225  1997/04  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Japanese quail chicks have various patterns of calling. The chicks of both sexes emit distress call at a high rate when they are socially isolated. Chronical subcutaneous implantation of testosterone (T) induced the chick crowing which has similar in acoustical structural characteristics to male adult crowing. The chick crowing which was induced by T appeared in a mixed manner with the distress call at high rate when isolated. After T implantation, the frequencies of the chick crowing gradually increased and the distress call disappeared. The chick crowing was induced as the result of androgenic action of T, and the chick crowing disappeared after removal of T. Implantation of a small amount of T directly into mesencephalon, also induced chick crowing after a short latency. The same dose of subcutaneous T implantation failed to induce the chick crowing. This study suggested that T acts on quail chick brain to transform the distress call into the chick crowing.
  • Yoko Yazaki, Toshiya Matsushima, Toshiya Matsushima, Kiyoshi Aoki  Zoological Science  14-  227  -231  1997/04/01  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Japanese quail chicks produce the distress calls at a high rate when socially isolated from other individuals. Under the same conditions, chicks which were given chronical subcutaneous implantation of testosterone (T) produced the chick crowing which has similar acoustical structural characteristics to both the chick distress call and the adult crow. Electrical stimulation of dorso-medial areas of chick mesencephalon through a chronically implanted electrode elicited calls in freely moving chicks. The acoustical structure of the elicited call resembled that of the distress call with the harmonic structures and constant frequency before T implantation. At 6 days after T implantation, the chicks produced the chick crowing similar to the adult crow with a trill structure by electrical stimulation. The area in brainstem of chicks that exhibit two different kinds of vocal behavior upon electrical stimulation lies in the medial intercollicular nucleus (ICo). This suggests that the medial ICo of chicks has two different function, production of the distress call and the chick crowing with T implantation. We concluded that continual exposure of the neural substrate in the medial ICo of chick to T induced the functional change from emitting the distress call to producing the chick crowing.
  • 松島 俊也  Newsletter of Japan Society for Comparative Endocrinology  84-  (84)  20  -24  1997/02  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • H Takeuchi, Y Yazaki, T Matsushima, K Aoki  NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS  220-  (3)  191  -194  1996/12  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    The social isolation intensively induces distress call in neonatal chicks of Japanese quail. The brain regions activated during the isolation were mapped using immunocytochemical detection of c-Fos (the product of immediate early gene c-fos). Fos-like immunoreactivity was observed in a variety of brain regions in isolated chicks that had emitted distress calls, The density of Fos-positive cells in dorso-medial mesencephalic areas (including the intercollicular nucleus and the central gray) was much higher than those of control animals that were kept in groups and emitted very few or no distress calls, whereas the distribution partially overlapped in isolated and control animals. These data, in addition to our lesion and stimulation studies, provide anatomical support for the involvement of the mesencephalic regions in generating distress calls during social isolation. (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
  • 松島 俊也  比較生理生化学  12-  (3)  285  -289  1995/10/09  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • T MATSUSHIMA, K AOKI  NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS  185-  (3)  179  -182  1995/02  [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Whole-cell perforated-patch recording in slices revealed synaptic organization of the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale, a telencephalic region intimately involved in the early learning processes in chicks. Local electrical stimuli elicited excitatory post synaptic current (EPSC) mediated by monosynaptic activation of glutamate receptors of the non-N-methyl-D-aspartate type, which was followed by a late GABA(A)-ergic inhibition. The initial EPSC was potentiated at least for 60 min, when a tetanic stimulation (5 Hz x 60 s) was combined with post-synaptic depolarization at or above -30 mV. In some of these neurons, the potentiated responses underwent a subsequent depression when a second tetanus was accompanied by hyperpolarization at -80 mV or below.
  • 松島 俊也  比較生理生化学  10-  (3)  145  -155  1993  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Matsushima Toshiya  Zoological Science  3-  (3)  p563  -567  1986/06  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 岡良隆, 佐藤真彦, 楠真琴, 加藤誠, 松島俊也, 上田一夫  動物学雑誌  92-  (4)  1983/12/25  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 佐藤真彦, 岡良隆, 藤田一郎, 小山純正, 志賀隆, 楠真琴, 松島俊也, 上田一夫  動物学雑誌  91-  (4)  1982/02/25  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 楠真琴, 佐藤真彦, 加藤誠, 松島俊也, 岡良隆, 上田一夫  動物学雑誌  91-  (4)  1982/02/25  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 松島俊也, 佐藤真彦, 上田一夫  動物学雑誌  91-  (4)  1982/02/25  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 上田一夫, 佐藤真彦, 松島俊也, 工藤雄一  動物学雑誌  91-  (4)  1982/02/25  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 佐藤真彦, 松島俊也, 楠真琴, 岡良隆, 上田一夫  動物学雑誌  90-  (4)  1981/12/25  [Not refereed][Not invited]

Awards & Honors

  • 2019/06 The Japanese Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry Academic Award
     
    受賞者: Toshiya Matsushima
  • 2002/09 Zoological Society of Japan Zoological Science Award
     
    受賞者: Toshiya Matsushima

Research Grants & Projects

  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(特定領域研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2008 -2009
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2007 -2008 
    平成19年度は鶏雛(ヒヨコ)を対象として実験心理学的に統制された行動実験を実施し、動物の採餌選択における文脈依存性に関して、以下の3点の知見を得た。 (1) リスク感受性選択:行動滴定法(behavioral titration)を用いて、ヒヨコのリスク感受性を解析した。二つの餌場を用意し、その一方からは常に小さな利潤率を与え、他方からは等確率(p=1/2)で高低2種の利潤率を与えた。ここで、利潤率とは、報酬量(餌の量)を処理時間(遅延と消費時間の和)で割った商である。利潤率のリスクは、量を変動させても、遅延を変動させても、等価に実現できる。結果、ヒヨコは量のリスクに対しては回避(aversion)を、遅延のリスクに対しては選好(proneness)を示した。量と遅延は等価ではない。 (2) 「収益逓減:即時利益率が徐々に逓減する餌場を作り、離脱までの餌場利用時間を計測した。結果、利用時間は試行毎に大きく異なり、その分散値は平均の二乗にほぼ比例した。よって、離脱決定はポアソン過程によって近似できると推定された。さらにSSRI(セロトニン選択的再取り込み阻害剤)の投与が利用時間を有意に延長した。基底核におけるセロトニン放出量が離脱決定確率を支配しているとの予測の下、現在、インビボ・マイクロダイアリシス法によるセロトニン量の計測を行っている。 (3) 競争採餌と衝動性:「小さくて...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(特定領域研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2006 -2007 
    平成19年度は最適採餌戦略の脳内機構に関して、以下の知見を得た。 (1) 収益逓減:即時利益率が徐々に逓減する餌場を作り、離脱までの餌場利用時間を計測した。結果、利用時間は試行毎に大きく異なり、その分散値は平均の二乗にほぼ比例した。よって、離脱決定はポアソン過程によって近似できると推定された。すなわち、離脱確率の第一次近似は利益率に独立な値をとる。しかし、採餌経験を重ねると共に離脱確率は高まることから、ヒヨコは経験によって場の収益逓減を繰りこんでいると判断される。 さらにSSRI(セロトニン選択的再取り込み阻害剤)の投与が利用時間を有意に延長した。基底核におけるセロトニン放出量が離脱決定確率を支配しているとの予測の下、現在、インビボ・マイクロダイアリシス法によるセロトニン量の計測を行っている。 (2) 競争採餌と衝動性:「小さくて近い餌」と「大きくて遠い餌」の二者択一における選択を、ヒヨコで計測した。「大きい餌」よりも「近い餌」を優先する行動形質を、衝動性と呼ぶ。単独で採餌経験を積んだ個体は、「大きい餌」が遠ざかるほど、それを選ぶ頻度を優位に減らした。他方、他個体と同時にトレーニングすることによって競争的状況に置かれた場合には著しい衝動性の亢進をしめし、「近い餌」を選ぶ頻度が著しく高まった。このことは、競争採餌が衝動性を高めるとする仮説を支持する。 さらにSSRIの投与は、「...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(特定領域研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2006 -2007 
    平成19年度は最適採餌戦略の脳内機構に関して、以下の知見を得た。 (1) リスク感受性選択:行動滴定法(behavioral titration)を用いて、ヒヨコのリスク感受性を解析した。二つの餌場を用意し、その一方からは常に小さな利潤率を与え、他方からは等確率(p=1/2)で高低2種の利潤率を与えた。ここで、利潤率とは、報酬量(餌の量)を処理時間(遅延と消費時間の和)で割った商である。利潤率のリスクは、量を変動させても、遅延を変動させても、等価に実現できる。結果、ヒヨコは量のリスクに対しては回避(aversion)を、遅延のリスクに対しては選好(proneness)を示した。量と遅延は等価ではない。 (2) 競争採餌と衝動性:「小さくて近い餌」と「大きくて遠い餌」の二者択一における選択を、ヒヨコで計測した。「大きい餌」よりも「近い餌」を優先する行動形質を、衝動性と呼ぶ。単独で採餌経験を積んだ個体は、「大きい餌」が遠ざかるほど、それを選ぶ頻度を優位に減らした。他方、他個体と同時にトレーニングすることによって競争的状況に置かれた場合には著しい衝動性の亢進をしめし、「近い餌」を選ぶ頻度が著しく高まった。このことは、競争採餌が衝動性を高めるとする仮説を支持する。 さらにSSRIの投与は、「近い餌」を選ぶ頻度を低下させ、その結果、ヒヨコの採餌収量は有意は増加した。この結果は、セロトニ...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(萌芽研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2004 -2006 
    鳥類は正確な視覚弁別に基づく選択行動を示す。特に孵化後間もない雛は手掛かりとなる視覚刺激と直後に得られた餌報酬の間の連合を速やかに学習し、その後の選択行動に反映させていく。採餌選択の決定にあずかる神経機構を明らかにするために、本年度はニワトリの雛に対象を絞って、投機性(リスク感受性)と背景文脈に対する依存性を吟味した。 1.変動する「量」に対するリスク回避選択 自然界では餌資源の量は常に変動している。動物はこの変動に対して最適な行為を選び取っている、と仮定できる。利益率を最大化する行為か(期待効用最大化)、それとも最悪の状況で得られる最低限の利益を最大化する行為か(max-min原則)。これを明らかにするために、変動する餌場(雛は餌量を予期することができない)と、常に一定量の餌を与える餌場との二つを用意し、雛の二者択一選択を調べた。その結果、雛は変動する餌場を嫌い、たとえ少ない量であっても安定した餌場を選ぶことが判明した。雛は負の投機性を持つ。 2.変動する「近さ」に対する衝動性の亢進 変動していても、それを毎回、何らかの手がかりで知ることができた場合、その状況は動物の選択をどのように変えていくだろうか。餌の量が変動する条件と、餌場の近さが変動する条件で、衝動性を比較した。「近くて小さな餌」と「遠くて大きな餌」の間の、二者択一選択を調べた。その結果、近さの変動にさらされた雛は...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(特定領域研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2005 
    ニワトリの雛は、孵化直後から精確な視覚弁別に基づく選択行動を示す。この特性を利用して、採餌選択の脳内機構、特に利潤率予期の計算過程について実験的検討を加えた。行動学的解析・局所脳破壊実験などに加え、覚醒自由行動下・課題遂行中における大脳単一ニューロン活動の解析を総合的に行うことにより、以下の知見を得た。 1 基底核(側坐核相同領域):予期報酬の時間的接近 遅延報酬によって強化された色弁別オペラント課題を、孵化後1-2週齢の雛は数時間のトレーニングによって速やかに学習する。線条体内側部の破壊によって、時間的・空間的に近い報酬を選び取ろうとする衝動的選択へのシフトが見出された。報酬の量に基づく選択は正常だった。ニューロン活動の解析の結果、予期報酬の接近と量とを特異的に符号化する2群のニューロンが同定された。さらに比較解剖学的検討の結果、この領域は哺乳類の側坐核(コア)と完全に相同とみなしうることが判明した。 2 弓外套連合野(大脳皮質前頭前野相同領域):予期労働コスト 単一ニューロン解析によって、弁別記憶の細胞表現と共に、餌の音源定位に関する作業記憶と考えられる活動を見出した。この領域の選択的な破壊によって、処理コストを嫌うcost-averseな行為選択へのシフトが見出された。 3 収益逓減と喪失機会:実験的再構成系の開発 最適採餌理論(最適パッチ利用モデル)を実験室内で再構成...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2003 -2005 
    早成性鳥類は、孵化直後から精確な視覚弁別に基づく選択行動を示す。雛のこの特性を利用して、意思決定過程、特に利得収支の計算過程について一連の実験的検討を加えた。個体レベルの行動学的解析・局所脳破壊実験などに加え、覚醒自由行動下・課題遂行中における大脳単一ニューロン活動の解析を総合的に行うことにより、以下の知見を得た。 1 基底核(側坐核相同領域):予期される報酬の時間的接近の脳内表現 遅延報酬によって強化された色弁別オペラント課題を、艀化後1-2週齢の雛は数時間のトレーニングによって速やかに学習する。線条体内側部の破壊によって、時間的・空間的に近い報酬を選び取ろうとする衝動的選択へのシフトが見出された。報酬の量に基づく選択は正常だった。ニューロン活動の解析の結果、予期報酬の接近と量とを特異的に符号化する2群のニューロンが同定された。さらに比較解剖学的検討の結果、この領域は哺乳類の側坐核(コア)と完全に相同とみなしうることが判明した。 2 弓外套連合野(大脳皮質前頭前野相同領域):予期されるコストの脳内表現 単一ニューロン解析によって、弁別記憶の細胞表現と共に、餌の音源定位に関する作業記憶と考えられる活動を見出した。この領域の選択的な破壊によって、処理コストを嫌うcost-averseな行為選択へのシフトが見出された。 3 収益逓減と喪失機会:生態的採餌状況の実験的再構成系の開発...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2001 -2002 
    早成性鳥類は、孵化直後から高い認知に基づく行動を示す。この特性を利用して、記憶形成と行動制御、特に鳥における「注意と意識」の問題について一連の実験的検討を加えた。個体レベルの行動学的解析・局所脳破壊実験・脳スライス標本を用いた神経生理学的解析などに加え、課題遂行中の覚醒自由行動下における大脳単一ニューロン活動の解析を総合的に行うことにより、以下の知見を得た。注意は単一の事象ではなく、脳の様々な領域に特異的に分散表現されている。 (1)基底核:記憶に基づく予期の細胞表現とその機能 遅延時間を繰り込んだ報酬強化色弁別学習課題を、孵化後1-2週齢の雛鳥に学習させた。基底核の尾側部に限局した両側性破壊によって、雛鳥は衝動的選択を示すようになった。報酬の時間的な近さ(temporal proximity)に基づく行動選択のみが阻害され、報酬の有無および量に関する行動選択は正常だった。基底核ニューロンにおいて将来の大きな利益の存在を告知されている限り、動物は目前の小さな利益を求める行動を抑え得て、結果として長期的利益を最大化することができる。 (2)扁桃体・前頭前野相同領域:連合の想起と聴覚性運動の細胞表現 単一ニューロン解析によって、弁別記憶の細胞表現と共に、音に関する一時的作業記憶と考えられる活動を見出した。 (3)海馬:空間記憶形成への選択的関与 海馬の局所破壊が、色弁別課題を阻害...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2000 -2000 
    本基盤研究(C)(1)企画調査では「動物の学習の生物学的理解」を中心課題に設定して、動物種による違いを生みだした進化の過程を再構築しながら、なおその中で保存されている共通性と普遍性を発見することを目的とした。そのために、動物行動学・行動生理学・認知心理学・神経科学の広い分野にわたって関連する研究者が最新の成果を持ち寄り二つのシンポジウム(神経科学会大会と動物学会大会)を実施すると共に研究会を開催して研究者間の緊密なネットワークを形成した。これらの一連の活動は動物学の新しい側面を拓く活動である。 (1)第23回日本神経科学会大会シンポジウム「学習する本能」 平成12年9月5日、横浜市「横浜みなとみらい21・パシフィコ横浜」にて、シンポジウムを開催した。 サケの母川回帰と嗅覚記憶形成:佐藤真彦(横浜市立大学・大学院総合理学研究科) 雛鳥の視覚性刷込みによる遺伝子発現の増大:木村尚博(創価大学・工学部) 小脳の新しい機能:プルキンエ細胞とニューロステロイド:筒井和義(広島大学・総合科学部) 鳥の歌文法の神経基盤:岡ノ谷一夫(千葉大学・文学部、科学技術振興事業団さきがけ研究21) The Neural Basis of Vocal Learning in Songbirds:A.J.Doupe(University of California,San Francisco) 総合討...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(特定領域研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2000 
    家禽雛鳥の認知機能を明らかにすると共に、記憶形成と行動制御の脳内メカニズムを解析するために一連の解析を総合的に展開した。個体レベルの行動学的解析・脳スライス標本を用いた神経生理学的解析・最初期遺伝子発現を指標とした分子レベルの解析・課題遂行中の覚醒自由行動下における大脳単一ニューロン活動の解析を、総合的に行なうことにより、以下の知見を得た。 (1)行動学的研究:新規学習課題の開発と記銘内容の解析 受動的回避学習と馴化学習を指標として雛鳥の想起の内容を解析したところ、一義的には対象の色を詳細に記銘し想起していることが判明した。他方、対象の形に対する弁別カテゴリーは単純で、円形の輪郭を持つものに限局していた。さらに、水を報酬とするGO弁別課題・餌を報酬とするGO/NO-GO弁別課題を開発しその記銘内容を解析したところ、色を第一義として位置を第二義とする多元的な記憶を形成していることが判明した。 (2)記憶の素過程に関する生理学的研究:シナプス長期増強と最初期遺伝子発現 大脳IMHV領域(哺乳類の皮質連合野に相当)のスライス標本において、局所興奮性シナプスの長期増強と最初期遺伝子発現の間の因果的関連を吟味したが、両者は基本的に独立であることを示唆する結果を得た。さらに、基底核LPO領域において、D1受容体依存のシナプス長期増強とNMDA受容体依存の長期抑圧が同一ニューロンに同時...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2000 
    家禽雛鳥の認知機能を明らかにすると共に、記憶形成と行動制御の脳内メカニズムを解析するために一連の解析を総合的に展開した。個体レベルの行動学的解析・脳スライス標本を用いた神経生理学的解析・最初期遺伝子発現を指標とした分子レベルの解析・課題遂行中の覚醒自由行動下における大脳単一ニューロン活動の解析を、総合的に行なうことにより、以下の知見を得た。 (1)行動学的研究:新規学習課題の開発と記銘内容の解析 受動的回避学習と馴化学習を指標として雛鳥の想起の内容を解析したところ、一義的には対象の色を詳細に記銘し想起していることが判明した。他方、対象の形に対する弁別カテゴリーは単純で、円形の輪郭を持つものに限局していた。さらに、水を報酬とするGO弁別課題・餌を報酬とするGO/NO-GO弁別課題を開発しその記銘内容を解析したところ、色を第一義として位置を第二義とする多元的な記憶を形成していることが判明した。 (2)記憶の素過程に関する生理学的研究:シナプス長期増強と最初期遺伝子発現 大脳IMHV領域(哺乳類の皮質連合野に相当)のスライス標本において、局所興奮性シナプスの長期増強と最初期遺伝子発現の間の因果的関連を吟味したが、両者は基本的に独立であることを示唆する結果を得た。さらに、基底核LPO領域において、D1受容体依存のシナプス長期増強とNMDA受容体依存の長期抑圧が同一ニューロンに同時...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(国際学術研究, 基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1998 -2000 
    ウズラ雛の認知機能を明らかにすると共に、記憶形成と行動制御の脳内メカニズムを解析するために一連の解析を総合的に展開した。個体レベルの行動学的解析・脳スライス標本を用いた神経生理学的解析・最初期遺伝子発現を指標とした分子レベルの解析・課題遂行中の覚醒自由行動下における大脳単一ニューロン活動の解析を、総合的に行なうことにより、以下の知見を得た。 (1)行動学的研究・新規学習課題の開発と記銘内容の解析 受動的回避学習と馴化学習と指標として雛鳥の想起の内容を解析したところ、一義的には対象の色を詳細に記銘し想起していることが判明した。他方、対象の形に対する弁別カテゴリーは単純で、円形の輪郭を持つものに限局していた。さらに、水を報酬とするGO弁別課題・餌を報酬とするGO/NO-GO弁別課題を開発しその記銘内容を解析したところ、色を第一義として位置を第二義とする多元的な記憶を形成してることが判明した。 (2)記憶の素過程に関する生理学的研究:シナプス長期増強と最初期遺伝子発現 大脳IMHV領域(哺乳類の皮質連合野に相当)のスライス標本において、局所興奮性シナプスの長期増強と最初期遺伝子発現の間の因果的関連を吟味したが、両者は基本的に独立であることを示唆する結果を得た。さらに、基底核LPO領域において、D1受容体依存のシナプス長期増強とNMDA受容体依存の長期抑圧が同一ニューロンに同時に生起...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1997 -1999 
    3つの点について報告する。1)電顕観察により、網膜視蓋投射線維の終末とそれらが終わる樹状突起は分岐して互いに複雑に絡み合い、大きな神経終末が樹状突起をおおうように接触して複合シナップスを形成する。哺乳類(ネコ、ウサギ、ハムスター)の上丘における視神経線維の終末形態と比較すると、(a)前シナプスと後シナプスの形態は非常に複雑に分岐している。(b)視蓋の複合シナップスは外側膝状体におけるシナプス糸球体より更に複雑であった。(c)上丘では視神経終末は大型から小型まで様々なものがあるが、ヒヨコではほぼ同じ大きさの終末が集団をなしていた。(d)後シナプスである樹状突起の形、大きさは上丘のそれに比べ、様々であった。これらのニワトリの網膜投射線維の終末形態の特徴は哺乳類とは異なり、非常に複雑であった。2)免疫細胞化学的検索により、網膜節細胞層におけるサブスタンス-P及びアセチルコリン受容体免疫陽性の網膜節細胞がそれぞれB層とF層へ層特異的に投射しており、B層へ投射する網膜節細胞は小型の細胞体で、樹状突起の分岐は単純で、数も少なく、樹状突起の広がりも狭い。一方、F層へ投射する網膜節細胞は形態学的に2種類以上のサブタイプに分類され、その内、今回は大型の細胞体をもち、樹状突起の広いが、比較的単純な分岐を示すサブタイプが同定された。3)行動学的にヒヨコの両眼視について調べた。ヒヨコの正確な啄み行動...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1997 -1999 
    平成9年度から平成11年度にわたって遂行した本研究による成果の概要は以下の通りである。 (1)従来ヨーロッパウナギAnguilla anguillaのレプトセファルス幼生の網膜では桿体細胞のみがみられると報告されていたので、産卵場付近で採集されたニホンウナギAnguilla japonicaのレプトセファルス幼生人工ふ化仔魚(7日令)の網膜光受容細胞における外節やシナプス形成の微細構造学的解析を行い、他の魚種の場合と同様にウナギ仔魚でもまず錐体細胞が出現することが明らかにした。 (2)初期発育過程における光受容器の形成と他の感覚器の発達との相関(例えば松果体における光受容が内耳の日周輪形成に影響を及ぼすかどうか)を明らかにする目的で、アユおよびニジマスの内耳有毛細胞の刺激受容部である感覚毛の形成、および耳石日周輪形成に関する微細構造学的解析を行い、アユでは証左が得られなかったがニジマスでは耳石輪紋の形成が松果体の光受容能の形成と関連するものと示唆された。 (3)初期発育過程において顕著な生態適応あるいは浸透圧調節を行うアユ、ヒラメ、ウナギのような魚種に注目して、網膜の細胞分化の過程や明・暗順応状態で、浸透圧調節物質と考えられるタウリンの免疫細胞化学的局在の解析を行い、タウリンが光受容細胞の分化、桿体細胞外節の保護、シナプス伝達の調節等に重要な役割を担っていることを指摘した。 ...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1997 -1998 
    (1) 摂食行動における視覚弁別学習と記銘内容に関する行動学的解析 生まれたばかりのヒナ鳥は「何が餌であるか」を生得的には知らない。非選択的に啄んだ後、味覚と視覚との連合によって対象選択性を絞り込む。この一回性回避学習課題は不可逆的でありかつ一回性を持つ点で、広義の「刷り込み」学習と見なされる。啄み行動の頻度に基づいて、物体の諸特徴に関する知覚地図の変化を追跡したところ、苦い物体の忌避カテゴリ-が学習初期相(15分〜1時間)は色によって表現されているのに対し、長期相(〜24時間)では形および提示位置に置き換わっていくことがわかった。 (2) 大脳視覚連合野における視覚記憶の細胞表現に関する単一ニュ-ロン解析 ヒナ鳥の視覚連合野(IMHV核)より、無拘束・覚醒・自由行動下にて、2つ以上の単一ニュ-ロンから同時に数時間以上にわたる神経活動を導出する技術を確立した。上記の視覚弁別課題(一回性回避学習課題)の直前・直後の活動を解析したところ、特徴的なコヒ-レント・バ-スト活動を記銘直後に示すニュ-ロン群を同定した。 (3)大脳基底核に共発現する長期増強と長期抑圧に関する神経生理学的解析 大脳基底核(LPO核)は回避課題の記憶痕跡が保存されていると考えられている。スライス標本にパッチ電極を適用してLPOニュ-ロンへのシナプス入力を解析した.同一のニュ-ロン群に収束する2群の興奮性シナプ...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 1996 -1998 
    本研究では、培養神経細胞と光電素子と中心としたMEMS(Micro-Electro-Mechanical System)を組み合わせ、光覚回復を目的とした体内埋め込み型人工網膜の研究開発を行なっている。外部装置から光通信で送られたデ-タに基づき、埋め込んだ培養神経細胞を電気的に刺激する。なお末梢神経を用いて神経細胞と中枢の間を架橋することにより、その軸索を中枢へ導き、信号を伝達させようと考えている。従って提案する人工網膜では、電極から培養神経細胞へ、さらに培養神経細胞から視覚中枢への信号伝達の安定的な再構成が、本質的な課題である。以上のようなハイブリッド型人工網膜を実現するために、我々のグル-プはこれまでに、次のようなテ-マについて研究を行なった。 ・刺激電極アレイの設計と作製 ・電極周辺の電荷密度分布の解析 ・電極上における神経細胞培養と軸索誘導 ・末梢神経線維を用いた軸索誘導の動物実験 人工網膜の研究開発は未だ黎明期にある。眼科学、エレクトロニクス、マイクロマシン、材料工学、情報通信工学、バイオテクノロジ-、脳神経科学など、さまざまな研究領域が垣根を越え、多岐にわたる専門知識および高度な技術が必要な分野である。そして今後、多くの問題を解決しなければならず、実用化までには長い年月を要する。特に我々のハイブリッド型人工網膜の場合、電極アレイから培養神経細胞へ、さらには培養神経...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1996 -1997 
    低栄養条件下において、繁殖機能低下を引き起こす因子として、血糖値、血中遊離脂肪酸濃度消化管の膨張などが考えられる。このうち、前2者については近年、解糖系の阻害剤である2-deoxyglucose(2DG)あるいは脂質代謝阻害剤であるβ-mercaptoacetate(MA)の投与が、性行動あるいは性周期の回帰を阻害することが明らかにされている。申請者らはこのうち、末梢と中枢の両方にセンサ-があるとされる血糖の役割について検討し、2DGの末梢ならびに延髄最後野付近への局所投与がLH分泌を強く抑制することを明らかにし、最後野にあるとされるブドウ糖感受性ニュ-ロンによって、特異的に生殖系の制御が行われているという仮説を提唱している。本研究では、体内栄養状態を生殖系に伝達する因子としてブドウ糖に着目し、最後野にある血糖センサ-の本体を免疫組織的方法を用いて、in vivoにおいて検討した。 刺激としては2DGによるglucoprivationを用い、c-fosをマ-カ-として、実験を行った。その結果、2DGの投与により、黄体形成ホルモンのパルス状分泌が抑制されるとともに、最後野、孤束核A2領域、視床下部室傍核においてc-fosの発現が見られた。さらにc-fosを発現する細胞は、グリア細胞や血管内皮細胞ではなくニュ-ロンであることをそれぞれの細胞に特異的な細胞マ-カ-により明らかにした...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(一般研究(C), 基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1995 -1996 
    (1)摂食行動の馴化と忌避学習に関する行動学的解析 小さな目立つビ-ズを提示すると、雛はこれを注視してついばみ行動を示す。この行動は生得的であり、生後の経験を必要としない。しかし、生後の経験はこの行動の選択性を著しく変え得る。ここでは、中立的な刺激による馴化と、苦み物質との連合により強化された一回性学習を吟味した。 馴化は中立的な刺激を繰り返し提示する事によって、その時間間隔(5分ないし1時間)に関わらず進行し、それはビ-ズの色を主たる記銘内容とするものであった。これに対し、強化学習は一回の提示により成立し、それはビ-ズの色・形・提示手続きなど、対象の多様な属性を記銘する事が判明した。今後は、これらの違いに着目し、それぞれの記憶形成に預かる脳内部位を、局所破壊などの手法により分離する必要がある。 (2)最初期遺伝子(c-fos)とシナプス長期増強の因果的関係に関する神経化学的解析 大脳線条件IMHV領域において、最初期遺伝子(c-fos)の発現と学習との間に有意な相関が見いだされている。他方、シナプス長期増強(long-term potentiation ; LTP)は記憶形成の素過程と考えられている。本研究ではスライス標本において、c-fos発現とLTPが因果的に結びついているかどうか、を調べた。 LTPを引き起こす条件(5Hzx300pulses)は、c-fosの有意な発...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(一般研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1994 -1994 
    平成6年度、上記研究課題について以下の成果を得た。一つはウズラ雛の大脳線条体のシナプス可塑性に関わり、また一つは同じくウズラ雛の発声中枢に関わる。両者はいずれも新生ウズラ雛の脳の機能的な「柔らかさ」を直裁に示し、高次脳機能を調べるにあたってこれが有用なモデル動物であることを示唆している。以下、その結果を順に述べる。 (1)ウズラ雛の大脳線条体シナプスの可塑性:刷り込みの感受性期 生後1日から9日までの様々な日齢の雛を材料とし、大脳線条体のスライス標本を作成して、そのニュ-ロンにホ-ルセル・パッチ電極を適用した。記録下のニュ-ロンの近傍に与えた電気刺激は、単シナプス性の興奮性シナプス後電位を誘発した。さらに、5Hz x 1minの弱いテタヌス刺激を加えると、このシナプス後電位はHebb則に従って長期増強を示した。更に、このようなシナプス可塑性は生後3日までの雛においてのみ見いだされ、5-7日を越えた雛においては見いだされなかった。これは、刷り込み学習の感受性期と対応した現象であると考えられ、学習のシナプス仮説に有力な傍証を与えるものである。これらの結果は、本年度、第65回日本動物学会大会と第18回日本神経科学大会にて各々発表した。また、予備的な結果をNeuroscience Letters誌に投稿し既に受理された。 (2)ウズラ雛の中脳発声中枢に対するテストステロンの可逆的作用...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(一般研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1993 -1994 
    本研究は、鳴鳥の歌の結晶化の過程と歌の機能的役割について明かにすることを目的とした。フィンチ類のキンカチョウ・ジュウシマツは、歌を指標として、脳の発声系中枢神経核の発達と形成、またホルモン制御作用を調べるのに好材料である。特に歌の形成は学習によるもので、学習における神経核の発達とホルモン制御を神経行動学的に明かにすることが期待される。本研究はまず、1.歌の発声系中枢神経核が個体発声における発達段階において、行動発現と併せてどのように形成されるかを雄のジュウシマツを材料として調べた。2.キンカチョウの発声系中枢神経核の発達に伴って、発現する歌行動とホルモン(エストラジオ-ルとテストステロン)の働きについて明かにした。3.キンカチョウの性行動において、雌が雄をどんなリリ-サ-によって認知するかを歌行動とホルモンの働きから明かにした。具体的成果は、Undirect song(US)(間接歌)とDirect song(DS)(直接歌)とホルモン制御についてである。USはエストラジオ-ルの血中濃度が上昇した後、歌の練習時にあたるふ化後約40日に始まり、DSはふ化後約60〜70日間の一時的なテストステロンの上昇後のふ化後約80日で歌われた。ふ化後40日頃は歌の発声中枢神経核の機能は完成されていない発達段階である。従って、エストラジオ-ルの働きが神経核の発達を維持している。約80日になるテ...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(一般研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 1986 -1987 
    魚類の性行動は, 定型的な運動パターンから成り, その各々の解発刺激も明瞭であるため, 本能行動の神経機構を解析するには極めて適したモデルである. そこで, ヒメマス・シロザケを初めとする一郡の魚類を材料に用い, 運動パターン生成機構, 生得的解発機構, 階層的制御機構など神経行動学の中心的課題の解明を目標として一連き研究を行ってきた. 1.性行動のパターン生成機構:さけ科魚類の性行動は, 雌の営巣・雄の求愛・雌雄の放卵放精等の定型的な運動パターンから成る. これらの運動パターンを厳密に記述するため, 体側筋の筋電図解析を行った. その結果, 雄の求愛・放精行動と雌の営巣行動が体側筋の周期的活動を伴うことが示され, 脊髄に内在すると考えられる遊泳パターン生成機構との密度な関係が示唆された. そこでコバルトリジン法により, 脊髄への下行性経路を調べたところ, 延髄網様体・前庭・赤核・内側縦束核その中脳・脳幹からの下行路が明らかとなった. これらの部位は, 性行動の司令にあずかる可能性がある. 2.性行動の生得的解発機構:ヒメマス雄の求愛と放精は, パートナー雌の行動により解発される. その鍵刺激を, モデル提示実験によって定量的に検索した. 求愛行動には, 特定の形状と配色パターン(上半分黒, 下半分白の横長の長方形)を持つ視覚刺激が重要であり, 他方, 放精行動には視覚刺激と...

Educational Activities

Teaching Experience

  • 生命科学研究
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Behavioral Control System Sciences
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
    キーワード : 行動,脳,中枢神経系,社会性,コミュニケーション,認知,神経回路,ニューロン,最初期遺伝子,感覚情報処理,運動制御,学習,進化
  • 生命科学実習
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Inter-Graduate School Classes(General Subject):Natural and Applied Sciences
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 細胞増殖, 細胞極性, 細胞分化, 形態形成, 遺伝子発現, 光合成, 植物免疫, 神経回路, 動物行動学, 脳科学, 生殖機構, 発生, 内分泌,ホルモン, オムニバス, 現代生命科学, 知的財産
  • 生命科学論文講読Ⅰ
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Biosystems Science
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
    キーワード : 細胞増殖、細胞極性、細胞分化、形態形成、遺伝子発現、光合成、植物免疫、神経回路、動物行動学、能科学、生殖機構、発生、内分泌、ホルモン、オムニバス、現代生命科学、知的財産
  • 生命科学論文講読Ⅱ
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Overseas Scientific Research 1
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
    キーワード : 海外研究、国際研究プロジェクト、異文化交流、コミュニケーション力、キャリアパス
  • 海外留学1
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Overseas Scientific Research 2
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
    キーワード : 海外研究、国際研究プロジェクト、異文化交流、コミュニケーション力、キャリアパス
  • 海外留学2
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Inter-Graduate School Classes(General Subject):Natural and Applied Sciences
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 脳、進化、昆虫、魚類、鳥類、哺乳類、ヒト
  • 生命科学特別研究
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Special Lecture 2
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
    キーワード : 脳、進化、昆虫、魚類、鳥類、哺乳類、ヒト
  • 生命科学文献講読
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Overseas Scientific Research 1
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
    キーワード : 海外研究、国際研究プロジェクト、異文化交流、コミュニケーション力、キャリアパス
  • 海外留学1
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Advanced Research in Life Science
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
    キーワード : 生命科学研究、博士論文
  • 海外留学2
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
  • Literature Review for Life Science
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
    キーワード : セミナー、雑誌会、研究論文
  • Special Lecture 2
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 生命科学院
    キーワード : 脳、進化、昆虫、魚類、鳥類、哺乳類、ヒト
  • Biostatistics
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 理学部
    キーワード : 統計,データ解析
  • Biology II
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 生物の多様性,系統,進化,生物の形態,生命活動の多様性
  • Freshman Seminar
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 脳科学、神経科学、認知科学、心理学、生物学、医学、薬学、保健科学、先端計測
  • Freshman Seminar
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 動物行動学、動物心理学、認知神経科学、脳科学、進化生物学
  • Functional Biology II
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 理学部
    キーワード : 動物生理、細胞生理学、神経化学、ホルモン分子の合成と分泌、受容体、細胞内メッセンジャー、浸透圧調節、熱産生と体温調節、筋収縮、呼吸、内分泌系、生殖制御、恒常性とフィードバック制御、渡りと回遊、睡眠と概日リズム
  • Behavioral Neurobiology I
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 理学部
    キーワード : トップダウン・アプローチ:動物行動(エソロジー、行動生態学、実験心理学と認知科学) ボトムアップ・アプローチ:ニューロンの構造と機能(静止電位、活動電位 シナプス電位 神経回路網、シナプス統合)
  • Special Lecture in Biology Ⅲ
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 理学部
    キーワード : 視覚、神経科学、脳、心、サル、ヒト
  • Laboratory Course in Behavioral Neurobiology
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 理学部
    キーワード : 行動、脳、中枢神経系、脊椎動物、無脊椎動物、組織化学、遺伝子発現、光学計測、社会行動、コミュニケーション


Copyright © MEDIA FUSION Co.,Ltd. All rights reserved.