Researcher Database

Hideaki Shibata
Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere Forest Research Station Southern Forestry Research and Development Office
Professor

Researcher Profile and Settings

Affiliation

  • Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere Forest Research Station Southern Forestry Research and Development Office

Job Title

  • Professor

Degree

  • Ph.D. (Agriculture)(Hokkaido University)

URL

J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • Ecosystem ecology   Soil science   Biogeochemistry   Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER)   Biogeochemical cycles   生物地球化学   

Research Areas

  • Life sciences / Ecology and environmental science
  • Environmental science/Agricultural science / Environmental dynamics
  • Life sciences / Plant nutrition, soil science
  • Life sciences / Forest science

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2007 - 2011 Hokkaido University Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere
  • 2011 - 北海道大学北方生物圏フィールド科学センター 教授
  • 2011 - Professor
  • 2001 - 2007 Hokkaido University Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere
  • 2001 - 2007 Associate Professor
  • 1996 - 2001 Hokkaido University Faculty of Agriculture
  • 1996 - 2001 Research Associate
  • 1996 - 2001 1996 Postdoctoral Fellowships of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science,Assistant Professor. Hokkaido Univ., 1996-2001Associate Professor, Hokkaido Univ. 2001-present.
  • 1996 日本学術振興会特別研究員 日本学術振興会特別研究員

Education

  •        - 1996  Hokkaido University
  •        - 1996  Hokkaido University  Graduate School, Division of Agriculture
  •        - 1993  Hokkaido University
  •        - 1993  Hokkaido University  Graduate School, Division of Agriculture
  •        - 1991  Hokkaido University  Faculty of Agriculture
  •        - 1991  Hokkaido University  Faculty of Agriculture

Association Memberships

  • THE JAPANESE SOCIETY OF LIMNOLOGY   生物地球化学研究会   日本生態学会   日本森林学会   日本土壌肥料学会   SOCIETY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, JAPAN   Global Land Project   Japanese society of ecology   Japansese society of environment   Japanese forest society   Japanese society of soil science and plant nutrition   

Research Activities

Published Papers

  • Simulating the long-term impacts of salvage logging after windthrow on forest carbon stocks and species composition in northern Japan
    W. Hotta, C. Haga, T. Inoue, J. Morimoto, T. Matsui, S. N. Suzuki, T. Owari, H. Shibata, F. Nakamura
    2020 Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting proceedings 2020/08 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Simulation of recovery of above-ground biomass after windthrow damage under future climate change
    C. Haga, W. Hotta, J. Morimoto, T. Owari, T. Inoue, H. Shibata, M. Aiba, T. Matsui
    2020 Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting proceedings 2020/08 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Scenario Analysis of Renewable Energy–Biodiversity Nexuses using a Forest Landscape Model
    Chihiro Haga, Marimi Maeda, Wataru Hotta, Takahiro Inoue, Takanori Matsui, Takashi Machimura, Masahiro Nakaoka, Junko Morimoto, Hideaki Shibata, Shizuka Hashimoto, Osamu Saito
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, section Biogeography and Macroecology 2020/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Recovery and allocation of carbon stocks in boreal forests 64 years after catastrophic windthrow and salvage logging in northern Japan.
    Wataru Hotta, Junko Morimoto, Takahiro Inoue, Satoshi Suzuki, Toshihiro Umebayashi, Toshiaki Owari, Hideaki Shibata, Satoshi Ishibashi, Toshihiko Hara, Futoshi Nakamura
    Forest Ecology and Management(in press) 2020/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • LANDIS-IIを用いた北海道東部の森林における生態系機能のモデリング
    井上貴央, 柴田英昭, 芳賀智宏, 松井孝典
    第131回日本森林学会大会学術講演集 2020/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 道南地域での風倒後の森林バイオマス回復過程への気候変動影響の数値シミュレーション
    芳賀智宏, 堀田亘, 森本淳子, 尾張敏章, 井上貴央, 柴田英昭, 饗庭正寛, 松井孝典
    日本生態学会第67回全国大会講演要旨 2020/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Satoshi N. Suzuki, Mioko Ataka, Ika Djukic, Tsutomu Enoki, Karibu Fukuzawa, Mitsuru Hirota, Takuo Hishi, Tsutom Hiura, Kazuhiko Hoshizaki, Hideyuki Ida, Akira Iguchi, Yasuo Iimura, Takeshi Ise, Tanaka Kenta, Yoshifumi Kina, Hajime Kobayashi, Yuji Kominami, Hiroko Kurokawa, Kobayashi Makoto, Michinari Matsushita, Rie Miyata, Hiroyuki Muraoka, Tatsuro Nakaji, Masahiro Nakamura, Shigeru Niwa, Nam J. Noh, Takanori Sato, Tatsuyuki Seino, Hideaki Shibata, Ryo O. Suzuki, Koichi Takahashi, Tomonori Tsunoda, Tasuhiro Ustumi, Kenta Watanabe
    Ecological Research 34 (5) 575 - 576 0912-3814 2019/09/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2019 The Ecological Society of Japan Litter and soil organic matter decomposition represents one of the major drivers of carbon and nutrient cycling in a given ecosystem; however, it also contributes to a significant production of relevant greenhouse gasses. The Japanese archipelago spans several biomes (boreal-temperate-subtropical) and covers a large range of elevations and ecosystem types. Hence, the comprehension of this fundamental biogeochemical process in diverse ecosystems is crucial to maintain their ecosystem services. In this article, we have provided data on plant leaf decomposition from 33 research sites across Japan. At each site, standard litter material with different decomposition rates, rooibos tea and green tea were incubated for 90 days between 2012 and 2016 and the remaining mass was recorded. In total, 1904 bags were used. In addition, supplementary measurements of environmental variables essential for the interpretation of the collected data, such as soil and vegetation, were recorded. Plot-level averages of the remaining mass rates of bag contents after incubation ranged 0.17–0.51 for green tea and 0.54–0.82 for rooibos tea. Continued monitoring will also provide important insights into the temporal dynamics of litter decomposition.
  • 無人航空機による3次元データを用いた天然生針広混交林における葉の窒素含量の空間分布
    井上華央, 柴田英昭, 吉田俊也, 中路達郎, 小花和宏之, 加藤 顕
    森林立地 61 (1) 1 - 13 2019/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Urakawa Rieko, Ohta Tamihisa, Shin Ki-Cheol, Sase Hiroyuki, Shibata Hideaki, Nakano Takanori
    The Japanese Forest Society Congress 日本森林学会 130 (0) 345 - 345 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
     

    [in Japanese]

  • 細川 奈々枝, 磯部 一夫, 浦川 梨恵子, 舘野 隆之輔, 福澤 加里部, 渡辺 恒大, 柴田 英昭
    日本土壌肥料学会講演要旨集 一般社団法人 日本土壌肥料学会 65 (0) 239 - 239 0288-5840 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Nagane Miwako, Shibata Hideaki, Uchida Yoshitaka, Tateno Ryunosuke
    The Japanese Forest Society Congress 日本森林学会 130 (0) 358 - 358 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
     

    [in Japanese]

  • Haga, C., Inoue, T., Hotta, W., Shibata, R., Hashimoto, S., Kurokawa, H., Machimura, T., Matsui, T., Morimoto, J., Shibata, H.
    Sustainability Science 14 (1) 89 - 106 1862-4065 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Watanabe, T., Tateno, R., Imada, S., Fukuzawa, K., Isobe, K., Urakawa, R., Oda, T., Hosokawa, N., Sasai, T., Inagaki, Y., Hishi, T., Toda, H., Shibata, H.
    Biogeochemistry 142 (3) 319 - 338 0168-2563 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Tateno, R., Imada, S., Watanabe, T., Fukuzawa, K., Shibata, H.
    Plant and Soil 438 (1-2) 157 - 172 0032-079X 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Chiwa, M., Tateno, R., Hishi, T., Shibata, H.
    Journal of Forest Research 24 (1) 1 - 15 1341-6979 2019 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Toda Motomu, Fukuzawa Karibu, Nakamura Masahiro, Miyata Rie, Wang Xin, Doi Kazuki, Tabata Azusa, Shibata Hideaki, Yoshida Toshiya, Hara Toshihiko
    TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 32 (6) 1789 - 1799 0931-1890 2018/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Rieko Urakawa, Hideaki Shibata, Hiroto Toda
    Japanese Journal of Forest Environment 60 87 - 90 2018/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hayashi Kentaro, Oita Azusa, Lassaletta Luis, Shindo Junko, Shibata Hideaki, Sakurai Gen, Eguchi Sadao
    ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS 13 (12) 1748-9326 2018/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ika Djukic, Sebastian Kepfer-Rojas, Inger Kappel Schmidt, Klaus Steenberg Larsen, Claus Beier, Björn Berg, Kris Verheyen, Adriano Caliman, Alain Paquette, Alba Gutiérrez-Girón, Alberto Humber, Alejandro Valdecantos, Alessandro Petraglia, Heather Alexander, Algirdas Augustaitis, Amélie Saillard, Ana Carolina Ruiz Fernández, Ana I. Sousa, Ana I. Lillebø, Anderson da Rocha Gripp, André Jean Francez, Andrea Fischer, Andreas Bohner, Andrey Malyshev, Andrijana Andrić, Andy Smith, Angela Stanisci, Anikó Seres, Anja Schmidt, Anna Avila, Anne Probst, Annie Ouin, Anzar A. Khuroo, Arne Verstraeten, Arely N. Palabral-Aguilera, Artur Stefanski, Aurora Gaxiola, Bart Muys, Bernard Bosman, Bernd Ahrends, Bill Parker, Birgit Sattler, Bo Yang, Bohdan Juráni, Brigitta Erschbamer, Carmen Eugenia Rodriguez Ortiz, Casper T. Christiansen, E. Carol Adair, Céline Meredieu, Cendrine Mony, Charles A. Nock, Chi Ling Chen, Chiao Ping Wang, Christel Baum, Christian Rixen, Christine Delire, Christophe Piscart, Christopher Andrews, Corinna Rebmann, Cristina Branquinho, Dana Polyanskaya, David Fuentes Delgado, Dirk Wundram, Diyaa Radeideh, Eduardo Ordóñez-Regil, Edward Crawford, Elena Preda, Elena Tropina, Elli Groner, Eric Lucot, Erzsébet Hornung, Esperança Gacia, Esther Lévesque, Evanilde Benedito, Evgeny A. Davydov, Evy Ampoorter, Fabio Padilha Bolzan, Felipe Varela, Ferdinand Kristöfel, Fernando T. Maestre, Florence Maunoury-Danger, Florian Hofhansl, Florian Kitz, Flurin Sutter, Francisco Cuesta, Francisco de Almeida Lobo, Franco Leandro de Souza, Frank Berninger, Franz Zehetner, Georg Wohlfahrt, George Vourlitis, Geovana Carreño-Rocabado, Gina Arena, Gisele Daiane Pinha, Grizelle González, Guylaine Canut, Hanna Lee, Hans Verbeeck, Harald Auge, Harald Pauli
    Science of the Total Environment 628-629 1369 - 1394 0048-9697 2018/07/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2018 Elsevier B.V. Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies, adding major uncertainty to syntheses, comparisons and meta-analyses across different experiments and sites. In the TeaComposition initiative, the potential litter decomposition is investigated by using standardized substrates (Rooibos and Green tea) for comparison of litter mass loss at 336 sites (ranging from −9 to +26 °C MAT and from 60 to 3113 mm MAP) across different ecosystems. In this study we tested the effect of climate (temperature and moisture), litter type and land-use on early stage decomposition (3 months) across nine biomes. We show that litter quality was the predominant controlling factor in early stage litter decomposition, which explained about 65% of the variability in litter decomposition at a global scale. The effect of climate, on the other hand, was not litter specific and explained <0.5% of the variation for Green tea and 5% for Rooibos tea, and was of significance only under unfavorable decomposition conditions (i.e. xeric versus mesic environments). When the data were aggregated at the biome scale, climate played a significant role on decomposition of both litter types (explaining 64% of the variation for Green tea and 72% for Rooibos tea). No significant effect of land-use on early stage litter decomposition was noted within the temperate biome. Our results indicate that multiple drivers are affecting early stage litter mass loss with litter quality being dominant. In order to be able to quantify the relative importance of the different drivers over time, long-term studies combined with experimental trials are needed.
  • 江口 定夫, 柴田 英昭, 種田 あずさ, 新藤 純子, 松本 成夫, 森 昭憲, 中島 泰弘, 朝田 景, 志村 もと子, 林 健太郎, 中辻 敏朗
    日本土壌肥料学雑誌 89 (3) 249 - 259 2018/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • M. Mirtl, E. T. Borer, I. Djukic, M. Forsius, H. Haubold, W. Hugo, J. Jourdan, D. Lindenmayer, W. H. McDowell, H. Muraoka, D. E. Orenstein, J. C. Pauw, J. Peterseil, H. Shibata, C. Wohner, X. Yu, P. Haase
    Science of the Total Environment 626 1439 - 1462 1879-1026 2018/06/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Since its founding in 1993 the International Long-term Ecological Research Network (ILTER) has gone through pronounced development phases. The current network comprises 44 active member LTER networks representing 700 LTER Sites and ~ 80 LTSER Platforms across all continents, active in the fields of ecosystem, critical zone and socio-ecological research. The critical challenges and most important achievements of the initial phase have now become state-of-the-art in networking for excellent science. At the same time increasing integration, accelerating technology, networking of resources and a strong pull for more socially relevant scientific information have been modifying the mission and goals of ILTER. This article provides a critical review of ILTER's mission, goals, development and impacts. Major characteristics, tools, services, partnerships and selected examples of relative strengths relevant for advancing ILTER are presented. We elaborate on the tradeoffs between the needs of the scientific community and stakeholder expectations. The embedding of ILTER in an increasingly collaborative landscape of global environmental observation and ecological research networks and infrastructures is also reflected by developments of pioneering regional and national LTER networks such as SAEON in South Africa, CERN/CEOBEX in China, TERN in Australia or eLTER RI in Europe. The primary role of ILTER is currently seen as a mechanism to investigate ecosystem structure, function, and services in response to a wide range of environmental forcings using long-term, place-based research. We suggest four main fields of activities and advancements for the next decade through development/delivery of a: (1) Global multi-disciplinary community of researchers and research institutes (2) Strategic global framework and strong partnerships in ecosystem observation and research (3) Global Research Infrastructure (GRI) and (4) a scientific knowledge factory for societally relevant information on sustainable use of natural resources.
  • Nitrogen Footprint: A Novel Indicator to Quantify Nitrogen Loss to the Environment
    Azusa Oita, Hideaki Shibata, Junko Shindo
    Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan 14 (2) 120 - 133 1880-2761 2018/04 [Not refereed][Invited]
     
    Emissions of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen have led to the emergence of serious threats to both humanity and the environment. A nitrogen footprint is a novel indicator that quantifies, on a consumption basis, the loss of reactive nitrogen to the environment through human activity. We describe three recently proposed methods to determine a nitrogen footprint: N-Calculator; N-Input; and N-Multi-region. N-Calculator applies a bottom-up analysis, which is based on per-capita food and energy consumption, to describe how each of a consumer’s actions impacts their nitrogen footprint. N-Input uses a top-down analysis—which is based on agricultural nitrogen inputs and the production, importing, and exporting of food—to accurately assess nitrogen flows for countries that import food from multiple foreign states. N-Multi-region employs input– output analysis using a global, multi-region input–output table that is extended to cover sectoral reactive nitrogen emissions of each country/region. This method can estimate nitrogen footprints of many countries while considering complex international supply chains and different reactive nitrogen types. We also review related research projects, and current and potential measures to decrease nitrogen footprints; these include food choices, decreasing household waste, footprint labeling (for nitrogen, carbon, and water), institutional footprinting( for nitrogen and carbon), and nitrogen-footprint offsetting.
  • Min Fan, Hideaki Shibata, Li Chen
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 23 (4) 525 - 552 1573-1596 2018/04/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Ecosystem services (ESs) provide information on the tendency of ecosystems to reach and form a state of equilibrium. The process of ES changes is important in order to identify the climate change-related causes that occur regionally to globally. ES-based management plays an important role in mitigation strategies for the negative impact of global climate change on ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate spatial characteristics and relationships among these multiple services from different spatial scales which could aid in multiple ES sustainable development from local to global scales. In this study, we developed a framework for analyzing the spatial characteristics and interactive relationships of multiple ESs. We analyzed the spatial distributions of six hydrological ESs that are important in the northernmost part of Japan (Teshio River watershed) by using hydrology and nutrient model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) under baseline climate conditions and climate change derived from the global circulation model (GCM). We then explored the spatial characteristic scales of ESs by multiscale analysis (lacunarity estimation) to reveal provision flow and spatial distribution characteristics for hydrological ESs. We observed a strong relationship between the spatial characteristics of land uses and ES provision. The spatial characteristics of individual hydrological ESs were totally different and had different spatial homogeneity and cluster (indicated by initial lacunarity index and lacunarity dimension). The results also showed trade-offs between inorganic nutrient retention (provision ESs) and organic nutrient and sediment retentions (regulating ESs), and synergies between organic nutrient retention and sediment retention under all climate change scenarios. The different stakeholders will take different mitigation programs (e.g., establishing riparian vegetation, planning nutrient management practices, and integrating climate change model into systematic conservation planning of ESs) to avoid negative impacts of climate change on ESs. Application of this proposed framework to study the spatial characteristics and relationships of hydrological ESs under climate change could provide understanding on the impact of climate change on ES changes and solutions to mitigate strategies to cope with those changes in the future.
  • Isobe, K., Oka, H., Watanabe, T., Tateno, R., Urakawa, R., Liang, C., Senoo, K., Shibata, H.
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 124 90 - 100 0038-0717 2018 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Masahiro Nakaoka, Kenji Sudo, Mizuho Namba, Hideaki Shibata, Futoshi Nakamura, Satoshi Ishikawa, Mitsutaku Makino, Hiroya Yamano, Shin ichiro S. Matsuzaki, Takehisa Yamakita, Xiubo Yu, Xiyong Hou, Xiaowei Li, Jon Brodie, Keiichiro Kanemoto, Dan Moran, Francesca Verones
    Ecological Research 33 (1) 35 - 49 0912-3814 2018/01/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    © 2017, The Ecological Society of Japan. The expanding economical activities have accelerated losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services, which are especially pronounced in Asia. To find solutions to stop these losses, a group of scientists studying both ecological and social sciences has launched an interdisciplinary research network, entitled TSUNAGARI (Trans-System, UNified Approach for Global and Regional Integration of social-ecological study toward sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services). The project is based on two main perspectives: (1) integrating different disciplines of environmental research across multiple spatial scales, and (2) evaluating the importance of ecosystem connectivity between land and ocean for biodiversity and ecosystem services. The integrative studies have been started as follows: (1) integrating global-scale analyses of biodiversity and economy by developing GIS-based footprint analysis, (2) establishing the link between the studies of local good practices of ecosystem management and life cycle assessment on ecosystem good and services, (3) linking local-scale ecosystem studies to decision making processes for sustainable society by multiple stakeholders, and (4) upscaling local analyses of ecosystem processes to broad-scale analyses of ecosystem patterns. The proposed approaches are considered effective to solve problems that impede conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of multiple ecosystem services in various situations although we also find some gaps such as regional biases in biodiversity data and involvement of different types of stakeholders. By overcoming the major bottlenecks, we believe the new integrated approaches will promote conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystem services research, and contribute to advance decision-making processes from local communities to international levels.
  • Min Fan, Hideaki Shibata, Li Chen
    Ecological Complexity 33 1 - 10 1476-945X 2018/01/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    There is a growing call for spatial conservation prioritization of ecosystem services (ESs) models that is both simple and scientifically credible, in order to serve ecological and environmental decision-making processes. Pressure on ecosystems to provide various and conflicting services is immense and likely to increase. Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorously spatial conservation planning on balancing multiple ESs has not been developed. The impacts and success of spatial conservation planning will be enhanced if the needs of competing and compromising ESs are recognized. We developed such a framework integrating watershed model into spatial conservation prioritization model and illustrated it about competing and compromising ESs in the Teshio River watershed, with the aim of developing a spatial conservation priority ranking map that balances interactive relationships between water yield and sediment retention. The sediment retention was concentrated in southeastern and some northern areas with higher precipitation, more forest lands and steeper slope, but the water yield was concentrated in southwestern and some northern places with agricultural land. The spatial priority conservation ranking map of individual ES is closely related to its spatially distributed pattern. The spatial priority conservation areas for sediment retention in southwest are traded off against those for water yield in southeast, but there are some overlaps on spatial priority conservation areas for sediment retention and water yield in north of Teshio River watershed. There are obvious differences between the spatial priority conservation ranking maps of individual ESs and those of multiple services together. The spatial priority conservation areas for multiple ESs together simultaneously include southeastern, more eastern and some northern places of study watershed, which can balance the conflict existing between sediment retention and water yield. The proposed framework in this study could be applied to similarly structural conservation prioritization problems of other more ESs, which could sustain ecosystem conservation and economic development across watershed.
  • Eun-Shik Kim, Yongyut Trisurat, Hiroyuki Muraoka, Hideaki Shibata, Victor Amoroso, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Kazuhiko Hoshizaki, Abd Rahman Kassim, Young-Sun Kim, Hong Quan Nguyen, Nobuhito Ohte, Perry S. Ong, Chiao-Ping Wang
    Ecological Research 33 (1) 19 - 34 1440-1703 2018/01/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    There are growing needs to broaden and deepen our multi-faceted understanding of the ecosystems, and the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) can play significant roles in fostering and applying ecosystem studies at regional and global scales. The International LTER Network (ILTER) is organized as a global network of field research sites and scientists to address current ecological issues such as biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation within a globally changing environment. The ILTER East Asia–Pacific Regional Network (ILTER-EAP) is one of the four constituent ILTER regional networks. Since 1995, ILTER-EAP has been developed to promote data sharing, research collaborations and capability building in the science and to bridge gaps between societal needs and scientific imperatives on concerns in the Asia–Pacific Region. Currently, ILTER-EAP comprises nine formal ILTER members and two associate networks. Their activities involve long-term and multiple-site observations of structural, functional and developmental aspects of ecosystems, data sharing, and bridging society and ecological science. This paper presents a review of the activities of ILTER-EAP, focusing on its: (1) vision and the development following its inception, (2) scientific activities and major outputs related to selected thematic areas, (3) contributions from ILTER-EAP to the international initiatives, and (4) future challenges and opportunities relating to its development and role in facilitating regional and global research collaborations. Accordingly, regional research questions were identified that could be most effectively addressed by opening up a common research platform, integrated data management system and the network science, which is open to all interested parties.
  • Ying Zhang, Yanping Liu, Hideaki Shibata, Baojing Gu, Yawei Wang
    Environmental Research Letters 13 (1) 1748-9326 2018/01/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A nitrogen (N) flow, divided into production, food supply, and consumption phases, was designed to calculate the virtual N factors (VNFs) and N footprints (NFs) of China's main food crops. It covered four food groups - cereals, tubers, vegetables, and fruits - comprising 24 food crops. A meta-analysis of 4896 relevant examples from 443 publications was conducted to build a database on N availability and N loss rates during each stage. We calculated N loss from each food group during each phase, and estimated VNFs and NFs based on N loss. It was found that 39.2%-67.6% of N inputs were lost during the production phase, 6.6%-15.2% during the food supply phase, and 0.9%-6.7% during the consumption phase. VNFs for cereals, tubers, vegetables, and fruits were 2.1, 2.9, 4.1 and 8.6, respectively. To raise public awareness, we also calculated the NFs, which were 30.9, 6.7, 7.4, and 17.2 g N kg-1 for cereals, tubers, vegetables, and fruits consumed, respectively, equal to 9.3 kg N capita-1 yr-1 consumption for these four food crops in China. We concluded that policies and strategies to reduce N loss, especially N loss embedded in food loss, must be taken into account to improve the technologies, infrastructure, approaches, and social awareness in reducing nutrient loss during food production and consumption phases.
  • Min Fan, Hideaki Shibata, Li Chen
    SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 599 451 - 463 0048-9697 2017/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Land use and climate changes affect on the economy and environment with different patterns and magnitudes in the watershed. This study used risk analysis model stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) to evaluate economic and environmental risks caused by four climate change scenarios (baseline, small-, mid-and large changes) and three land uses (paddy dominated, paddy-farmland mixture and farmland dominated for agriculture) in Teshio watershed in northern Hokkaido, Japan. Under the baseline climate conditions, the lower ranking of economic income of crop yield and higher ranking of pollutant load from agricultural land were both predicted in paddy dominated, for agriculture, suggesting that the paddy dominated system caused higher risks of economic and environmental variables compared to other two land uses. Increase of temperature and precipitation increased crop yields under all three climate changes which resulted in increase of the ranking of economic income, indicating that those climate changes could reduce economic risk. The increased temperature and precipitation also accelerated mineralization of organic nutrient and nutrient leaching to river course of Teshio which resulted in increase of the ranking of pollutant load, suggesting that those climate changes could lead to more environmental risk. The rankings of economic income in mid-and large changes of climate were lower than that in small change of climate under paddy-farmland mixture and farmland dominated systems due to decrease of crop yield, suggesting that climate change led to more economic risk. In summary, the results suggested that increase in temperature and precipitation caused higher risks of both economic and environmental perspectives, and the impacts was higher than those of land use changes in the studied watershed. Those findings would help producers and watershed managers to measure the tradeoffs between environmental protection and agricultural economic development for making decision under land use and climate changes. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • 鷹取山試験地のスギ人工林とモミ天然林の土壌特性
    稲垣善之, 酒井寿夫, 浦川梨恵子, 柴田英昭
    森林総合研究所四国支所年報 58 18 - 25 2017/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Takuo Hishi, Rieko Urakawa, Hideaki Shibata
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 32 (5) 725 - 733 0912-3814 2017/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Climate change may alter the rate of soil N transformation. Therefore, it is important to investigate how climate conditions and soil properties affect soil N transformation. In the present study, soil transplantation experiments were performed using soils on a xeric south-facing slope and a mesic north-facing slope in cool-temperate broad-leaved natural forests. Soil N transformation rates and leaching between slopes were compared using the resin-core method to clarify whether soil history (soil origins) or current environmental condition (locations) is the most important factor affecting soil N dynamics. The annual N mineralization did not differ significantly among soil from different origins and locations. In both locations, the annual net ammonification in south-facing soils was higher than that in north-facing soils, whereas the annual nitrification of north-facing soil was higher than that of south-facing soil. N mineralization and nitrification in north-facing soil were significantly higher during the growing season. N mineralization in south-facing soil was not significantly different between seasons. The interaction effect among seasons, soil origin, and location on net ammonification was significant. Net ammonification was higher in south-facing than in north-facing soils, and on south-facing than on north-facing slopes during the dormant season, suggesting that environmental change during winter affected the ammonification of south-facing soil. During the dormant season, N mineralization and leaching were not enhanced in soil of either origin at the transplanted locations, compared with the original locations, suggesting that, in this region, snow regime changes might not enhance the risk of N loss from forest ecosystems.
  • 林健太郎, 江口定夫, 柴田英昭, 仁科一哉, 内田義崇
    日本土壌肥料学雑誌 88 (2) 166 - 179 2017/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hideaki Shibata, James N. Galloway, Allison M. Leach, Lia R. Cattaneo, Laura Cattell Noll, Jan Willem Erisman, Baojing Gu, Xia Liang, Kentaro Hayashi, Lin Ma, Tommy Dalgaard, Morten Graversgaard, Deli Chen, Keisuke Nansai, Junko Shindo, Kazuyo Matsubae, Azusa Oita, Ming-Chien Su, Shin-Ichiro Mishima, Albert Bleeker
    AMBIO 46 (2) 129 - 142 0044-7447 2017/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Nitrogen (N) management presents a sustainability dilemma: N is strongly linked to energy and food production, but excess reactive N causes environmental pollution. The N footprint is an indicator that quantifies reactive N losses to the environment from consumption and production of food and the use of energy. The average per capita N footprint ( calculated using the N-Calculator methodology) of ten countries varies from 15 to 47 kg N capita(-1) year(-1). The major cause of the difference is the protein consumption rates and food production N losses. The food sector dominates all countries ' N footprints. Global connections via trade significantly affect the N footprint in countries that rely on imported foods and feeds. The authors present N footprint reduction strategies (e.g., improve N use efficiency, increase N recycling, reduce food waste, shift dietary choices) and identify knowledge gaps (e.g., the N footprint from nonfood goods and soil N process).
  • Takahiro Inoue, Karibu Fukuzawa, Tsunehiro Watanabe, Toshiya Yoshida, Hideaki Shibata
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 32 (2) 227 - 241 0912-3814 2017/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Natural disturbances create spatial patterns of the ecosystem processes and functions in natural forests. However, how dynamics and the spatial structure of forests relate to soil nitrogen dynamics is not well understood. We examined the spatial relationship between the distributions of canopy and understory species, and soil nitrogen dynamics in a natural coniferous-broadleaved mixed forest with a dense understory of Sasa dwarf bamboo in northern Japan. The O horizon was thick where coniferous litter predominated, and it was thin where broadleaved litter predominated. The soil water content was low in areas with a thick O horizon and a high abundance of coniferous trees. The soil nitrate content was low where the soil water content was low, and the soil nitrate content increased linearly with increasing net nitrification potential. These results suggest that the soil nitrate content under the coniferous canopy was lower because of the low nitrification potential of soil microbes in soils with low water contents. The soil nitrate content and nitrification potential were higher in the canopy gap than under the canopy. Our results suggest that forest structure, specifically the thickness of the forest floor, significantly affects the spatial pattern of the soil water content, thereby creating a spatial pattern of soil nitrogen availability at a relatively small scale with flat topography. The higher nitrification potential under the canopy gap could pose a long-term risk of nitrate leaching because of the suppression of the natural regeneration of canopy species by dense Sasa dwarf bamboo in this forest ecosystem.
  • Min Fan, Hideaki Shibata, Li Chen
    JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 144 (2) 0733-9496 2017/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Ecosystem services (ESs) including provisioning, regulating, and cultural services for sustaining and fulfilling human well-being are formed based on various conditions, processes, and components of natural and artificial ecosystems. Spatial conservation planning for sustainable ecosystem development requires precise information on the local potential for providing hydrological ecosystem services in a watershed. The principal challenges in spatially conserving multiple ESs are that they are not independent of each other, and that the interactive relationships between them are in the forms of trade-offs and synergies. The rationality of spatial priority conservation on reconciling multiple ESs will be enhanced if the interactive relationships are recognized at the planning stage. Such a framework is developed by integrating a hydrology model into a systematic conservation model, and it is illustrated with data about multiple hydrological ESs in the Teshio watershed, with the aim of developing a priority conservation ranking map that reconciles competing and compromising interactive relationships among multiple services. The water yield, sediment, and organic nutrient retentions concentrated in eastern and some northern areas with higher precipitation, more forest lands, and steeper slope, but the inorganic nutrient retention concentrated in riverine and southwestern places with agricultural lands. The spatial priority conservation ranking map of an individual ES is closely related to its spatially distributed pattern. The spatial priority conservation areas for sediment and organic nutrient retentions are traded off against those for inorganic nutrient retention. There are obvious differences between the spatial priority conservation ranking maps of individual ESs and those of multiple services together. The spatial priority conservation areas for multiple ESs together simultaneously include southwestern, riverine, eastern, and some northern places of the study watershed, which can balance the conflicts existing between sediment and organic nutrient retentions and inorganic nutrient retention. The systematic priority conservation areas of hydrological ESs provide an effective tool for identifying trade-offs between environmental protection and agricultural economic development. The proposed framework in this study can be applicable to similarly structural prioritization problems of other watersheds, which can sustain ecosystem conservation and economic development. (c) 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.
  • Hosokawa Nanae, Isobe Kazuo, Urakawa Rieko, Tateno Ryunosuke, Fukuzawa Karibu, Watanabe Tsunehiro, Shibata Hideaki
    The Japanese Forest Society Congress 日本森林学会 128 (0) 115 - 115 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
     

    [in Japanese]

  • Conservation of the mixed conifer-broadleaf forests of Hokkaido University Forest in northern Japan for educational development
    Koike, T, Shoji, Y, Uemura, S, Shibata, H
    Studia i Materiały Ośrodka Kultury Leśnej 16 81 - 107 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Azusa Oita, Hideaki Shibata, Sadao Eguchi, Yuhei Hirono, Kazuya Nishina, Yoshitaka Uchida
    Japanese Journal of Ecology 67 (2) 189 - 196 0021-5007 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hosokawa, N., Isobe, K., Urakawa, R., Tateno, R., Fukuzawa, K., Watanabe, T., Shibata, H.
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 114 270 - 278 0038-0717 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Urakawa, R., Ohte, N., Shibata, H., Tateno, R., Inagaki, Y., Oda, T., Toda, H., Fukuzawa, K., Watanabe, T., Hishi, T., Oyanagi, N., Nakata, M., Fukushima, K., Nakanishi, A.
    Ecological Research 32 (2) 279 - 285 0912-3814 2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hideaki Shibata
    ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS 65 4 - 9 1470-160X 2016/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Nitrogen (N) is a critical ecological and environmental indicator under changing environments. The impact of winter climate change on N biogeochemical processes in forest ecosystems has gained increasing recognition. Decreasing snowfall has caused a decrease in the heat insulation properties of the snowpack, resulting in an increase in the frequency and magnitude of freezing and thawing cycles in surface soil, where biological processes are most active. Here I synthesize recent research findings from integrated field observations and experiments conducted in northern Japan and compare these results with previous research outcomes from other regions to identify current research gaps and develop the next research agenda to further advance our understanding of this complex problem. Japanese case studies indicated that net ammonium production (ammonification) was mostly dominant in terms of available soil N fertility in cold environments and was sensitive to the increase in soil freezing and thawing cycles because of the decreased snowpack. On the other hands, nitrate dynamics were more stable or conservative than those of ammonium. The soil characteristics (i.e., N pool and microbial activities) were significant explanatory factors of the responses of soil N dynamics and N leakage among different soils to increased freezing-thawing cycles at watershed and national scale. This synthesis indicates that winter climate change had significant impacts on soil N biogeochemistry (such as soil N pool size and microbial N transformation) during the winter and snowmelt season and also during the following growing season. Several research gaps and possible research topics (path dependency and soil microbial community composition) are also presented by synthesizing the current research findings. Further field experiments and observations quantifying the pools and fluxes of inorganic N with modeling analysis under freeze-thaw environments would contribute to increase the understandings of N transformation processes under winter climate change. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Min Fan, Hideaki Shibata, Qing Wang
    ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS 62 1 - 13 1470-160X 2016/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Most anthropogenic activities impacted on water quality and quantity, and further impacted on ecosystem services (ESs) in watershed are related to land use and climate changes those may cause losses of ecosystem functions. Effective information regarding ESs and their optimal priority conservation planning responded to land use and climate changes provide useful support for diverse stakeholders in ESs planning, management and policies. This study integrated the approach of spatially explicit ESs (water yield, inorganic nutrient, organic nutrient and sediment retentions) by using hydrology and material flow model (Soil and Water Assessment Tools, SWAT model) into systematic conservation of hydrological ESs according to land use and climate changes in Teshio watershed located in the north of Hokkaido, Japan. We investigated the spatial patterns and the hotspots of ESs changes to determine the spatial pattern of changes in systematic conservation optimal area of ES protection in terms of ESs protection targets. Under the land use and climate change scenarios, the forest land use significantly affected on the water yield, sediment, organic-Nitrogen (N) and organic-Phosphorous (P) retentions. The agricultural land (paddy and farmland fields) impacted on the inorganic-N and inorganic-P retentions. We applied the systematic conservation model (MARXAN model) to optimize the area for management of hydrological ESs satisfied the protection targets (30% and 50% of potential maximum ESs values among all scenarios) in all and individual ecosystem services, respectively. The simulated results indicated that the areas of spatial optimal ESs protection for all hydrological ESs were totally different from those for individual ESs. For bundles of ESs, the optimal priority conservation areas concentrated in southwest, north, and southeast of this watershed, which are related to land use, topography and climate driving factors. These places could guarantee ESs sustainability from both environmental protection and agricultural development standpoints. The priority conservation area turned more compact under climate change because the increased precipitation and temperature increased ESs amount. For individual ESs, the optimal priority conservation areas of water yield, sediment retention and organic nutrient retention were traded off against those of inorganic nutrient retention (lower Jaccard's indexes and negative correlations of selection times). Especially, the negative correlation of selection times increased as the conservation target increased from 30% to 50%. The proposed approach provided useful information for assessing the responses of ESs and systematic conservation optimal planning to the land use and climate changes. The systematic conservation optimal areas of hydrological ESs provided an effective trade-off tool between environmental protection (sediment and organic nutrient retentions) and economic development (water yield and inorganic nutrient retention). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rieko Urakawa, Nobuhito Ohte, Hideaki Shibata, Kazuo Isobe, Ryunosuke Tateno, Tomoki Oda, Takuo Hishi, Keitaro Fukushima, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Keizo Hirai, Nobuhiro Oyanagi, Makoto Nakata, Hiroto Toda, Tanaka Kenta, Megumi Kuroiwa, Tsunehiro Watanabe, Karibu Fukuzawa, Naoko Tokuchi, Shin Ugawa, Tsutomu Enoki, Asami Nakanishi, Nobuko Saigusa, Yukio Yamao, Ayumi Kotani
    FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT 361 382 - 396 0378-1127 2016/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Nitrogen (N) is the primary limiting nutrient for forest production. Therefore, understanding how environmental factors affect N transformation rates is essential for the provision of sustainable ecosystem services. Because these factors are interlinked, it is important to consider direct and indirect structural relationships to better understand the factors contributing to N transformations. In this study, we analyzed the structural cause-effect relationships surrounding N transformations by structural equation modeling using a database containing net and gross N transformation rates and related soil chemical properties from 38 sites across the Japanese archipelago. The average net N mineralization and nitrification rates in the Japanese forest soils were 0.62 +/- 0.68 and 0.59 +/- 0.65 mg N kg(-1) d(-1), respectively, and gross N mineralization and nitrification rates were 4.22 +/- 3.59 and 0.98 +/- 0.68 mg N kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. Compared with previous large scale studies, net and gross N transformation rates in Japanese forest soils were considerably diverse despite their relatively small land area and were representative of temperate forest ecosystems. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that net N transformations were directly affected by gross N transformations, which in turn were significantly and directly affected by soil organic matter contents. Soil organic matter was significantly affected by organic layer amount, tree species and soil group. The effect of soil group was the greatest among these factors, suggesting that soil organic matter contents in Japanese forest soils were mainly influenced by soil parent materials. This was especially evident for Andosols, which are derived from volcanic sediments and contain large amounts of soil organic matter leading to high N transformation rates in the Japanese forest soils. Among the factors related to organic layers and mineral soil layers, soil organic matter content and organic layer amount, which represent substrate availability, had significant effects on gross and net N transformation rates. However, by refining the scale of the dataset using soil groups/soil parent materials, the influence of substrate quality and soil chemical properties on N transformations was suggested. From the current dataset, it was indicated that soil parent materials were the most important factor controlling the pattern of N transformations in the soil of Japanese forest ecosystems. This conclusion should be repeatedly refined considering the spatial distribution of factors such as climatic conditions and forest types with additional site datasets obtained from future surveys. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Min Fan, Hideaki Shibata
    MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR GLOBAL CHANGE 21 (1) 119 - 133 1381-2386 2016/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We investigated the effects of changing land use on water yield, and nitrogen (N) and sediment retentions in the Teshio river watershed in northern Japan. The Land Use and it's Effects (CLUE) model was used to predict land use change and multilevel Bayesian analysis was used to quantify relationships between water quality components and topographical slope. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrology model was used to simulate water yield, N and sediment retentions under land use change scenarios. Most of the study area was covered by forest in 1976, 2006 and 2036, with rice fields totally converted to farmland by 2036. There were positive correlations between water yield, inorganic-N yield, sediment yield and organic-N yield and topographical slope, but there was negative correlation between nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in the bottom of soil profile and topographical slope. Sediment and organic-N yields of forest were less than those of other land uses. Water yield, organic-N and sediment retentions were largest in the southeast of the study watershed, while the inorganic-N retention was highest along the riverine area. In comparison with the 1976 land use pattern, water yield sediment retention and organic-N retention decreased under 2006 and 2036 land use patterns while inorganic-N retention increased. We conclude that planning a comprehensive adaptation and mitigation program (e.g. establishing riparian zones, planning nutrient management practices and integrating systematic conservation planning into agricultural expansion) is necessary to avoid negative impacts of land use change on water yield, N and sediment retentions in the watershed.
  • Tsunehiro Watanabe, Karibu Fukuzawa, Hideaki Shibata
    Plants 5 (2) 378 - 386 2223-7747 2016 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In forest ecosystems, a change of soil nitrogen (N) cycling after disturbance is regulated by various factors. Sasa dwarf bamboo (hereafter referred to as Sasa) is an understory plant that grows thickly on the forest floor in northern Hokkaido, Japan. However, the ecosystem function of Sasa after disturbances in the soil N cycling is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term response of Sasa to a change of soil N fertility. Biomass, litterfall, litter decomposition, soil N pool, and N leaching from soil were measured in control, and low- (5 g N m-2year-1) and high-N (15 g N m-2year-1) addition plots. Sasa immobilized much N as the soil N fertility increased. However, the leaf N concentration in aboveground biomass did not increase, suggesting that the N in leaves was maintained because of the increase of leaf biomass. As a result, the decomposition and mineralization rates of the produced litter before and after N addition were comparable among plots, even though the soil inorganic N fertility increased greatly. These results suggest that immediate response of Sasa to an increase of soil inorganic N mitigates the excess N leaching from soil.
  • Takuo Hishi, Naoaki Tashiro, Yuka Maeda, Rieko Urakawa, Hideaki Shibata
    Plant Root 9 (1) 85 - 94 1881-6754 2015/12/31 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The importance of fine roots in forest ecosystem processes is well known. However, the contribution of understory vegetation to underground ecosystem processes is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that fine-root biomass (FRB) and performance of the overstory and understory independently de-crease with increasing soil N availability in cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved natural forests and larch plantations in Japan. The mean contribution of understory FRB to total FRB (tree + understory) ranged from 4% to 78% (mean 37%). Tree FRB was negatively correlated with understory FRB, and understory FRB was dominant to tree FRB in infertile soil. Understory and total FRB were negatively correlated with soil net N mineralization rate, whereas tree FRB showed a quadratic relationship with soil N mineralization rate with the peak observed at mineralization of 58.4 kg N ha−1 y−1. The low tree FRB at infertile sites may be due to a below-ground competitive effect of understory fine roots on tree FRB. Understory fine-root nitrogen concentration (FRN) and leaf to fine-root (L/FR) ratio were positively correlated with N minerali-zation rate. However, tree L/FR was not significantly correlated, whereas tree FRN was positively correlated, with soil N mineralization rate, suggesting that the leaf production effi-ciency of trees might not increase even on infertile soil. We suggest that belowground processes of overstory trees might change depending on understory vegetation, and that understory vegetation might affect the fine roots of overstory trees, which did not increase mass allocation but increased N use efficiency under low FRN.
  • Peter H. Verburg, Neville Crossman, Erle C. Ellis, Andreas Heinimann, Patrick Hostert, Ole Mertz, Harini Nagendra, Thomas Sikor, Karl-Heinz Erb, Nancy Golubiewski, Ricardo Grau, Morgan Grove, Souleymane Konaté, Patrick Meyfroidt, Dawn C. Parker, Rinku Roy Chowdhury, Hideaki Shibata, Allison Thomson, Lin Zhen
    Anthropocene 12 29 - 41 2213-3054 2015/12/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Land systems are the result of human interactions with the natural environment. Understanding the drivers, state, trends and impacts of different land systems on social and natural processes helps to reveal how changes in the land system affect the functioning of the socio-ecological system as a whole and the tradeoff these changes may represent. The Global Land Project has led advances by synthesizing land systems research across different scales and providing concepts to further understand the feedbacks between social-and environmental systems, between urban and rural environments and between distant world regions. Land system science has moved from a focus on observation of change and understanding the drivers of these changes to a focus on using this understanding to design sustainable transformations through stakeholder engagement and through the concept of land governance. As land use can be seen as the largest geo-engineering project in which mankind has engaged, land system science can act as a platform for integration of insights from different disciplines and for translation of knowledge into action.
  • Hideaki Shibata, Cristina Branquinho, William H. McDowell, Myron J. Mitchell, Don T. Monteith, Jianwu Tang, Lauri Arvola, Cristina Cruz, Daniela F. Cusack, Lubos Halada, Jiri Kopacek, Cristina Maguas, Samson Sajidu, Hendrik Schubert, Naoko Tokuchi, Jaroslav Zahora
    AMBIO 44 (3) 178 - 193 0044-7447 2015/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Anthropogenically derived nitrogen (N) has a central role in global environmental changes, including climate change, biodiversity loss, air pollution, greenhouse gas emission, water pollution, as well as food production and human health. Current understanding of the biogeochemical processes that govern the N cycle in coupled human-ecological systems around the globe is drawn largely from the long-term ecological monitoring and experimental studies. Here, we review spatial and temporal patterns and trends in reactive N emissions, and the interactions between N and other important elements that dictate their delivery from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems, and the impacts of N on biodiversity and human society. Integrated international and long-term collaborative studies covering research gaps will reduce uncertainties and promote further understanding of the nitrogen cycle in various ecosystems.
  • Karibu Fukuzawa, Hideaki Shibata, Kentaro Takagi, Fuyuki Satoh, Takayoshi Koike, Kaichiro Sasa
    PLANT SPECIES BIOLOGY 30 (2) 104 - 115 0913-557X 2015/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To clarify the role of dense understory vegetation in the stand structure, and in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics of forest ecosystems with various conditions of overstory trees, we: (i) quantified the above- and below-ground biomasses of understory dwarf bamboo (Sasa senanensis) at the old canopy-gap area and the closed-canopy area and compared the stand-level biomasses of S.senanensis with that of overstory trees; (ii) determined the N leaching, soil respiration rates, fine-root dynamics, plant area index (PAI) of S. senanensis, and soil temperature and moisture at the tree-cut patches (cut) and the intact closed-canopy patches (control). The biomass of S. senanensis in the canopy-gap area was twice that at the closed-canopy area. It equated to 12% of total biomass above ground but 41% below ground in the stand. The concentrations of NO3- and NH4+ in the soil solution and soil respiration rates did not significantly change between cut and control plots, indicating that gap creation did not affect the C or N dynamics in the soil. Root-length density and PAI of S. senanensis were significantly greater at the cut plots, suggesting the promotion of S. senanensis growth following tree cutting. The levels of soil temperature and soil moisture were not changed following tree cutting. These results show that S. senanensis is a key component species in this cool-temperate forest ecosystem and plays significant roles in mitigating the loss of N and C from the soil following tree cutting by increasing its leaf and root biomass and stabilizing the soil environment.
  • Takeshi Motohka, Toshiya Yoshida, Hideaki Shibata, Takeo Tadono, Masanobu Shimada
    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 53 (4) 1683 - 1691 0196-2892 2015/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We tested the performance of the stereo observations of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) in the mapping of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) in Japan. Digital canopy height models (DCHMs), which are differences between PRISM digital surface models and surveying-based digital terrain models (DTMs), were compared to in situ AGB measurements of several forest types (number of stands: 28; average stand size: 0.54 ha; stand size range: 0.25-3.00 ha). DCHM values exhibited a significant correlation with AGB (r = 0.66-0.87; five different DCHMs), and the root-mean-square error and bias of the regression model evaluated by the leave-one-out cross validation were 37.2-57.8 t/ha(22.1%-32.6%) and -0.11-1.89 t/ha, respectively. There was no saturation in the relationship between DCHM and AGB (AGB range: 19-332 t/ha). The correlations between DCHM and mean canopy height (r = 0.17-0.52) and between DCHM and Lorey's height (r = 0.26-0.66) were weaker than the correlation between DCHM and AGB. The PRISM AGB distribution estimated by the regression model was consistent with a tree density map produced from aerial photos. Comparison to Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data showed that the PRISM DCHMs can estimate high AGB over the saturation level of PALSAR backscattering coefficient, i.e., 100-200 t/ha. The results described here demonstrate that the PRISM DCHMs are capable of wall-to-wall AGB estimation at 50-m resolution. This approach will be useful for improving the performance of satellite-based AGB estimation when an accurate DTM is available.
  • Min Fan, Hideaki Shibata
    ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS 50 79 - 89 1470-160X 2015/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Quantitative prediction of environmental impacts of land-use and climate change scenarios in a watershed can serve as a basis for developing sound watershed management schemes. Water quantity and quality are key environmental indicators which are sensitive to various external perturbations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of land-use and climate changes on water quantity and quality at watershed scale and to understand relationships between hydrologic components and water quality at that scale under different climate and land-use scenarios. We developed an approach for modeling and examining impacts of land-use and climate change scenarios on the water and nutrient cycles. We used an empirical land-use change model (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects, CLUE) and a watershed hydrology and nutrient model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) for the Teshio River watershed in northern Hokkaido, Japan. Predicted future land-use change (from paddy field to farmland) under baseline climate conditions reduced loads of sediment, total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorous (P) from the watershed to the river. This was attributable to higher nutrient uptake by crops and less nutrient mineralization by microbes, reduced nutrient leaching from soil, and lower water yields on farmland. The climate changes (precipitation and temperature) were projected to have greater impact in increasing surface runoff, lateral flow, groundwater discharge and water yield than would land-use change. Surface runoff especially decreased in April and May and increased in March and September with rising temperature. Under the climate change scenarios, the sediment and nutrient loads increased during the snowmelt and rainy seasons, while N and P uptakes by crops increased during the period when fertilizer is normally applied (May through August). The sediment and nutrient loads also increased with increasing winter rainfall because of warming in that season. Organic nutrient mineralization and nutrient leaching increased as well under climate change scenarios. Therefore, we predicted annual water yield, sediment and nutrient loads to increase under climate change scenarios. The sediment and nutrient loads were mainly supplied from agricultural land under land use in each climate change scenario, suggesting that riparian zones and adequate fertilizer management would be a potential mitigation strategy for reducing these negative impacts of land-use and climate changes on water quality. The proposed approach provides a useful source of information for assessing the consequences of hydrology processes and water quality in future land-use and climate change scenarios. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Masaaki Chiwa, Sachiko Inoue, Naoaki Tashiro, Daisuke Ohgi, Yoshitoshi Uehara, Hideaki Shibata, Atsushi Kume
    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES 29 (4) 615 - 623 0885-6087 2015/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Little research has examined whether forests reduce stream water eutrophication in agricultural areas during spring snowmelt periods. This study evaluated the role of forests in ameliorating deteriorated stream water quality in agricultural areas, including pasture, during snowmelt periods. Temporal variation in stream water quality at a mixed land-use basin (565ha: pasture 13%, forestry 87%), northern Japan, was monitored for 7years. Synoptic stream water sampling was also conducted at 16 sites across a wide range of forest and agricultural areas in a basin (18.3km(2)) in spring, summer and fall. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition were measured for 4years. The results showed that concentration pulses of nitrate, organic N and total P in stream water were observed when discharge increased during spring snowmelt. Their concentrations were high when silicate concentrations were low, suggesting surface water exported from pasture largely contributed to stream water pollution during snowmelt. Atmospheric N and P deposition (4.1kgNha(-1)y(-1); 0.09kgPha(-1)y(-1), respectively) was too low to affect the background concentrations of N and P in streams from forested areas. Reduction of eutrophication caused by nutrients from pasture was mainly due to dilution by water containing low concentrations of N and P exported from forested areas, whereas in-stream reduction was not a dominant process. Results indicate that forests have a limited capacity to reduce the concentration pulses of N and P in stream water during snowmelt in this study basin. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • 台風撹乱が北方森林の生理・生態および生態系炭素動態へ及ぼす影響-北海道北部の森林で行われた台風模倣実験からえた知見-
    戸田求, 福澤加里部, 中村誠宏, 田中幹展, 吉田俊也, 柴田英昭, 王 新, 石田祐宣, 宮田理恵
    低温科学 73 21 - 29 2015 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Rieko Urakawa, Nobuhito Ohte, Hideaki Shibata, Ryunosuke Tateno, Takuo Hishi, Keitaro Fukushima, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Keizo Hirai, Tomoki Oda, Nobuhiro Oyanagi, Makoto Nakata, Hiroto Toda, Tanaka Kenta, Karibu Fukuzawa, Tsunehiro Watanabe, Naoko Tokuchi, Tatsuro Nakaji, Nobuko Saigusa, Yukio Yamao, Asami Nakanishi, Tsutomu Enoki, Shin Ugawa, Atsushi Hayakawa, Ayumi Kotani, Megumi Kuroiwa, Kazuo Isobe
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 30 (1) 1 - 2 0912-3814 2015/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    This data paper provides some biogeochemical nitrogen (N) properties and related chemical properties of forest soils from 39 sites throughout the Japanese archipelago. The data set was collected and analyzed under the GRENE (Green Network of Excellence) environmental information project and the ReSIN (Regional and comparative Soil Incubation study on Nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems) project. The sites cover 44A degrees 20'N to 26A degrees 50'N and the climate ranges from cool-temperate zone to subtropical zone. At each site, litter on forest floor and soil samples (three or four layers to 50 cm depth) were collected between August and November in 2010-2013 from five soil profiles. From the litter layer samples, the stocks and concentrations of total carbon (C) and N were measured. From the mineral soil samples, bulk density, pH (H2O), total C and N concentrations, net and gross rates of N mineralization, nitrification and concentrations of water-soluble substances were measured. The measurements are relevant for other biogeochemical N studies in forest ecosystems and the data set provides basic information on the N pool and fluxes with related chemical properties of forest soils across the Japanese archipelago. The average rates of net and gross N transformation at 20 A degrees C across the sites were 0.26 +/- A 0.47 mgN kg(-1) soil d(-1) for net N mineralization, 0.25 +/- A 0.45 mgN kg(-1) soil d(-1) for net nitrification, 4.06 +/- A 0.47 mgN kg(-1) soil d(-1) for gross N mineralization, and 1.03 +/- A 1.29 mgN kg(-1) soil d(-1) for gross nitrification (average +/- A SD).
  • 環境変動下における陸域変化研究の歩みと将来
    柴田英昭, 石原正恵, 渡辺悌二, 氷見山幸夫, 甲山隆司, 占部城太郎, 吉村暢彦
    地球環境 20 (2) 143 - 150 2015 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hideaki Shibata, Lia R. Cattaneo, Allison M. Leach, James N. Galloway
    ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS 9 (11) 1748-9326 2014/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Humans increase the amount of reactive nitrogen (all N species except N-2) in the environment through a number of processes, primarily food and energy production. Once in the environment, excess reactive nitrogen may cause a host of various environmental problems. Understanding and controlling individual nitrogen footprints is important for preserving environmental and human health. In this paper we present the per capita nitrogen footprint of Japan. We considered the effect of the international trade of food and feed, and the impact of dietary preferences among different consumer age groups. Our results indicate that the current average per capita N footprint in Japan considering trade is 28.1 kg N capita(-1) yr(-1). This footprint is dominated by food (25.6 kg N capita(-1) yr(-1)), with the remainder coming from the housing, transportation, and goods and services sectors. The difference in food choices and intake between age groups strongly affected the food N footprint. Younger age groups tend to consume more meat and less fish, which leads to a larger food N footprint (e. g., 27.5 kg N capita(-1) yr(-1) for ages 20 to 29) than for older age groups (e.g., 23.0 kg N capita(-1) yr(-1) for ages over 70). The consideration of food and feed imports to Japan reduced the per capita N footprint from 37.0 kg N capita(-1) yr(-1) to 28.1 kg N capita(-1) yr(-1). The majority of the imported food had lower virtual N factors (i.e., Nr loss factors for food production), indicating that less N is released to the environment during the respective food production processes. Since Japan relies on imported food (ca. 61%) more than food produced domestically, much of the N losses associated with the food products is released in exporting countries.
  • Min Fan, Hideaki Shibata
    WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 28 (11) 3619 - 3636 0920-4741 2014/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Spatial planning for sustainable water resources development requires precise information on the local potential for providing water yield in a watershed. For water resource conservation, we analyzed spatial and temporal patterns of hydrological provision ecosystem services in the upper Teshio watershed of northernmost Japan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate hydrologic processes and determine parameters affecting the water cycle. The spatial increase of water yield at flat area near river channel in winter was explained by low field capacity of soil water, absence of water uptake by crops and gentle topography. The spatial patterns of snowmelt and rainfall were important drivers of the spatial pattern in water yield during other periods. The zonation model was applied to investigate dynamic changes in spatial conservation prioritization of hydrological provision ecosystem services, according to simulated water yields in February, April and October. The results showed that the conservation priority ranking dynamically changed spatially and temporally. Our economic assessment of hydrological provisioning services (irrigation, electricity production and household usage) indicated that the spatial pattern of the priority for water resources was different from that of economic value of the provisioning services. Our results indicated that a combination of hydrologic and cost zonation models would improve sustainable management planning of water resources and their hydrological ecosystem services have great spatiotemporal fluctuation.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Takuya Kajimoto, Lina Koyama, Gaku Kudo, Hideaki Shibata, Yosuke Yanai, J. H. C. Cornelissen
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 29 (4) 593 - 606 0912-3814 2014/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The winter climate is changing in many parts of the world, and it is predicted that winter climate change will modify the structure and function of plant-soil systems. An understanding of these changes and their consequences in terrestrial ecosystems requires knowledge of the linkage between above- and below-ground components as well as the species interactions found in plant-soil systems, which have important implications for biogeochemical cycles. However, winter climate-change studies have focused on only a part of the ecosystem or ecological process. We summarize here recent findings related to the effects of winter climate and its changes on soil nitrogen (N) dynamics, greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions from the soil, N use by individual plants, vegetation development, and interactions between vegetation and pollinators to generate an integrative understanding of the response of the plant-soil system to winter climate change. This review indicates that the net effects on plants, soil microbes, pollinators, and the associated biogeochemical cycles are balanced among several processes and are highly variable depending on the context, such as the target species/functional group, original winter condition of the habitat, and type of climate change. The consequences of winter climate change for species interactions among plants, associated animals, and biogeochemical cycles are largely unknown. For further research, a large-scale comparative study to measure ecosystem-level functions is important, especially in less-cold ecosystems.
  • Rieko Urakawa, Hideaki Shibata, Megumi Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Ryunosuke Tateno, Takuo Hishi, Karibu Fukuzawa, Keizo Hirai, Hiroto Toda, Nobuhiro Oyanagi, Makoto Nakata, Asami Nakanishi, Keitaro Fukushima, Tsutomu Enoki, Yuichi Suwa
    SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY 74 82 - 94 0038-0717 2014/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In temperate forest ecosystems, accelerated freeze-thaw cycles caused by winter climate change are expected to affect nitrogen (N) cycling in soils. Net N mineralization and nitrification rates were investigated via incubations of sieved soils transplanted from ten temperate forest ecosystems to two northern Japan sites with natural snowfall gradients. This was done to address: 1) how freeze-thaw cycles affect N mineralization and nitrification in temperate forest soils; 2) whether freeze-thaw cycles change the soil N transformation rates in the following growing season; and 3) which soil characteristics affect the response of the N transformation rates to freeze-thaw cycles. The effect of freeze-thaw cycles on inorganic N and dissolved organic carbon productions differed among soils, that is, some soils produced more inorganic N and dissolved organic carbon in the conditions imposed by freeze-thaw cycles than in the non-frozen treatment but the others did not. The response to the freeze(t)haw cycles was explained by soil microbial activity (gross N mineralization and nitrification rate) and soil fertility (inorganic N pools in the early spring and water soluble ions). Freeze-thaw cycles significantly increased N transformation rates in the following growing season, suggesting that winter climate change might also affect nutrient availability for vegetation and soil microbes in the growing season. The magnitude and frequency of freeze-thaw cycles were considered to be important indicators of N transformation rates during the growing season, suggesting that the higher intensity of freeze-thaw cycles in the original locations of soils changed the microbial communities and functions with high tolerance to freeze-thaw cycles; this resulted in greater N transformation rates in the following growing season. Microbial activity, soil fertility and climate patterns in the original locations of soils are believed to have an effect on the response to winter climate change and to cause large variability of soil response of N transformation rates to freeze-thaw cycles in both the dormant and growing seasons. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Tsutomu Enoki, Tohru Nakashizuka, Shin-ichi Nakano, Takeshi Miki, Yu-Pin Lin, Masahiro Nakaoka, Eri Mizumachi, Hideaki Shibata
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 29 (3) 357 - 368 0912-3814 2014/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The primary goal of the 60th anniversary symposium of the Ecological Society of Japan (ESJ) was to re-examine the role of the Society. The first of five lectures, "Development of Long-term Ecological Research in Japan," discussed the increasingly important role of long-term and networked research studies. Ecological research in Asia faces many challenges, because Asia features natural and anthropogenic landscapes with highly diverse ecosystems. "Developing Strategies of the Ecological Society of Japan for Worldwide Societies of Ecology with Special Reference to Strategies for Asia" emphasized the role of ESJ in promoting ecological research and outreach in Asia. Ecosystem sustainability is a key issue in both the theory and practice of ecosystem management. A framework concept of an environmental and biodiversity cycle was proposed in the session "Linking Community and Ecosystem Dynamics" for understanding the mechanisms driving the sustainability of ecosystems. Ecosystem services are essential aspects of land use and conservation planning and management. "Integrating Models of Ecosystem Services and Land Use Changes" reviewed recently-developed models that simulate patterns of land-use change and analyze its effects on ecosystem services and also recommended future directions for collaboration among researchers. "Disaster Resilience and Coastal Ecology" highlighted the contributions of ecologists to evaluating the resilience of damaged coastal ecosystems and provided sound proposals to local communities and governments for rehabilitation plans. The past achievements and future directions of ESJ were discussed by the panelists and the audience in "Past and Future of the Ecological Society of Japan.".
  • Takuo Hishi, Rieko Urakawa, Naoaki Tashiro, Yuka Maeda, Hideaki Shibata
    BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS 50 (2) 343 - 356 0178-2762 2014/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    This study aimed to evaluate the spatial patterns of soil nitrogen (N) transformations in relation to slope aspect and position, and to investigate the main factors controlling N transformation patterns during both the growing and dormant seasons in cool-temperate deciduous natural forests and larch plantations in eastern Hokkaido, northern Japan. Net rates of N mineralization (NRminN) and of nitrification (NRnit) in surface soils on north-facing and lower slopes were higher than those on south-facing and upper slopes, whereas the net rate of ammonium-N production (NRamm) on south-facing and upper slopes was higher than that on north-facing slopes in both the natural forests and larch plantations. Both NRminN and NRnit were higher in the growing than in the dormant season, whereas NRamm was higher in the dormant season. The soil C/N ratio, water content, soil pH and frequency of freeze-thaw cycles were important variables affecting N transformation patterns in any season. In relation to seasonality, the solar radiation index, daily temperature range and earthworm biomass were important controlling factors only during the growing season, and watershed area and soil N concentration only during the dormant season, suggesting that biological control accompanied with wet-dry events were important factors affecting N transformations during the growing season, but that run-off water and chemical controls were important determinants of spatial variation in N transformations during the dormant season.
  • U. Tsunogai, D. D. Komatsu, T. Ohyama, A. Suzuki, F. Nakagawa, I. Noguchi, K. Takagi, M. Nomura, K. Fukuzawa, H. Shibata
    BIOGEOSCIENCES 11 (19) 5411 - 5424 1726-4170 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Temporal variations in the stable isotopic compositions of nitrate dissolved in stream water eluted from a cool-temperate forested watershed (8 ha) were measured to quantify the biogeochemical effects of clear-cutting of trees and subsequent strip-cutting of the understory vegetation, dwarf bamboo (Sasa senanensis), with special emphasis on changes in the fate of atmospheric nitrate that had been deposited onto the watershed based on Delta O-17 values of nitrate. A significant increase in stream nitrate concentration to 15 mu mol L-1 in spring of 2004 was correlated with a significant increase in the Delta O-17 values of nitrate. Additionally, the high Delta O-17 values of +14.3 parts per thousand suggest that the direct drainage of atmospheric nitrate accounted for more than 50% of total nitrate exported from the forested watershed peaking in spring. Similar increases in both concentrations and Delta O-17 values were also found in spring of 2005. Conversely, low Delta O-17 values less than +1.5% were observed in other seasons, regardless of increases in stream nitrate concentration, indicating that the majority of nitrate exported from the forested watershed during seasons other than spring was remineralized nitrate: those retained in the forested ecosystem as either organic N or ammonium and then been converted to nitrate via microbial nitrification. When compared with the values prior to strip-cutting, the annual export of atmospheric nitrate and remineralized nitrate increased more than 16-fold and fourfold, respectively, in 2004, and more than 13-fold and fivefold, respectively, in 2005. The understory vegetation (Sasa) was particularly important to enhancing biological consumption of atmospheric nitrate.
  • Water yield, nitrogen and sediment retentions in northern Japan (Teshio river watershed): land use change scenario analysis
    Fan M, Shibata H
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change online 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Global Land Project Sapporo Nodal Office addressing land system studies on resilience, sustainability and vulnerability in Asia
    Watanabe T, Shibata H, Ishihara M, Yoshimura N, Kohyama T
    Global Environmental Research 18 (2) 105 - 112 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • H. Shibata, Y. Hasegawa, T. Watanabe, K. Fukuzawa
    BIOGEOCHEMISTRY 116 (1-3) 69 - 82 0168-2563 2013/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Winter climate change is an important environmental driver that alters the biogeochemical processes of forest soils. The decrease in snowpack amplifies soil freeze-thaw cycles and decreases the snowmelt water supply to soil. This study examined how snow decrease affects nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification in forest soil in northern Japan by conducting an in situ experimental snowpack manipulation experiment and a laboratory incubation of soil with different moisture, temperature and freeze-thaw magnitudes. For the incubation studies, surface mineral soil (0-10 cm) was collected from a cool-temperate natural mixed forest and incubated using the resin core method during the winter. In the field, there were two treatments: 50 and 100 % snow removal and control plots. The increase in the soil freeze-thaw cycle increased net N mineralization and marginally decreased the net nitrification in soil. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and DOC/DON ratio in soil increased with the decrease in snowpack especially during the snow melt period. These results suggested that the change in substrate quality by the increase in freeze-thaw cycles caused the significant enhancement of microbial ammonium production in soil. The lower soil moisture and higher gross immobilization of inorganic N by soil microbes may be maintaining the slow net nitrification and low nitrate leaching in freeze-thaw cycles with less snowpack. The results indicate that winter climate change would strongly impact N biogeochemistry through the increase in ammonium availability in soil for plants and microbes, whereas it would be unlikely that nitrate loss from surface soil would be enhanced.
  • Karibu Fukuzawa, Hideaki Shibata, Kentaro Takagi, Fuyuki Satoh, Takayoshi Koike, Kaichiro Sasa
    FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT 310 700 - 710 0378-1127 2013/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To understand the temporal pattern of fine-root dynamics and the factors that affect it, we investigated the seasonal and interannual variation in fine-root production (FRP) and fine-root mortality (FRM) rates, as well as fine-root biomass (FRB) and necromass in a cool temperate forest in northern Japan that was covered with dense understory vegetation of Sasa senanensis. We measured the root length density (RLD) and the rate of root production and mortality over 3 yr using minirhizotrons, and compared these rates with temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, and plant area indices (PAI). We also measured the FRB and the necromass of fine roots four times per year for 2 yr using soil cores and calculated dry weight-based FRP and FRM. FRB in the uppermost 15 cm of the surface-soil layer accounted for 41-61% of the biomass up to 60 cm soil depth, and decreased with increasing soil depth. The biomass of fine roots with root diameters <0.5 mm was almost equivalent to that of roots measuring 0.5-2 mm in diameter. Sasa roots accounted for 59-88% of the total FRB. FRB did not fluctuate seasonally, whereas RLD did. The FRP rate was high in mid- to late summer and correlated significantly with air and soil temperatures, indicating that temperature affects FRP. However, the relationship between FRP and soil moisture was weak. FRP was significantly correlated with the PAI of oak trees and the increment in the PAI of Sasa, suggesting that endogenous factors also affect FRP. Depending on the method used to calculate turnover, mean FRP for the 3-year study period was 589 or 726 g m(2) yr(-1), accounting for 36% or 41% of forest net primary production, respectively. The results of this study illustrate the substantial seasonal and interannual fluctuations in FRP, and indicate that a significant proportion of assimilated carbon was allocated to below-ground root systems in an oak-Sasa stand. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tomoya Iwata, Takao Suzuki, Hiroyuki Togashi, Naoto Koiwa, Hideaki Shibata, Jotaro Urabe
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 28 (5) 703 - 716 0912-3814 2013/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Riverine transport of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from land to the ocean is an important carbon flux that influences the carbon budget at the watershed scale. However, the dynamics of DIC in an entire river network has remained unknown, especially in mountainous Japanese watersheds. We examined the effects of watershed land use and geology on the transports of inorganic carbon as well as weathered silica (Si) and calcium (Ca) in the Iwaki River system where agricultural and residential areas have developed in the middle and lower parts of the watershed. The concentration and stable carbon isotope ratios (delta C-13) of DIC showed the longitudinal increase of C-13-depleted inorganic carbon along the river. As a result, most streams and rivers were supersaturated in dissolved CO2 that will eventually be emitted to the atmosphere. The possible origin of C-13-depleted carbon is CO2 derived from the decomposition of organic matter in agricultural and urban landscapes, as well as from in-stream respiration. In addition, agricultural and urban areas, respectively, exported the large amount of dissolved Si and Ca to the rivers, suggesting that CO2 increased by respiration accelerates the chemical weathering of silicate and carbonate materials in soils, river sediments, and/or urban infrastructure. Furthermore, riverine bicarbonate flux is likely to enter shell carbonates of Corbicula japonica, an aragonitic bivalve, in the downstream brackish lake (Lake Jusan). These results revealed that the flux of DIC from the human-dominated watersheds is a key to understanding the carbon dynamics and food-web structure along the land-to-river-to-ocean continuum.
  • Yuzo Yamamoto, Hideaki Shibata, Hiroshi Ueda
    Zoological Science 30 (8) 607 - 612 0289-0003 2013/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Many attempts have been made to identify natal stream odors for salmon olfactory homing. It has recently been hypothesized that odors are dissolved free amino acids however, it is unknown whether these odors change on a seasonal or annual basis. We analyzed dissolved free amino acid (DFAA) concentration and composition of water from the Teshio River in Hokkaido, Japan, where chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) returned for spawning, during juvenile downstream migration in spring and adult upstream migration in autumn with a 4-year difference. Among the 19 amino acids found in the Teshio River water, DFAA concentrations fluctuated largely, but 5-7 stable DFAA compositions (mole %) were found between the spring and autumn samples over a 4-year span. Two kinds of artificial stream water (ASW) were prepared using the same DFAA concentration in the Teshio River during the time of juvenile imprinting in spring (jASW) and adult homing in autumn (aASW), after a 4-year period. In behavioral experiments of upstream selective movement in a 2choice test tank, 4-year-old mature male chum salmon captured in the Teshio River showed significant preference for either jASW or aASW when compared to control water, but did not show any preference with respect to jASW or aASW. In electro-olfactogram experiments, adults were able to discriminate between jASW and aASW. Our findings demonstrate that the long-term stability of the DFAA compositions in natal streams may be crucial for olfactory homing in chum salmon. © 2013 Zoological Society of Japan.
  • Tsunehiro Watanabe, Karibu Fukuzawa, Hideaki Shibata
    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 18 (2) 129 - 138 1341-6979 2013/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We investigated the dynamics of litterfall and litter decomposition of Sasa dwarf bamboo (Sasa senanensis) and trees to clarify the characteristics of organic matter and nitrogen cycling between plant and soil in a natural cool-temperate mixed forest ecosystem dominated by an understory vegetation of Sasa. Mean annual Sasa litterfall over the 3-year study period was 164 g m(-2) year(-1), which accounted for approximately 29% of total litterfall. Litter decomposition of Sasa leaf and Sasa culm was significantly slower than that of tree leaf during first and second years. The slow decomposition rates of both Sasa litter types were caused by a significantly higher silicate than in tree leaf. Nitrogen concentration in litter increased as decomposition progressed, especially in Sasa leaf and tree leaf. As a result of the slow decomposition of both Sasa litter types, 111 and 73% of nitrogen to the initial amounts were retained in Sasa leaf and Sasa culm after 3 years, respectively. The amounts of retained nitrogen in Sasa leaf, Sasa culm, and tree leaf after 3 years were 1.29, 0.47, and 3.92 g N m(-2), respectively, indicating that the differences of litter decomposition rates among the litter types influence on the nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystem through the differences of the nitrogen release from litter.
  • Petteri Vihervaara, Dalia D'Amato, Martin Forsius, Per Angelstam, Cornelia Baessler, Patricia Balvanera, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Patrick Bourgeron, Jan Dick, Robert Kanka, Stefan Klotz, Manuel Maass, Viesturs Melecis, Petr Petřík, Hideaki Shibata, Jianwu Tang, Jill Thompson, Steffen Zacharias
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5 (1) 53 - 66 1877-3435 2013/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The International Long Term Ecological Research (ILTER) network can coordinate ecological research to provide observations of the ecosystem changes, and their socio-economic impacts on human societies at different scales. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of the ILTER network in the study and monitoring of environmental changes at a global level. We give examples of how biodiversity and ecosystem service data can be used to study impacts and adaptation options in response to climate change. Analysis of the 107 recent publications from LTER networks representing 21 countries show that LTER studies are often local and heterogeneous. There are some ecosystem types, such as agricultural or coastal ecosystems that are not covered with current ILTER network. Standardized monitoring schemes and techniques should be considered for future steering of ILTER collaboration. Integrating and synthesizing the collected data should be prioritized for future cooperation, and integrated in decision-making. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
  • Paula Sankelo, Kimitaka Kawamura, Osamu Seki, Hideaki Shibata, James Bendle
    ARCTIC ANTARCTIC AND ALPINE RESEARCH 45 (1) 119 - 131 1523-0430 2013/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Plant waxes (e.g. long-chain n-alkanes) in ice cores are a promising paleovegetation proxy. However, much work needs to be done to assess how n-alkanes are transported from source areas to, and incorporated into, glacial archives. In this paper we present analyses of n-alkanes in seasonal snow and assess the information on source vegetation. n-Alkanes with carbon numbers C-18 to C-43 were extracted from snow samples collected at two sites in Hokkaido, northern Japan, during winter 2009-2010. Molecular distributions revealed that the majority of the n-alkanes originated from higher vegetation (ca. 65%), rather than anthropogenic sources. The distribution characteristics confirmed that the n-alkane signal had a wide regional origin, rather than a local source. We determined stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions for the C-27 n-alkane. The delta C-13 of the C-27 (-28.2 to -33.0 parts per thousand) was more representative of C3 than C4 vegetation, while the delta D of the C-27 ( -169.9 to -223.1 parts per thousand) indicated growth latitudes more northerly than Hokkaido. The nalkanes in the snow preserve information about the source vegetation type (photosynthetic group, growth site), confirming that if deposited with seasonal snows that firnify to form glacial ice, they have potential to record broad, regional vegetation changes over time.
  • Takeshi Motohka, Toshiya Yoshida, Hideaki Shibata, Takeo Tadono, Masanobu Shimada
    2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING SYMPOSIUM (IGARSS) 968 - 971 2153-6996 2013 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In this study, we examine the applicability of digital surface model (DSM) generated from ALOS PRISM data for mapping forest above ground biomass (AGB). We obtained the digital canopy height model (DCHM) by calculating the differences between the PRISM DSM and surveying-based digital elevation model (DEM), and investigated the relationship between the DCHM values and field measured mean tree height and AGB in Northern Hokkaido, Japan. The results show a strong linear relationship between the field measured AGB and PRISM-DCHM (R = 0.872, n = 25). The RMSE and bias of the regression model, which were evaluated by the leave-one-out cross validation, are 38.1 t/ha (22 %) and -0.2 t/ha, respectively. Saturation at high AGB is not shown. We also demonstrate the wall-to-wall AGB mapping by using the regression model and the PRISM DCHM image. A pan-sharpen image generated from PRISM and AVNIR-2 images is utilized for forest cover mapping. The PRISM-based AGB values are generally reasonable except for high mountain areas. The relationship between the PRISM AGB and backscattering coefficient measured by L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) is consistent with the regression models discovered by the previous researches.
  • K. Makoto, H. Shibata, Y. S. Kim, T. Satomura, K. Takagi, M. Nomura, F. Satoh, T. Koike
    BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS 48 (5) 569 - 577 0178-2762 2012/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Ecological function of charcoal has been mainly investigated by adding charcoal to soil, which is not fully adequate to understand in situ the role in fire-prone forest ecosystem. To determine in situ effects of charcoal on ecosystem functions, such as nutrient availability, we conducted an experimental burning in a Japanese white birch forest with dense coverage of dwarf bamboo in the understory with or without removal of charcoal. Ammonium-N in the remaining humus layer increased immediately after the burning, but decreased to the level of unburnt plots within 1 month of the burning. Removal of charcoal had no significant effect on the NH4 (+)-N dynamics. Although burning did not affect NO3 (-)-N dynamics during the sampling period, charcoal removal led to a slight increase in NO3 (-)-N. The available P increased immediately after the burning, but then fell at 1 month after burning. Charcoal inhibited the available P depletion and prolonged the high availability of P. Greater availability of P might be due to the adsorption of phosphate in charcoal pores. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased gradually; charcoal appeared to extend the period of higher concentration of exchangeable Ca and Mg. Charcoal deriving from fire is a key factor in influencing available nutrient in the humus layer of post-fire forests.
  • Ohnishi, T, Yoh, M, Nagao, S, Shibata, H
    Global Environmental Research 15 (2) 173 - 182 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Karibu Fukuzawa, Masako Dannoura, Hideaki Shibata
    Measuring Roots: An Updated Approach 291 - 302 2012/01/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Studies of fine root phenology and respiration in forest ecosystems are reviewed. Direct, nondestructive observation methods, such as the minirhizotron imaging systemand the rootwindow, provide simultaneous quantitativemeasurements of root production and mortality. Temporal patterns are discussed, as well as endogenous and exogenous factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) controlling fine root dynamics. Both root respiration and microbial respiration release CO2 from the soil to the atmosphere methods that distinguish them are evaluated. Finally, factors controlling root respiration, such as root age and diameter and soil nitrogen concentration, are reviewed, and approaches for scaling up root respiration to stand level are discussed.
  • Yong Suk Kim, Kobayashi Makoto, Fumiaki Takakai, Hideaki Shibata, Takami Satomura, Kentaro Takagi, Ryusuke Hatano, Takayoshi Koike
    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 130 (6) 1031 - 1044 1612-4669 2011/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Forest fires affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forest ecosystems, and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). To determine changes in the soil GHG fluxes following a forest fire, we arranged a low-intensity surface fire in a white birch forest in northern Japan. We established three treatments, having four replications each: a control plot (CON), a burned plot (BURN), and a plot burned with removal of the resulting charcoal (BURN-CHA). Soil GHG fluxes and various properties of the soil were determined on four or five occasions during a period that spanned two growing seasons. We observed increased concentrations of ammonium-N (NH(4)-N) in BURN and BURN-CHA after the fire, while nitrate-N (NO(3)-N) concentration was only increased in BURN-CHA after the fire. The soil CO(2) flux was significantly higher in CON than in BURN or BURN-CHA, but there was no difference in soil CH(4) uptake between the three treatments. Moreover, the N(2)O flux from BURN-CHA soil was slightly greater than in CON or BURN. In BURN-CHA, the soil N(2)O flux peaked in August, but there was no peak in BURN. We found temporal correlations between soil GHG fluxes and soil variables, e.g. soil temperature or NO(3)-N. Our results suggest that environmental changes following fire, including the increased availability of N and the disappearance of the litter layer, have the potential to change soil GHG fluxes. Fire-produced charcoal could be significant in reducing soil N(2)O flux in temperate forests.
  • Ayaka Yamasaki, Ryunosuke Tateno, Hideaki Shibata
    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 16 (5) 414 - 423 1341-6979 2011/10 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Soil N mineralization is affected by microbial biomass and respiration, which are limited by available C and N. To examine the relationship between C and N for soil microbial dynamics and N dynamics, we conducted long-term laboratory incubation (150 days) after C and N amendment and measured changes in C and N mineralization, microbial biomass C, and dissolved C and N throughout the incubation period. The study soil was volcanic immature soil from the southern part of Japan, which contains lower C and N compared with other Japanese forest soils. Despite this, the area is covered by well-developed natural and plantation forests. Carbon amendment resulted in an increase in both microbial biomass and respiration, and net N mineralization decreased, probably due to increasing microbial immobilization. In contrast, N amendment resulted in a decrease in microbial respiration and an increase in net N mineralization, possibly due to decreased immobilization by microbes. Amendment of both C and N simultaneously did not affect microbial biomass and respiration, although net N mineralization was slightly increased. The results suggested that inhibitory effect on microbial respiration by N amendment should be reduced if carbon availability is higher. Thus, soil available C may limit microbial biomass and respiration in this volcanic immature soil. Even in immature soil where C and N substrate is low, soil C, such as plant root exudates and materials from above- and belowground dead organisms, might help to maintain microbial activity and N mineralization in this study site.
  • Hideaki Shibata, Rieko Urakawa, Hiroto Toda, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Ryunosuke Tateno, Keisuke Koba, Asami Nakanishi, Karibu Fukuzawa, Ayaka Yamasaki
    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 16 (5) 374 - 385 1341-6979 2011/10 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Net nitrogen transformation was investigated under different climate conditions by soil transplantation and in situ incubation of forest surface soils using the resin-core method. Selected conditions were considered to reflect those of the natural climate gradient in the Japanese archipelago. Study sites were established in natural forests in northern Hokkaido (Uryu), northern Kanto (Kusaki), central Kinki (Kamigamo), and southern Kyushu (Takakuma), representing the northernmost to the southernmost island regions of Japan. Field experiments comparing soils incubated at "native" and "transplanted" sites were conducted from June 2008 to May 2009. Net production, accumulation, and leaching of soil ammonium (NH(4) (+)) and nitrate (NO(3) (-)) were measured at each of the sites during the growing season (June-October), the dormant season (November-May), and throughout the year. Net nitrate production was highest in Kusaki soil, especially during the growing season, whereas net ammonium production was highest in Uryu soil, the coldest site, especially during the dormant season. Net nitrate production increased significantly in soils transplanted to a warmer climate during the growing season. However, net ammonium production increased in soils transplanted to colder climates during the dormant season. These findings indicate that, with the exception of the infertile soil samples from Kamigamo, the range of natural climates in Japan has a significant effect on nitrogen availability in surface soil. In addition, the original characteristics of the nitrogen cycle of the surface soil from each native site were retained, even when marked changes in soil temperature (approximately 8A degrees C) occurred after transplantation.
  • Megumi Kuroiwa, Keisuke Koba, Kazuo Isobe, Ryunosuke Tateno, Asami Nakanishi, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Hiroto Toda, Shigeto Otsuka, Keishi Senoo, Yuichi Suwa, Muneoki Yoh, Rieko Urakawa, Hideaki Shibata
    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 16 (5) 363 - 373 1341-6979 2011/10 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    Measurements of gross NH (4) (+) and NO (3) (-) production in forest soils were conducted using the N-15 pool dilution method. Mineral topsoils (0-10 cm depth) were collected from four forests from northern to southern Japan with a natural climate gradient to elucidate the mechanisms regulating gross nitrification rates in forest soils. Additionally, we attempted to evaluate the relative importance of heterotrophic nitrification in gross total nitrification using acetylene as a specific inhibitor of autotrophic nitrification. Distinct differences were found among sites in the gross rates of NH (4) (+) production (3.1-11.4 mg N kg(-1) day(-1)) and gross total nitrification (0.0-6.1 mg N kg(-1) day(-1)). The rates of gross heterotrophic nitrification were low in this study, indicating that heterotrophic nitrification is of minor importance in most forest mineral topsoils in Japan. Significant relations were found between gross autotrophic nitrification and gross NH (4) (+) production, soil N, and soil C concentrations, but none was found between gross autotrophic nitrification and soil pH. We determined the critical value of the gross NH (4) (+) production rates for gross autotrophic nitrification under which no gross autotrophic nitrification occurred, as well as the critical soil C/N ratio above which gross autotrophic nitrification ceased. Results show that tight coupling of production and consumption of NH (4) (+) prevents autotrophic nitrifiers from utilizing NH (4) (+) as long as NH (4) (+) availability is low.
  • Hideaki Shibata, Hiroto Toda, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Ryunosuke Tateno, Keisuke Koba, Takeshi Tange
    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 16 (5) 331 - 332 1341-6979 2011/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Megumi Kuroiwa, Keisuke Koba, Kazuo Isobe, Ryunosuke Tateno, Asami Nakanishi, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Hiroto Toda, Shigeto Otsuka, Keishi Senoo, Yuichi Suwa, Muneoki Yoh, Rieko Urakawa, Hideaki Shibata
    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 16 (5) 363 - 373 1341-6979 2011/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Measurements of gross NH (4) (+) and NO (3) (-) production in forest soils were conducted using the N-15 pool dilution method. Mineral topsoils (0-10 cm depth) were collected from four forests from northern to southern Japan with a natural climate gradient to elucidate the mechanisms regulating gross nitrification rates in forest soils. Additionally, we attempted to evaluate the relative importance of heterotrophic nitrification in gross total nitrification using acetylene as a specific inhibitor of autotrophic nitrification. Distinct differences were found among sites in the gross rates of NH (4) (+) production (3.1-11.4 mg N kg(-1) day(-1)) and gross total nitrification (0.0-6.1 mg N kg(-1) day(-1)). The rates of gross heterotrophic nitrification were low in this study, indicating that heterotrophic nitrification is of minor importance in most forest mineral topsoils in Japan. Significant relations were found between gross autotrophic nitrification and gross NH (4) (+) production, soil N, and soil C concentrations, but none was found between gross autotrophic nitrification and soil pH. We determined the critical value of the gross NH (4) (+) production rates for gross autotrophic nitrification under which no gross autotrophic nitrification occurred, as well as the critical soil C/N ratio above which gross autotrophic nitrification ceased. Results show that tight coupling of production and consumption of NH (4) (+) prevents autotrophic nitrifiers from utilizing NH (4) (+) as long as NH (4) (+) availability is low.
  • Hideaki Shibata, Rieko Urakawa, Hiroto Toda, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Ryunosuke Tateno, Keisuke Koba, Asami Nakanishi, Karibu Fukuzawa, Ayaka Yamasaki
    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 16 (5) 374 - 385 1341-6979 2011/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Net nitrogen transformation was investigated under different climate conditions by soil transplantation and in situ incubation of forest surface soils using the resin-core method. Selected conditions were considered to reflect those of the natural climate gradient in the Japanese archipelago. Study sites were established in natural forests in northern Hokkaido (Uryu), northern Kanto (Kusaki), central Kinki (Kamigamo), and southern Kyushu (Takakuma), representing the northernmost to the southernmost island regions of Japan. Field experiments comparing soils incubated at "native" and "transplanted" sites were conducted from June 2008 to May 2009. Net production, accumulation, and leaching of soil ammonium (NH(4) (+)) and nitrate (NO(3) (-)) were measured at each of the sites during the growing season (June-October), the dormant season (November-May), and throughout the year. Net nitrate production was highest in Kusaki soil, especially during the growing season, whereas net ammonium production was highest in Uryu soil, the coldest site, especially during the dormant season. Net nitrate production increased significantly in soils transplanted to a warmer climate during the growing season. However, net ammonium production increased in soils transplanted to colder climates during the dormant season. These findings indicate that, with the exception of the infertile soil samples from Kamigamo, the range of natural climates in Japan has a significant effect on nitrogen availability in surface soil. In addition, the original characteristics of the nitrogen cycle of the surface soil from each native site were retained, even when marked changes in soil temperature (approximately 8A degrees C) occurred after transplantation.
  • Ayaka Yamasaki, Ryunosuke Tateno, Hideaki Shibata
    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 16 (5) 414 - 423 1341-6979 2011/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Soil N mineralization is affected by microbial biomass and respiration, which are limited by available C and N. To examine the relationship between C and N for soil microbial dynamics and N dynamics, we conducted long-term laboratory incubation (150 days) after C and N amendment and measured changes in C and N mineralization, microbial biomass C, and dissolved C and N throughout the incubation period. The study soil was volcanic immature soil from the southern part of Japan, which contains lower C and N compared with other Japanese forest soils. Despite this, the area is covered by well-developed natural and plantation forests. Carbon amendment resulted in an increase in both microbial biomass and respiration, and net N mineralization decreased, probably due to increasing microbial immobilization. In contrast, N amendment resulted in a decrease in microbial respiration and an increase in net N mineralization, possibly due to decreased immobilization by microbes. Amendment of both C and N simultaneously did not affect microbial biomass and respiration, although net N mineralization was slightly increased. The results suggested that inhibitory effect on microbial respiration by N amendment should be reduced if carbon availability is higher. Thus, soil available C may limit microbial biomass and respiration in this volcanic immature soil. Even in immature soil where C and N substrate is low, soil C, such as plant root exudates and materials from above- and belowground dead organisms, might help to maintain microbial activity and N mineralization in this study site.
  • Motomu Toda, Pasi Kolari, Taro Nakai, Yuji Kodama, Hideaki Shibata, Toshiya Yoshida, Shigeru Uemura, Akihiro Sumida, Kyoko Kato, Kiyomi Ono, Toshihiko Hara
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-BIOGEOSCIENCES 116 (G2) 1 - 14 0148-0227 2011/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The effects of wind disturbance on forest dynamics and ecosystem CO2 exchange were examined in cool temperate forests of northern Japan during 2004-2008 using eddy covariance (EC) measurements. One site was a young, even-aged, monoculture, deciduous forest; the other was an uneven-aged mixed forest of evergreen and deciduous overstory tree species, including some over 200 years old. On 8 September 2004, a strong typhoon struck the forests, after which leaf and branch amounts decreased in young growth forest, but foliage showed little change in old growth forest. By 2006, foliage at the young-growth forest had recovered to the 2004 pretyphoon state. Average daily accumulated gross primary production (GPP(d)), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TERd), and net ecosystem exchange (NEEd) were assessed for six growth stages annually. After the typhoon, large increases in GPP(d) were found during the growing stage of overstory tree species with high photosynthetic rates compared to that before the typhoon. Pronounced increases in GPP(d) and corresponding large reductions in NEEd were detected at the young-growth forest, indicating that NEEd was largely regulated by GPP(d) throughout the growing stages. Although EC measurements contain uncertainty, our continuous EC measurements revealed that interannual variability in meteorological variables and structural changes in foliage have only small impacts on GPP and NEE, while photosynthetic recovery of foliage from typhoon damage has high potential to increase GPP and enhance NEE as compared with those under nondamage conditions.
  • Keiichi Aoyama, Toshiya Yoshida, Akane Harada, Mahoko Noguchi, Hisashi Miya, Hideaki Shibata
    JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 16 (1) 35 - 45 1341-6979 2011/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To restore non-wooded stands dominated by dwarf bamboo species (Sasa kurilensis or S. senanensis) into forests, mechanical soil scarification has been applied in northern Japan since the 1960s. The treatment is followed both by natural regeneration and artificial planting. In this study, we quantified the total carbon stock (plants plus 0.3 m depth of soil) of these stands over 35-year age-sequences. The natural regeneration stands were gradually dominated by Betula ermanii. The carbon stock increased linearly to 215.1 +/- A 35.2 Mg C ha(-1) for a 37-year-old stand formerly dominated by S. kurilensis, and 181.1 +/- A 29.8 Mg C ha(-1) for a 34-year-old stand formerly dominated by S. senanensis. The latter was similar to that of a Picea glehnii plantation, formerly dominated by S. senanensis, with comparable stand age (160.3 +/- A 6.7 Mg C ha(-1) for 35-year-old stands). Although the carbon stock in plants quickly offset the untreated level, that in the soil remained depressed even in the older stands. This resulted in small differences in carbon stock of these stands with untreated dwarf bamboo stands. We conclude that natural regeneration following scarification could be a prime option for carbon sink management in the region. However, we should take a long rotation period (i.e., > 50 years) to ensure a carbon sink state. A potential of further improvements of the practice, including that reduce intensity of soil disturbance, was presented.
  • 柴田英昭, 高木健太郎, 吉田俊也, 福澤加里部, 佐藤冬樹, 笹賀一郎
    水利科学 54 (6) 30-42  0039-4858 2011/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Shibata H, Urakawa R, Toda H, Inagaki Y, Tateno R, Koba K, Nakanishi A, Fukuzawa K, Yamasaki A
    Journal of Forest Research 16 (5) 374 - 385 1341-6979 2011 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Construction of a continental scale hydrological model that incorporate dissolved iron production mechanism
    Takeo Onishi, Muneoki Y, Hideaki S, Seiya N, Masayuki K, Shamov V.V
    Jounrnal of Hydrology - 2010/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • TAKAGI K
    Eurasian J For Res Hokkaido University Forests, EFRC 13 (1) 1 - 7 1345-8221 2010/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To evaluate the biomass of conifer-broadleaf mixed forests in northern Hokkaido, Japan, the relationships between tree dry masses (including belowground roots) and diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H) for major three tree species (Quercus crispula Blume, Betula ermanii Cham., and Abies sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Mast.) were calculated. In addition, carbon and nitrogen contents of each tree organ were measured for an accurate estimation of the carbon and nitrogen stocks in the trees. For all three species, one allometric equation explained the relationship between DBH (or DBH2...
  • NOGUCHI IZUMI, HAYASHI KENTARO, KATO TAKUNORI, YAMAGUCHI TAKASHI, AKIYAMA MASAYUKI, OTSUKA HIDEYUKI, SAKAI SHIGEKATSU, TAKAGI KENTARO, FUKAZAWA TATSUYA, SHIBATA HIDEAKI, FUJINUMA YASUMI, SAIGUSA NOBUKO, SHIMOTORI MINORU, ENDO TOMOMI, YAGO HIROAKI, MATSUDA KAZUHIDE, TSUNOGAI URUMU, HARA HIROSHI
    大気環境学会誌 45 (4) 153 - 165 1341-4178 2010/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 柴田英昭, 福澤加里部
    環境科学会誌 23 (4) 277 - 283 0915-0048 2010/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ji-Hyung Park, Lei Duan, Bomchul Kim, Myron J. Mitchell, Hideaki Shibata
    ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL 36 (2) 212 - 225 0160-4120 2010/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    An overview is provided of the potential effects of climate change on the watershed biogeochemical processes and surface water quality in mountainous watersheds of Northeast (NE) Asia that provide drinking water supplies for large populations. We address major 'local' issues with the case studies conducted at three watersheds along a latitudinal gradient going from northern Japan through the central Korean Peninsula and ending in southern China. Winter snow regimes and ground snowpack dynamics play a crucial role in many ecological and biogeochemical processes in the mountainous watersheds across northern Japan. A warmer winter with less snowfall, as has been projected for northern Japan, will alter the accumulation and melting of snowpacks and affect hydro-biogeochemical processes linking soil processes to surface water quality. Soils on steep hillslopes and rich in base cations have been shown to have distinct patterns in buffering acidic inputs during snowmelt. Alteration of soil microbial processes in response to more frequent freeze-thaw cycles under thinner snowpacks may increase nutrient leaching to stream waters. The amount and intensity of summer monsoon rainfalls have been increasing in Korea over recent decades. More frequent extreme rainfall events have resulted in large watershed export of sediments and nutrients from agricultural lands on steep hillslopes converted from forests. Surface water siltation caused by terrestrial export of sediments from these steep hillslopes is emerging as a new challenge for water quality management due to detrimental effects on water quality. Climatic predictions in upcoming decades for southern China include lower precipitation with large year-to-year variations. The results from a four-year intensive study at a forested watershed in Chongquing province showed that acidity and the concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in soil and surface waters were generally lower in the years with lower precipitation, suggesting year-to-year variations in precipitation as a key factor in modulating the effects of acid deposition on soil and surface water quality of this region. Results from these case studies suggest that spatially variable patterns of snow or summer precipitation associated with regional climate change across NE Asia will have significant impacts on watershed biogeochemical processes and surface water quality, in interactions with local topography, land use change, or acid deposition. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Onishi Takeo, Yoh Muneoki, Shibata Hideaki, Nagao Seiya, Kawahigashi Masayuki, Shamov Vladimir
    Hydrological Research Letters 水文・水資源学会 4 85 - 89 1882-3416 2010 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Iron is the limiting nutrient of phytoplankton in the Sea of Okhotsk, and the majority of iron in this system is fed by the Amur River. The recent conversion of wetlands, the main source of iron in the Amur River basin, to agricultural lands will likely impact dissolved iron productivity, which may also influence primary production in the Sea of Okhotsk. Therefore this study was conducted to construct a macroscopic index for use in assessing dissolved iron productivity in the basin. Correlation analysis between climate and topographic parameters and the observed dissolved iron concentration...
  • Osamu Seki, Takeshi Nakatsuka, Hideaki Shibata, Kimitaka Kawamura
    GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA Elsevier Ltd. 74 (2) 599 - 613 0016-7037 2010/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We measured molecular distributions and compound-specific hydrogen (delta D) and stable carbon isotopic ratios (delta C-13) of mid- and long-chain n-alkanes in forest soils, wetland peats and lake sediments within the Dorokawa watershed, Hokkaido, Japan, to better understand sources and processes associate with delivery of terrestrial organic matter into the lake sediments. delta C-13 values of odd carbon numbered C-23-C-33 n-alkanes ranged from -37.2 parts per thousand to -31.5 parts per thousand, while delta D values of these alkanes showed a large degree of variability that ranged from -244 parts per thousand to -180 parts per thousand. Molecular distributions in combination with stable carbon isotopic compositions indicate a large contribution of C3 trees as the main source of n-alkanes in forested soils whereas n-alkanes in wetland soil are exclusively derived from marsh grass and/or moss. We found that the n-alkane delta D values are much higher in forest soils than wetland peat. The higher delta D values in forest samples could be explained by the enrichment of deuterium in leaf and soil waters due to increased evapotranspiration in the forest or differences in physiology of source plants between wetland and forest. A delta C-13 vs. delta D diagram of n-alkanes among forest, wetland and lake samples showed that C-25-C-31 n-alkanes deposited in lake sediments are mainly derived-from tree leaves due to the preferential transport of the forest soil organic matter over the wetland or an increased contribution of atmospheric input of tree leaf wax in the offshore sites. This study demonstrates that compound-specific delta D analysis provides a useful approach for better understanding source and transport of terrestrial biomarkers in a C3 plant-dominated catchment. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • 柴田 英昭, 戸田 浩人, 稲垣 善之
    Global environmental research 国際環境研究協会 15 (2) 133 - 143 1342-226X 2010 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 柴田 英昭, 戸田 浩人, 福島 慶太郎, 谷尾 陽一, 高橋 輝昌, 吉田 俊也
    日本森林学会誌 日本森林学会 91 (6) 408 - 420 1349-8509 2009/12 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    日本の森林生態系における物質循環と森林施業の関わりについて、既往研究をレビューした。これまで、森林伐採が物質循環や水質形成に及ぼす影響については、伐採後に樹木の養分吸収が低下することによって、河川へ硝酸態窒素が溶脱することが示されてきた。一方、北海道北部における伐採後の林床植生による窒素養分吸収や、関東北部での火山灰土壌における硝酸吸着、流域水文過程に伴う河川水質変化など、日本における特色あるプロセスについて報告されている。また、急傾斜地における森林施業の結果として斜面崩壊が生じることで、流域生態系の水文・水質形成過程が影響されることも示唆された。さらに、河畔緩衝域での窒素除去、河川流路内での栄養塩スパイラル、里山における森林管理と物質循環変化など、生態系境界域での研究が重要であることが指摘されている。今後は、地域ごとの特性を考慮に入れるとともに、施業影響下での物質循環モデルのバラメタリゼーションなどをさらに推し進めることが重要である。
  • SHIBATA HIDEAKI, TODA HIROTO, FUKUSHIMA KEITARO, FUKUSHIMA KEITARO, TANIO YOICHI, TAKAHASHI TERUMASA, YOSHIDA TOSHIYA
    日本森林学会誌 91 (6) 408 - 420 1349-8509 2009/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • M. Katsuyama, H. Shibata, T. Yoshioka, T. Yoshida, A. Ogawa, N. Ohte
    SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE 4 (2) 179 - 188 1862-4065 2009/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We simulated hydrological and biogeochemical responses to logging in a forested watershed to determine the vulnerability and/or resiliency of the forest ecosystems in the Lake Shumarinai Basin in northern Hokkaido, Japan. We used a biogeochemical model (PnET-CN) and a rainfall-runoff model (HYCYMODEL) to predict ecosystem responses. The PnET-CN model simulated well the observed NO3 (-) concentrations in streamwater, particularly at high concentrations during snowmelt; however, the model could not simulate small increases in NO3 (-) during the summer. By considering hydrological processes within the watershed and combining the model with the HYCYMODEL (PnET + HYCYMODEL), the seasonality of streamwater NO3 (-) concentrations was better simulated. Using these models, the long-term effects of logging were simulated for coniferous, deciduous, and mixed forests. NO3 (-) concentrations in streamwater increased in response to the logging disturbance in both coniferous and deciduous forests. In the coniferous forest, NO3 (-) concentrations reached a maximum 10 years after logging, and high concentrations persisted for 30 years. In contrast, NO3 (-) concentrations in the deciduous forest reached a maximum within 3-4 years and recovered to pre-disturbance levels after 15 years. We also used the models to determine the effects of different sizes and types (coniferous, deciduous, and mixed forest) of logging areas on Lake Shumarinai. The model results indicated that large areas of cutting require more than 100 years for complete lake recovery. Whereas the annual discharge to the lake minimally increased, the annual NO3 (-) load greatly increased. Our simulation results elucidate the vulnerability and resiliency of forest ecosystems and provide valuable information for ecosystem management.
  • Nina Y. Ileva, Hideaki Shibata, Fuyuki Satoh, Kaichiro Sasa, Hiroshi Ueda
    SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE 4 (2) 189 - 198 1862-4065 2009/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present research investigated the relationship between nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) in river water and the land use/land cover (hereafter, land use) in the Teshio River watershed located in northern Hokkaido island to understand the effect of human activities such as agriculture, forestry, industry, and urbanization in the drainage basin on the river ecosystem quality and services. River water was sampled at nine points seasonally during a 2-year period and the nutrients concentration was measured. Land use profiles were estimated at two spatial scales, riparian and sub-catchment, for each sampling station. The spatial pattern of water quality in the Teshio River showed increased NO(3)-N levels associated with agriculture and urban expansion, and forest reduction in the watershed. Land use at the riparian scale closely reflected that at the sub-catchment scale, which masked the unique riparian buffer effect on the river water condition. The increased agricultural and reduced forest area in the riparian zone, especially in the upper middle reach, could be a possible reason for a decline of ecosystem service for the provisioning of clean water and habitat for aquatic organisms. Measures towards sustainable and more nature-friendly agricultural management are necessary in the area to protect the Teshio River ecosystem and its ecosystem services.
  • K. Ryu, M. Watanabe, H. Shibata, K. Takagi, M. Nomura, Takayoshi Koike
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 5 (2) 99 - 106 1860-1871 2009/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    For sustainable use and suitable management of larch plantations, we must clarify the ecophysiological responses of larch species to environmental changes. The physical environment has been changing dramatically, e.g., increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]), nitrogen (N) deposition, and atmospheric ozone concentration ([O(3)]), and these changes may negatively affect growth of larch species. This review summarizes the previous experimental studies on the ecophysiological responses of larch species to elevated [CO(2)], soil acidification, elevated [O(3)], and N load. Based on the advanced studies, although elevated [CO(2)] will stimulate the productivity of larch, increase of [O(3)] and severe soil acidification will reduce it. Increase of N deposition, at least, will not negatively affect larch productivity. Finally, we propose the future direction for investigation to understand the mechanism of the responses of larch species and to predict the associated risk.
  • Kentaro Hayashi, Kentaro Takagi, Izumi Noguchi, Karibu Fukuzawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Tatsuya Fukazawa, Hideaki Shibata, Yasumi Fujinuma
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 200 (1-4) 33 - 46 0049-6979 2009/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The present study aimed to elucidate the atmosphere-forest exchange of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH(X)-N) at a young larch ecosystem. NH(X)-N exchanges were measured at a remote site in northernmost Japan where 4-year-old larches were growing after a pristine forest had been clear-cut and subsequent dense dwarf bamboo (Sasa) had been strip-cut. The site was a clean area for atmospheric ammonia with mean concentrations of 0.38 and 0.11 mu g N m(-3) in snowless and snow seasons, respectively. However, there was a general net emission of NH(X)-N. The annual estimated emission of NH(X)-N of 4.8 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) exceeded the annual wet deposition of 2.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), but the weekly exchange fluxes may have been underestimated by 28-60%. The main cause of the ammonia loss from the young larch ecosystem was probably enhanced nitrogen supply stimulated by the cutting of the pristine forest and Sasa, in particular, the Sasa.
  • 福澤 加里部, 柴田 英昭, 高木 健太郎, 佐藤 冬樹, 笹賀 一郎, 小池 孝良
    根の研究 = Root research 18 (2) 0919-2182 2009/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Kentaro Takagi, Karibu Fukuzawa, Naishen Liang, Masazumi Kayama, Mutsumi Nomura, Hajime Hojyo, Sadao Sugata, Hideaki Shibata, Tatsuya Fukazawa, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Tatsuro Nakaji, Hiroyuki Oguma, Masayoshi Mano, Yukio Akibayashi, Takeshi Murayama, Takayoshi Koike, Kaichiro Sasa, Yasumi Fujinuma
    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY 15 (5) 1275 - 1288 1354-1013 2009/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To evaluate the effects on CO2 exchange of clearcutting a mixed forest and replacing it with a plantation, 4.5 years of continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes and soil respiration measurements were conducted in a conifer-broadleaf mixed forest in Hokkaido, Japan. The mixed forest was a weak carbon sink (net ecosystem exchange, -44 g C m(-2) yr(-1)), and it became a large carbon source (569 g C m(-2) yr(-1)) after clearcutting. However, the large emission in the harvest year rapidly decreased in the following 2 years (495 and 153 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively) as the gross primary production (GPP) increased, while the total ecosystem respiration (RE) remained relatively stable. The rapid increase in GPP was attributed to an increase in biomass and photosynthetic activity of Sasa dwarf bamboo, an understory species. Soil respiration increased in the 3 years following clearcutting, in the first year mainly owing to the change in the gap ratio of the forest, and in the following years because of increased root respiration by the bamboo. The ratio of soil respiration to RE increased from 44% in the forest to nearly 100% after clearcutting, and aboveground parts of the vegetation contributed little to the RE although the respiration chamber measurements showed heterogeneous soil condition after clearcutting.
  • NAKAGAWA Yasunori, SHIBATA Hideaki, SATOH Fuyuki, SASA Kaichiro
    Environmental science 環境科学会 22 (3) 173 - 186 0915-0048 2009/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Shibata H, Toda H, Fukushima K, Tanio Y, Takahashi T, Yoshida T
    Nihon Ringakkai Shi/Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 91 (6) 408 - 420 2009 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • T. Onishi, H. Shibata, M. Yoh, Seiya Nagao
    FROM HEADWATERS TO THE OCEAN: HYDROLOGICAL CHANGES AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 355 - + 2009 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Amur River basin is considered the main contributor of dissolved iron entering the Sea of Okhotsk and the Oyashio current. Recent research shows it is probable that the main source of the dissolved iron is the Amur River basin wetlands. To explore the primary process of dissolved iron production and the effect of land cover conversion from wetland to cultivated land on dissolved iron production, a semi-distributed hydrological model incorporating dissolved iron production was constructed. The model was based on TOPMODEL concept. To explore the mechanism for the production of dissolved iron, the amount of dissolved iron produced by each calculation grid was formulated as a function of the topographic index (a/tan beta). A parameter representing the degree of redox condition was also introduced. To verify the validity of parameterization, a hydrological model of the Naoli river basin was constructed. The best parameter set to simulate runoff was determined by Monte Carlo simulation. The amount of the estimated dissolved iron was much lower than the observed value. The results suggested that there is another dissolved iron production mechanism that has not been incorporated into the present version of our model, It was suggested that possible hydrological processes which must be considered are seepage of shallow groundwater and flooding to the riparian area.
  • Xiao-Niu Xu, Qin Wang, Hideaki Shibata
    Journal of Forestry Research 19 (4) 271 - 276 1007-662X 2008/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Structure, species composition, and soil properties of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan, were examined by establishment of plots at thirty sites. The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees. Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 5400 stems•ha -1 (≥3.0 cm DBH) 64% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH. The total basal area was 54.4 m 2•ha-1, of which Castanopsis sieboldii contributed 48%. The forest showed high species diversity of trees. 80 tree species (≥ 3.0 cm DBH) from 31 families was identified in the thirty sampling plots. C. sieboldii and Schima wallichii were the dominant and subdominant species in terms of importance value. The mean tree species diversity indices for the plots were, 3.36 for Diversity index (H′), 0.71 for Equitability index (J′) and 4.72 for Species richness index (S′), all of which strongly declined with the increase of importance value of the dominant, C. sieboldii. Measures of soil nutrients indicated low fertility, extreme heterogeneity and possible Al toxicity. Regression analysis showed that stem density and the dominant tree height were significantly correlated with soil pH. There was a significant positive relationship between species diversity index and soil exchangeable K+, Ca2+, and Ca2+/Al3+ ratio (all p values < 0.001) and a negative relationship with N, C and P. The results suggest that soil property is a major factor influencing forest composition and structure within the subtropical forest in Okinawa. © 2008 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH.
  • Yasunori Nakagawa, Hideaki Shibata, Fuyuki Satoh, Kaichiro Sasa
    LIMNOLOGY 9 (3) 195 - 206 1439-8621 2008/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We evaluated (1) the longitudinal pattern of stream chemistry and (2) the effects of the riparian zone on this longitudinal pattern for nitrate (NO3-), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and total dissolved iron (Fe). We selected two small watersheds; the "southern watershed'' had an extending riparian wetland and the "northern watershed'' had a narrow riparian area. Stream NO3- concentrations decreased from the spring to outlet of both watersheds. In the southern watershed, stream DOC concentration decreased from the spring to midstream and then increased to the outlet. Stream Fe concentration in the southern watershed longitudinally increased. On the other hand, the northern watershed exhibited no longitudinal pattern for DOC and Fe concentrations. In both watersheds, while NO3- concentrations in the soil and ground water were lower than those in the stream waters, DOC and Fe concentrations exhibited the opposite patterns. The longitudinal decreases of NO3- concentrations in both streams and increase of stream Fe in the southern watershed mainly resulted from the inflow of the soil and ground water to the stream. The decrease in stream DOC from the spring to midstream in the southern watershed was due to the deep groundwater having low DOC, while the subsequent increase to the surrounding soil and ground water. Moreover, considerations of stream solute flow with soil and ground water chemistry suggested other mechanisms adding NO3- and removing/diluting DOC and Fe, especially for the northern watershed; coexistence of oxidizing and reducing conditions in the riparian zone might control the longitudinal concentration change in the stream water chemistry.
  • Shibata Hideaki
    Japanese journal of forest environment 森林立地学会 50 (2) 111 - 116 0388-8673 2008/12 [Refereed][Invited]
  • Seasonal dynamics of hydrochemicai characteristics of streams under different forest types
    Fu-Chen Shi, Feng-Ying Li, Ti-Jiu Cai, Shibata Hideaki
    Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 19 (4) 717 - 722 1001-9332 2008/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Stream water samples under the Korean pine broad-leaved forest, spruce-fir forest, and larch plantation in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Xiaoxing' an Mountains were collected monthly from March to October 2006 to study the dynamic changes of their hydrochemical characteristics. The results indicated that the content of major cations in the streams was in the sequence of Ca2+ > Na+ > K+ > Mg2+, and that of anions was HCO3 - > SO4 2- > NO3 - > Cl-. The average content of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ was in the order of spruce-fir forest > larch plantation > Korean pine broad-leaved forest, while that of K+ was in the order of larch plantation > spruce-fir forest > Korean pine broad-leaved forest. The average monthly content of anions in stream water was the highest under larch plantation.
  • Sheila F. Christopher, Hideaki Shibata, Megumi Ozawa, Yasunori Nakagawa, Myron J. Mitchell
    BIOGEOCHEMISTRY 88 (1) 15 - 30 0168-2563 2008/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Climate change models predict that the snowpacks of temperate forests will develop later and be shallower resulting in a higher propensity for soil freezing. In the northern most island of Japan, Hokkaido, snowpack depth decreases from west to east. This snowpack depth gradient provided a unique opportunity to test the effects of variable snowpack and soil freezing on N biogeochemistry. The Shibecha Northern Catchment in Shibecha Experimental Forest, eastern Hokkaido had deciduous trees and a mean annual snowpack of 0.7 m while the M3 catchment in Uryu Experimental Forest, western Hokkaido had mixed deciduous and coniferous tree species and a mean annual snowpack of 2.0 m. We conducted a Weld study (October 2004-April 2005) to determine if differences in Shibecha and Uryu soil extractable N, N mineralization, and nitrification were controlled by the variability in soil freezing during winter or tree species composition that affected the quality of the forest floor. The mixed deciduous and coniferous trees forming the Uryu forest floor had a higher C:N ratio (25.0 vs. 22.4 at Shibecha), higher lignin: N ratio (15 vs. 8.8), and higher lignin concentrations (0.28 vs. 0.18 g lignin g(-1)). These differences in forest floor quality contributed to higher net N mineralization and nitrification in Shibecha compared to Uryu. In Shibecha, soil remained frozen for the entire study. For Uryu, except for an early period with cold temperatures and no snow, the soil generally remained unfrozen. As a result of the early winter cold period and soil freezing, extractable soil NH(4)(+) did not change but NO(3)(-) increased. Reciprocal 0-5 cm mineral soil transplants made between Shibecha and Uryu and incubated during winter at 0, 5, and 30 cm suggested that soil freezing resulted in greater net N mineralization yet lower nitrification regardless of the soil origin. The effect of soil freezing should be considered when evaluating differences in N dynamics between temperate ecosystems having a propensity for soil freezing.
  • Xiao-Niu Xu, Hideaki Shibata
    Journal of Forestry Research 18 (4) 249 - 254 1007-662X 2007/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Within a forested watershed at the Uryu Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University in northern Hokkaido, overstory litterfall and related nutrient fluxes were measured at different landscape zones over two years. The wetland zone covered with Picea glehnii pure stand. The riparian zone was deciduous broad-leaved stand dominated by Alnus hirsuta and Salix spp., while the mixture of deciduous broadleaf and evergreen conifer dominated by Betula platyphylla, Quercus crispula and Abies sachalinensis distributed on the upland zone. Annual litterfall averaged 1444, 5122, and 4123 kg•hm-2•a -1 in the wetland, riparian and upland zones, respectively. Litterfall production peaked in September-October, and foliage litter contributed the greatest amount (73.4%-87.6 %) of the annual total litterfall. Concentrations of nutrients analyzed in foliage litter of the dominant species showed a similar seasonal variation over the year except for N in P. glehnii and A. hirsuta. The nutrient fluxes for all elements analyzed were greatest on riparian zone and lowest in wetland zone. Nutrient fluxes via litterfall followed the decreasing sequence: N (11-129 kg•hm-2•a -1) > Ca (9-69) > K (5-20) > Mg (3-15) > P (0.4-4.7) for all stands. Significant differences were found in litterfall production and nutrient fluxes among the different landscape components. There existed significant differences in soil chemistry between the different landscape zones. The consistently low soil C:N ratios at the riparian zone might be due to the higher-quality litter inputs (largely N-fixing alder). © 2007 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag.
  • Enoki Tsutomu, Shibata Hideaki, Hiura Tsutomu, Nakashizuka Tohru
    Journal of the Japanese Forest Society 一般社団法人日本森林学会 89 (5) 311 - 313 1349-8509 2007/10/01 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • KAWANO Tatsuichiro, TAKAHARA Hikaru, NOMURA Toshie, SHIBATA Hideaki, UEMURA Shigeru, SASAKI Naoko, YOSHIOKA Takahito
    The Quaternary research 日本第四紀学会 46 (5) 413 - 426 0418-2642 2007/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Shibata H, Ozawa M, Satoh F, Sasa K
    Journal of the Japanese Forest Society 一般社団法人日本森林学会 89 (5) 314 - 320 1349-8509 2007/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The inorganic nitrogen pool in soil, soil microbial biomass, nitrogen pool in vegetation and microbial nitrogen mineralization in soil were investigated to understand the effect of treatment for land surface by scarification on soil nitrogen dynamics in a forest ecosystem located in northern Hokkaido, Japan. The nitrate pool in the soil after scarification was higher than those in the control site during 1〜3 years after the treatment, and tended to decrease with the years. The increment of the soil nitrate pool during the initial 3 years after the treatment was caused not only by the decrea...
  • Masami Kanao Koshikawa, Takejiro Takamatsu, Seiichi Nohara, Hideaki Shibata, Xiaoniu Xu, Muneoki Yoh, Mirai Watanabe, Kenichi Satake
    APPLIED GEOCHEMISTRY 22 (6) 1209 - 1216 0883-2927 2007/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Speciation of Al, including inorganic monomeric Al (Al-i, the sum of aquo, hydroxy and inorganically complexed forms), organic monomeric Al (Al, the organically complexed form), and colloidal mineral Al (Al-c, the fine particulate form that passes through a 0.4-mu m pore size membrane filter), was investigated in stream waters (pH 6-8) of 4 watersheds in Japan. Total dissolved Al (Al-t, the sum of Al-c, Al-i and Al-o) ranged from 0.03 to 131 mu M, and Alc was a minor component (< 22% of Al-t) in most of the streams. Ali was dominant (71% of Al-t) in stream waters with low concentrations of Alt (< 0.25 mu M), while the Al-o fraction (37%) was almost as large as the Ali fraction (39%) in the highest class (Al-t > 1 mu M). In spite of the variation in the range of reactive Al (Al,, the sum of Ali and Al,,) in the 4 watersheds (Miomote, 0.03-3.27 mu M; Tsukuba, 0.06-0.71 mu M; Dorokawa, 0.05-0.71 mu M; Tama, 0.03-0.38 mu M), the entire data set for Al-r could be expressed as a function of the ratio of dissolved organic C (DOC) and Ca: [Al-r (mu M)] = 0.13 [DOC/Ca (mol/mol)] + 0.11 (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). Alr increased in proportion to the DOC/Ca ratio in Japanese stream waters. Although acidic deposition in Japan has already resulted in elevated concentrations of NO3-+SO42- in stream waters, a high level of Ca (instead of Al) is serving as a major counterion for NO3-+SO42-. However, an additional loading of acidic deposition may result in shortage of Ca and mobilization of Al as a counterion for NO3- + SO42- and continuous observation of the speciation of Al in Japanese stream waters may reveal future change in the conditions for mobilization of Al from "low Ca and high DOC" to "low Ca and high NO3- + SO42-. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Masami Kanao Koshikawa, Takejiro Takamatsu, Seiichi Nohara, Hideaki Shibata, Xiaoniu Xu, Muneoki Yoh, Mirai Watanabe, Kenichi Satake
    APPLIED GEOCHEMISTRY 22 (6) 1209 - 1216 0883-2927 2007/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Speciation of Al, including inorganic monomeric Al (Al-i, the sum of aquo, hydroxy and inorganically complexed forms), organic monomeric Al (Al, the organically complexed form), and colloidal mineral Al (Al-c, the fine particulate form that passes through a 0.4-mu m pore size membrane filter), was investigated in stream waters (pH 6-8) of 4 watersheds in Japan. Total dissolved Al (Al-t, the sum of Al-c, Al-i and Al-o) ranged from 0.03 to 131 mu M, and Alc was a minor component (< 22% of Al-t) in most of the streams. Ali was dominant (71% of Al-t) in stream waters with low concentrations of Alt (< 0.25 mu M), while the Al-o fraction (37%) was almost as large as the Ali fraction (39%) in the highest class (Al-t > 1 mu M). In spite of the variation in the range of reactive Al (Al,, the sum of Ali and Al,,) in the 4 watersheds (Miomote, 0.03-3.27 mu M; Tsukuba, 0.06-0.71 mu M; Dorokawa, 0.05-0.71 mu M; Tama, 0.03-0.38 mu M), the entire data set for Al-r could be expressed as a function of the ratio of dissolved organic C (DOC) and Ca: [Al-r (mu M)] = 0.13 [DOC/Ca (mol/mol)] + 0.11 (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). Alr increased in proportion to the DOC/Ca ratio in Japanese stream waters. Although acidic deposition in Japan has already resulted in elevated concentrations of NO3-+SO42- in stream waters, a high level of Ca (instead of Al) is serving as a major counterion for NO3-+SO42-. However, an additional loading of acidic deposition may result in shortage of Ca and mobilization of Al as a counterion for NO3- + SO42- and continuous observation of the speciation of Al in Japanese stream waters may reveal future change in the conditions for mobilization of Al from "low Ca and high DOC" to "low Ca and high NO3- + SO42-. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Karibu Fukuzawa, Hideaki Shibata, Kentaro Takagi, Fuyuki Satoh, Takayoshi Koike, Kaichiro Sasa
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 22 (3) 485 - 495 0912-3814 2007/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We measured the vertical distribution and seasonal patterns of fine-root production and mortality using minirhizotrons in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan mainly dominated by Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula) and covered with a dense understory of dwarf bamboo (Sasa senanensis). We also investigated the vertical distribution of the fine-root biomass using soil coring. We also measured environmental factors such as air and soil temperature, soil moisture and leaf area indices (LAI) of trees and the understory Sasa canopy for comparison with the fine-root dynamics. Fine-root biomass to a depth of 60 cm in September 2003 totaled 774 g m(-2), of which 71% was accounted for by Sasa and 60% was concentrated in the surface soil layer (0-15 cm), indicating that understory Sasa was an important component of the fine-root biomass in this ecosystem. Fine-root production increased in late summer (August) when soil temperatures were high, suggesting that temperature partially controls the seasonality of fine-root production. In addition, monthly fine-root production was significantly related to Sasa LAI (P < 0.001), suggesting that fine-root production was also affected by the specific phenology of Sasa. Fine-root mortality was relatively constant throughout the year. Fine-root production, mortality, and turnover rates were highest in the surface soil (0-15 cm) and decreased with increasing soil depth. Turnover rates of production and mortality in the surface soil were 1.7 year(-1) and 1.1 year(-1), respectively.
  • CHIWA MASAAKI, IDE JUN'ICHIRO, OGI DAISUKE, TASHIRO NAOAKI, KOGA SHIN'YA, SHIBATA HIDEAKI, SATO FUYUKI, OTSUKI KYOICHI
    九州大学農学部演習林報告 [九州大學農學部附属演習林] 88 (88) 33 - 43 0453-0284 2007/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    北海道演習林拓北流域及び福岡演習林御手洗水流域において,2005年6月-2006年6月にかけて降水,渓流水を採取・分析し,各流域における大気質や基岩等の立地環境の違いが降水や渓流水の化学成分に及ぼす影響について検討した。拓北流域では,降水,バルク降水,渓流水を採取し,御手洗水流域では,バルク降水,渓流水を採取した。拓北流域では,バルク降水のpH値が降水と比べて高かった。水素イオン以外のイオン成分濃度は,降水と比べてバルク降水で上昇しており,特にCa2+,NH4 +の上昇が顕著であった。このイオン成分濃度の上昇の原因は,無降雨期間におけるガス状,粒子状物質のロート上への乾性沈着によるものと思われた。pH上昇の原因として,乾性沈着によるアルカリ土類金属やアンモニアの溶解が考えられた。バルク降水のNH4 +濃度やNH4 +沈着量は御手洗水流域と比べて拓北流域で高く,NO3 -,SO4 2-沈着量は拓北流域と比べて御手洗水流域で高い結果となり,大気質による違いを反映していた。バルク降水のpHは,御手洗水流域で4.5,拓北流域で5.3であり,御手洗水流域において顕著に低かった。その原因として,御手洗水流域において大気汚染に由来するNO3 -,SO4 2-濃度が高まっていること,拓北流域ではバルク降水中のNH4 +,K+,Ca2+濃度が御手洗水流域よりも高いためと考えられた。渓流水のNO3 -,SO4 2-濃度は,拓北流域と比べて御手洗水流域において顕著に高い値を示した。その原因として,御手洗水流域においてNO3 -,SO4 2-沈着量が拓北流域と比べて高いためと考えられた。また,拓北流域では,K+濃度が高く,御手洗水流域では,pH及びMg2+濃度が顕著に高かった。この違いは基岩の違いが反映していると考えられた。御手洗水流域における渓流水のpHとMg2+濃度には有意な正の相関がみられた。
  • K. C. Petrone, L. D. Hinzman, H. Shibata, J. B. Jones, R. D. Boone
    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES 21 (4) 423 - 434 0885-6087 2007/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Permafrost and fire are important regulators of hydrochemistry and landscape structure in the discontinuous permafrost region of interior Alaska. We examined the influence of permafrost and a prescribed burn on concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and other solutes (NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) in streams of an experimentally burned watershed and two reference watersheds with varying extents of permafrost in the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed in interior Alaska. The low-permafrost watershed has limited permafrost (3%), the high-permafrost watershed has extensive permafrost (53%), and the burn watershed has intermediate permafrost coverage (18%). A three end-member mixing model revealed fundamental hydrologic and chemical differences between watersheds due to the presence of permafrost. Stormflow in the low-permafrost watershed was dominated by precipitation and overland flow, whereas the high-permafrost watershed was dominated by flow through the active layer. In all watersheds, organic and groundwater flow paths controlled stream chemistry: DOC and DON increased with discharge (organic source) and base cations and SO42- (from weathering processes) decreased. Thawing of the active layer increased soil water storage in the high-permafrost watershed from July to September, and attenuated the hydrologic response and solute flux to the stream. The FROSTFIRE prescribed burn, initiated on 8 July 1999, elevated nitrate concentrations for a short period after the first post-fire storm on 25 July, but there was no increase after a second storm in September. During the July storm, nitrate export lagged behind the storm discharge peak, indicating a flushing of soluble nitrate that likely originated from burned soils. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Kohyama, T, Urabe, J, Hkosaka, K, Shibata, H, Yoshoka, T, Konohira, E, Murase, J, Wada, E
    Terrestrial Ecosystems in a changing world 285 - 296 2007/02 [Refereed][Invited]
     
    Springer.
  • Shibata H, Ozawa M, Satoh F, Sasa K
    Nihon Ringakkai Shi/Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 89 (5) 314 - 320 2007 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Enoki T, Shibata H, Hiura T, Nakashizuka T
    Nihon Ringakkai Shi/Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 89 (5) 311 - 313 2007 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • S. K. Tripathi, A. Sumida, H. Shibata, K. Ono, S. Uemura, Y. Kodama, T. Hara
    BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS 43 (2) 237 - 246 0178-2762 2006/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In many Japanese forests, the forest understory is largely dominated by dwarf bamboo (Sasa) species, which compete with overstory vegetation for soil nutrients. We studied the rate of leaf litterfall, and decomposition and mineralization of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from various components (leaf, root, wood, and rhizome) of overstory and understory vegetation in a young Betula ermanii forest from 2002 to 2004. Total litterfall was 377 g m(-2) year(-1), of which the overstory vegetation contributed about two thirds. A litter decomposition experiment conducted for 770 days indicated that mass loss of different litter components varied significantly, except for Sasa kurilensis wood and rhizome. Relative decomposition rates were significantly greater in the first growth period (June to October) than the dormant period (November to May) in most cases. Rainfall was the most important abiotic variable, explaining 75-80% of the variability in mass loss rates. Concentrations of ethanol soluble substances and N were significantly positively correlated (r=0.77 to 0.97, P < 0.05) with mass loss at an early stage (41 days). The ratios of lignin/N and C/N were found to be negatively correlated with mass loss rates at all stages of litter decomposition. C stock loss was similar to that of mass loss, whereas N stock loss was slower, except for S. kurilensis fine root litter. The evergreen understory species S. kurilensis exhibited greater N use efficiency than B. ermanii, suggesting better competitive ability that might favor the production of a high biomass and invasion under tree species like B. ermanii.
  • ANAGIHARA Yuko, SHIBATA Hideaki, MATSUURA Yojiro, KOIKE Takayoshi
    Eurasian Journal of Forest Research Hokkaido University Forests,EFRC 9 (2) 79 - 95 1345-8221 2006/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Research Material
  • Hideaki Shibata, Nobuhito Ohte, Fuyuki Satoh, Takahito Yoshioka
    Japanese Journal of Limnology 日本陸水学会 67 (3) 235 - 244 0021-5104 2006/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Biogeochemical processes are closely related to ecosystem functioning and the change in stream chemistry against various environmental changes. A process-based model that replicates the interaction between biotic and abiotic factors is a powerful research tool in improring our understanding the environmental drivers of temporal and spatial fluctuations in biogeochemical cycling and predicting future changes in ecosystem functioning. In this paper, we review the general concepts, structure and applications of the existing process-based model, FOREST-BGC, CENTURY, TEM and PnET. We applied the PnET-CN model in a natural forest watershed in northern Hokkaido, Japan to assess the performance of the model and the problems encountered in improving its application. The PnET model is a generalized, lumped model based on the physiological processes of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. Predicted seasonality in stream nitrate concentrations using the PnET-CN model was in general agreement with the observed values in Uryu Experimental Forest, Hokkaido University, despite a minor over-prediction during the winter and under-prediction in the non-snowy period. Analysis of the model's structure and validation suggested the need for modifications, including (i) the accumulation and melting process of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the snowpack, and (ii) the effect of hydrological processes on the ground.
  • Mitsuo Yamashita, Arata Ichikawa, Fuyuki Satoh, Hideaki Shibata
    Japanese Journal of Limnology 日本陸水学会 67 (3) 267 - 280 0021-5104 2006/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A distributed hydrological model instead of a lumped model has been proposed as the most important tool in enabling the sharing of water information. In essence, a distributed model consists of sub-basins of tributaries and a main river channel. As for the latter, commercial models are available based on advanced mathematical techniques for hydraulic calculations. However, the methodologies for the description of rainfall-runoff phenomena from sub-basins have not been fully discussed. Especially for forested areas two key topics need to be addressed. The first is how to continuously describe runoff phenomena over several rainfall events and dry periods for further improving water quality simulation. The second is the serviceability of a model for the identification of its parameters via the measurable soil conditions of a sub-basin. To address these issues, the authors propose a new rainfall runoff model, the Yamashita Model, based on the assumption that the retention capacities of the soil have a significant effect on runoff phenomena. This model consists of a two-step retention and three-step runoff mechanism. This model is basic parameters includ the retention capacities of soil pores, which were identified by the measured volumes of the soil pores based on the classification by Takeshita, which distinguishes the retention capacities of a soil by its suction force. They examined this model using the actual rainfall-runoff data of two small catchments in the Uryu Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University, Japan. The simulation results generally agreed with the observed data. To improve rainfall runoff models, future long-term observations of rainfall and runoff should be conducted at various types and sizes of watersheds.
  • K Fukuzawa, H Shibata, K Takagi, M Nomura, N Kurima, T Fukazawa, F Satoh, K Sasa
    FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT 225 (1-3) 257 - 261 0378-1127 2006/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    cutting of understory vegetation, dwarf bamboo (Sasa senanensis), were investigated to understand the effect of these disturbances on biogeochemical processes on forested watershed in northern Japan. Tree-cutting did not cause a significant increase of nitrate (NO3-) concentration in stream water during the growing season after the cutting. Subsequent Sasa-cutting caused significant increase of stream NO3- concentration to ca. 15 mu mol L-1. There was no significant change of stream pH following both cuttings. NO3- concentration in soil solution increased after both cutting, but the change of concentration was higher (> 100 mu mol L-1) after the Sasa-cutting than after the tree-cutting. In a riparian conserved area, on the other hand, NO3- in soil solution remained low after tree-cutting, suggesting the riparian area acted as a NO3- sink after the tree-cutting. There was no significant change in total biomass of fine roots after the tree-cutting because of an increase in Sasa root biomass despite a decrease in tree roots. The subsequent Sasa-cutting caused a 50% decrease of fine root biomass compared to that in the un-cut Sasa site. These results suggested that nitrogen uptake by Sasa was very important in preventing nitrogen leaching after tree-cutting. and decline of this nitrogen uptake after Sasa-cutting lead to marked NO3- leaching to the stream. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • SK Tripathi, A Sumida, K Ono, H Shibata, S Uemura, K Takahashi, T Hara
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 21 (2) 315 - 320 0912-3814 2006/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We investigated the changes in soil microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN) and N mineralization in Sasa kurilensis-present (SP) and S. kurilensis-removed (SR) stands in a Betula ermanii forest. The mean levels of MBC and MBN were significantly higher in the SR stand than in the SP, which may have positively influenced the N-mineralization rate as depicted by a significant positive correlation between these variables and the N-mineralization rate. N immobilization and subsequent N release along with decreased use of available soil N due to S. kurilensis removal may have ensured greater N availability in the SR stand.
  • A Ogawa, H Shibata, K Suzuki, MJ Mitchell, Y Ikegami
    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES 20 (2) 251 - 265 0885-6087 2006/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We studied the relationships between streamwater chemistry and the topography of subcatchments in the Dorokawa watershed in Hokkaido Island, northern Japan, to examine the use of topography as a predictor of streamwater chemistry in a watershed with relatively moderate terrain compared with other regions of Japan. Topographic characteristics of the Dorokawa watershed and its subcatchments were expressed as topographic index (TI) values, which ranged from 4.5 to 20.4 for individual grid cells (50 x 50 m(2)), but averaged from 6.4 to 7.4 for the 20 subcatchments. Streamwater samples for chemical analyses were collected four times between June and October 2002 from 20 locations in the watershed. The pH of water that passed through the watershed increased from similar to 5.0 to 7.0, with major increases in Na+ and Ca2+ and marked decreases in NO3- and SO42-. Distinctive spatial patterns were observed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and NO3 concentrations of streamwater across the watershed. Statistical analyses indicated significant linear relationships between the average TI values of subcatchments and DOC, DON, and NO3- concentrations. Furthermore, the proportion of DOC in streamwaters in the wet season increased with TI values relative to other nitrogen species, whereas NO3- concentrations decreased with TI. The gradients of soil wetness and the presence of wetlands explained many of the observed spatial and temporal patterns of DOC, DON, and NO3- concentrations in the surface waters of the Dorokawa watershed. Our results suggest that the TI is especially useful for predicting the spatial distribution of DOC, DON and NO3- in the surface waters of Hokkaido, where topographical relief is moderate and wetlands more common than in other regions of Japan. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Xu, X, Shibata, H, Enoki, T
    Journal of Forestry Research 17 (1) 1 - 6 2006 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • YAMAZAKI GAKU, ISHII YOSHIYUKI, KOBAYASHI DAIJI, ISHIKAWA NOBUYOSHI, SHIBATA HIDEAKI
    Seppyo 67 (6) 477 - 491 0373-1006 2005/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • SK Tripathi, A Sumida, H Shibata, S Uemura, K Ono, T Hara
    FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT 212 (1-3) 278 - 290 0378-1127 2005/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Dwarf bamboos (mainly Sasa species) form dense undergrowth in many forests in Japan and compete with overstory vegetation for soil resources. For a better understanding of the interaction between tree and undergrowth root for soil nutrients, we compared soil N availability, root biomass and its substrate quality in two Betula ermanii stands. In one stand, the aboveground part of undergrowth (Sasa kurilensis) had been removed for 5 years (SR) and in the other, the undergrowth was present (SP). The SR stand had significantly higher NO3-N levels in soil (1.7-5.5 mg kg(-1) at different soil depths) than the SP stand (1.2-1.7 mg kg(-1)), which may affect the amount and substrate quality of fine root. Although the total (live + dead) of the root and rhizome (root-rh) mass did not differ between the two stands, the total production by these categories was about half in the SR stand than the SP stand. Further, the proportion of dead root-rh mass was about two times in the SR stand than the SP stand. In the investigated depth (to 30 cm), the contribution of the C and N inputs to the total in the uppermost layer (0-10 cm deep) was greater in the SR stand (56-59%) than the SP stand (38-42%). Total root-rh of S. kurilensis in the SP stand contributed to about 38-40% of the total C and N input, and in the SR stand the contribution was still about half that of the SP stand. Further, the acid-insoluble C:N ratio in very fine root and live fine root of B. ermanii was significantly less in the SR stand. The contribution of N content in very fine root to the total root-rh was much greater in the SR (45%) stand than the SP stand (36%). These results suggest that the remaining S. kurilensis detritus and the decreased N use by this species after its removal resulted in increased N availability for B. ermanii. Natural regeneration of tree species after simultaneous death of Sasa species, which is very common in Sasa-dominant forests in Japan, may in part, be facilitated by the presence of residues of the root-rh of Sasa species. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • H Shibata, T Hiura, Y Tanaka, K Takagi, T Koike
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 20 (3) 325 - 331 0912-3814 2005/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Quantification of annual carbon sequestration is very important in order to assess the function of forest ecosystems in combatting global climate change and the ecosystem responses to those changes. Annual cycling and budget of carbon in a forested basin was investigated to quantify the carbon sequestration of a cool-temperate deciduous forest ecosystem in the Horonai stream basin, Tomakomai Experimental Forest, northern Japan. Net ecosystem exchange, soil respiration, biomass increment, litterfall, soil-solution chemistry, and stream export were observed in the basin from 1999-2001 as a part of IGBP-TEMA project. We found that 258 g C m(-2) year(-1) was sequestered annually as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in the forested basin. Discharge of carbon to the stream was 4 g C m(-2) year(-1) (about 2% of NEE) and consisted mainly of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). About 43% of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was retained in the vegetation, while about 57% of NEP was sequestered in soil, suggesting that the movement of sequestered carbon from above-ground to belowground vegetation was an important process for net carbon accumulation in soil. The derived organic carbon from aboveground vegetation that moved to the soil mainly accumulated in the solid phase of the soil, with the result that the export of dissolved organic carbon to the stream was smaller than that of dissolved inorganic carbon. Our results indicated that the aboveground and belowground interaction of carbon fluxes was an important process for determining the rate and retention time of the carbon sequestration in a cool-temperate deciduous forest ecosystem in the southwestern part of Hokkaido, northern Japan.
  • K Takagi, M Nomura, D Ashiya, H Takahashi, K Sasa, Y Fujinuma, H Shibata, Y Akibayashi, T Koike
    GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 19 (2) 1 - 10 0886-6236 2005/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    CO2 efflux in the period of snow cover can be a large carbon source in the yearly carbon budget of snowy ecosystems. However, the behavior of CO2 in snowpacks and the mechanisms of the snow surface efflux are still unclear. We performed continuous (half-hourly) midwinter measurements of CO2 concentrations in a conifer-broadleaf mixed forest snowpack, and found that concentrations in the snowpack fluctuated significantly as wind speeds varied. The snow surface efflux was evaluated as the sum of the CO2 storage change in the snowpack and the CO2 input from the soil to the snowpack, taking into account the mixing due to airflow. The median value over 52 days (49 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) was almost the same as the daily net ecosystem exchange rate in this forest (50 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) estimated by the eddy covariance technique and the storage-change flux in the air column. These values are clearly larger than the value we estimated using Fick's law of diffusion. These results show that airflow can be a dominant cause of mixing within snowpacks in midwinter. In addition, in the soil pores under the snowpack, the CO2 concentration was primarily related to air temperature, implying that soil respiration responds directly to air temperature, not to soil temperature, even beneath a 1-m-thick snowpack. We infer that the air temperature affected the root activity of trees through their trunks and that the variation in root respiration strongly affected the CO2 concentration fluctuation in soil under the snowpack.
  • T Yoshida, Y Iga, M Ozawa, M Noguchi, H Shibata
    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH-REVUE CANADIENNE DE RECHERCHE FORESTIERE 35 (1) 175 - 188 0045-5067 2005/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Scarification is widely conducted in northern Japan to remove understory dwarf bamboo species in degraded forests for replacement with tree species. To explore ways to enhance species diversity and restoration of mixed forest at the treated site, we clarified the mechanisms that lead to compositional heterogeneity of plant species. We evaluated the relative importance of environmental factors (scarification properties, soil properties, light conditions, litter cover, and presence of canopy trees) for the demography of tall tree species (emergence, mortality, and growth) and whole vegetation structure (species diversity and composition) over the two growing seasons immediately following scarification. Of tall tree species, Betula spp. were dominant (60% in total density), followed by Abies sachalinensis (Fr. Schm.) Masters, Acer mono Maxim., and Phellodendron amurense Rupr. Light intensity was an important factor, having mostly negative effects on the demography of these species. Soil factors (e.g., nitrogen content, moisture) affected the demography mainly of shade-intolerant or hygrophilous species. In general, extreme environmental conditions led to the dominance of grasses, forbs, and lianas rather than tall trees. Maintenance of canopy cover, which limits light and supplies seeds as well as litter, proved to be most important in promoting plant species diversification on the scarification site.
  • Deforestation effects on the micrometeorology in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan
    Takagi, K, Nomura, M, Fukuzawa, K, Kayama, M, Shibata, H, Sasa, K, Koike, T, Akibayashi, Y, Fujinuma, Y, Inukai, K, Maebayashi, M
    Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 60 (5) 1025 - 1028 2005 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hideaki Shibata, Tsutom Hiura, Yumiko Tanaka, Kentaro Takagi, Takayoshi Koike
    Forest Ecosystems and Environments: Scaling Up from Shoot Module to Watershed 89 - 95 2005 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Quantification of annual carbon sequestration is very important in order to assess the function of forest ecosystems in combatting global climate change and the ecosystem responses to those changes. Annual cycling and budget of carbon in a forested basin was investigated to quantify the carbon sequestration of a cool-temperate deciduous forest ecosystem in the Horonai stream basin, Tomakomai Experimental Forest, northern Japan. Net ecosystem exchange, soil respiration, biomass increment, litterfall, soil-solution chemistry, and stream export were observed in the basin from 1999-2001 as a part of IGBP-TEMA project. We found that 258 g C m-2 year-1 was sequestered annually as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in the forested basin. Discharge of carbon to the stream was 4 g C m-2 year-1 (about 2% of NEE) and consisted mainly of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). About 43% of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was retained in the vegetation, while about 57% of NEP was sequestered in soil, suggesting that the movement of sequestered carbon from aboveground to belowground vegetation was an important process for net carbon accumulation in soil. The derived organic carbon from aboveground vegetation that moved to the soil mainly accumulated in the solid phase of the soil, with the result that the export of dissolved organic carbon to the stream was smaller than that of dissolved inorganic carbon. Our results indicated that the aboveground and belowground interaction of carbon fluxes was an important process for determining the rate and retention time of the carbon sequestration in a cool-temperate deciduous forest ecosystem in the southwestern part of Hokkaido, northern Japan. © The Ecological Society of Japan.
  • SHIBATA Hideaki
    Journal of Japan Society on Water Environment 日本水環境学会 27 (9) 579 - 583 0916-8958 2004/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • H Shibata, O Sugawara, H Toyoshima, SM Wondzell, F Nakamura, T Kasahara, FJ Swanson, K Sasa
    BIOGEOCHEMISTRY 69 (1) 83 - 103 0168-2563 2004/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Water and dissolved nitrogen flows through the hyporheic zone of a 3rd-order mountain stream in Hokkaido, northern Japan were measured during a small storm in August 1997. A network of wells was established to measure water table elevations and to collect water samples to analyze dissolved nitrogen concentrations. Hydraulic conductivity and the depth to bedrock were surveyed. We parameterized the groundwater flow model, MODFLOW, to quantify subsurface flows of both stream water and soil water through the hyporheic zone. MODFLOW simulations suggest that soil water inflow from the adjacent hill slope increased by 1.7-fold during a small storm. Dissolved organic nitrogen ( DON) and ammonium NH4+ in soil water from the hill slope were the dominant nitrogen inputs to the riparian zone. DON was consumed via mineralization to NH4+ in the hyporheic zone. NH4+ was the dominant nitrogen species in the subsurface, and showed a net release during both base and storm flow. Nitrate appeared to be lost to denitrification or immobilized by microorganisms and/or vegetation in the riparian zone. Our results indicated that the riparian and hyporheic system was a net source of NH4+ to the stream.
  • WAKAMATSU TAKASHI, TAKAHASHI AKIRA, SATO KAZUO, KUBOI TAKASHI, SHIBATA HIDEAKI
    日本土壌肥料学雑誌 75 (2) 169 - 178 0029-0610 2004/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • SHIBATA HIDEAKI
    環境科学会誌 17 (2) 151 - 153 0915-0048 2004/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 柴田 英昭
    地球環境 国際環境研究協会 9 (1) 75 - 82 1342-226X 2004 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • XN Xu, E Hirata, H Shibata
    BASIC AND APPLIED ECOLOGY 5 (3) 271 - 282 1439-1791 2004 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Typhoons are frequent on Okinawa Island, southwestern Japan. The effects of typhoon disturbance on the patterns of fine litterfall and related nutrient inputs in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest were studied over 5 years from May 1996 to April 2001. Annual fine litterfall averaged 7558 kg ha(-1) (range from 6188 to 9439 kg ha-1) for six sampling plots over 5 years, which differed significantly among years (p < 0.001) but not among plots (p = 0.122). A seasonal maximum was most evident for leaf litter component. Woody titter fell more irregularly through the year, and peak fall varied with typhoon and windstorm. The mean ratio of annual litterfall mass of sexual organs to Leaves was 0.06, much tower than that in other tropical and subtropical rain forests. Nutrient concentrations varied in litterfall components, but were not significantly different among plots. The lowest concentrations of N and P in leaf litter were observed in March, which is also the month with the greatest leaf fall. However, the highest concentrations were recorded in typhoon season. Nitrogen and P concentrations were 34% and 106% greater in the green leaves that fell during typhoons than in senescent leaves. Mean nutrient inputs by litterfall. were: N 83, P 3.2, K 25, Ca 71, Mg 19, At 12, Na 10, Fe 0.86 and Mn 3.9 kg ha(-1)yr(-1), and differed significantly among years for all elements (p < 0.0005) and among plots only for K (p < 0.05) and Mn (p < 0.0001). Typhoon disturbance strongly affected annual fine litterfall and related nutrient inputs, which contributed an average of 30% of the annual litterfall mass, and from 30% to 39% (for different nutrient elements) of annual total nutrient inputs. The results from this study suggest that typhoon-driven maintenance of rapid cycling of P and N and their high availabitity in soil appears to be an important mechanism to maintain productivity in the subtropical forest on Okinawa Island. (C) 2004 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • 柴田英昭
    地球環境 9 (1) 75 - 82 1342-226X 2004 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 福澤 加里部, 柴田 英昭, 高木 健太郎, 佐藤 冬樹, 笹賀 一郎, 小池 孝良
    根の研究 12 (4) 0919-2182 2003/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 楊 宗興, 吉岡 崇仁, 朴 昊澤, 吉田 恭司, 勝山 正則, 龍田 優美, 柴田 英昭, 大手 信人, 杉山 浩史, 木平 英一, 川崎 雅俊, 由水 千景, 戸田 任重, 八木 一行, 服部 重昭, 田中 隆文, 佐野 方昴, 坂井田 稔, 丹羽 智子, 田中 庸央, 壁谷 直記, 小倉 紀雄, 蔵治 光一郎, 戸田 浩人, 笹賀 一郎, 徳地 直子, 保原 達, 木庭 啓介, 武重 祐史, KHAN M. G. M, 田上 英一郎, 岡崎 亮太, 占部 城太郎, 上村 由加里, 沖野 外輝夫, 宝川 靖和, 徐 明崗, 秦 道珠, 鄒 長明, 朱 建国, 蔡 祖聰
    陸水學雜誌 日本陸水学会 64 (1) 49 - 79 0021-5104 2003/04/20 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • H Shibata, KC Petrone, LD Hinzman, RD Boone
    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION 49 (1) 25 - 29 0038-0768 2003/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the contents of water-extractable organic carbon (WOC) and minerals were measured in moss and soils before and after a prescribed fire in interior Alaska to clarify the effect of the fire on the DOC dynamics in soil with discontinuous permafrost. The DOC concentration in the soil solution retrieved from suction cup lysimeters in the moss layer decreased from 30 (+/- 8.7 SD) mg C L-1 before the fire to 11-14 (+/- 7.2-8.9 SD) mg C L-1 I month after the fire. The WOC content in the moss layer (including black carbon) I year after the fire was significantly lower in the burned plots (0.2-0.7 mg C g(-1)) compared to the controls (2.8-4.7 mg C g(-1)). The water extractable inorganic mineral contents in the moss layer were also lower in the burned, plots, especially for iron, aluminum, potassium, and sodium. Our results indicated that the fire significantly decreased the DOC concentration in the surface moss layer compared to that in the unburned site about I month after the fire and also decreased the contents of WOC and water-extractable inorganic cations in the moss layer compared to the unburned site even 1 year after the fire.
  • H Shibata, KC Petrone, LD Hinzman, RD Boone
    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION 49 (1) 25 - 29 0038-0768 2003/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the contents of water-extractable organic carbon (WOC) and minerals were measured in moss and soils before and after a prescribed fire in interior Alaska to clarify the effect of the fire on the DOC dynamics in soil with discontinuous permafrost. The DOC concentration in the soil solution retrieved from suction cup lysimeters in the moss layer decreased from 30 (+/- 8.7 SD) mg C L-1 before the fire to 11-14 (+/- 7.2-8.9 SD) mg C L-1 I month after the fire. The WOC content in the moss layer (including black carbon) I year after the fire was significantly lower in the burned plots (0.2-0.7 mg C g(-1)) compared to the controls (2.8-4.7 mg C g(-1)). The water extractable inorganic mineral contents in the moss layer were also lower in the burned, plots, especially for iron, aluminum, potassium, and sodium. Our results indicated that the fire significantly decreased the DOC concentration in the surface moss layer compared to that in the unburned site about I month after the fire and also decreased the contents of WOC and water-extractable inorganic cations in the moss layer compared to the unburned site even 1 year after the fire.
  • 大手信人, 柴田英昭, 徳地直子, MITCHELL M J, 戸田浩人
    水利科学 46 (5) 40 - 53 0039-4858 2002/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Snowmelt Runoff at a Seasonal Ground Frost Basin in Southern Sakhalin, Russia
    Nomura, M, Sasa, K, Satoh, F, Shibata, H, Uemura, S, Fujiwara, K, Chekurdaev, G.A
    Eurasian Journal of Forest Research 5 (1) 11 - 21 2002/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 柴田 英昭
    海洋 海洋出版 34 (6) 402 - 405 0916-2011 2002/06 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • SHIBATA Hideaki, ICHIKAWA Kazu, NOMURA Mutsumi, SATO Fuyuki, SASA Kaichiro, ISII Yoshiyuki, KOBAYASHI Daiji
    Journal of Japanese Association of Hydrological Sciences 日本水文科学会 32 (2) 49 - 56 1342-9612 2002/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • NOMURA MUTSUMI, SASA KAICHIRO, SATO FUYUKI, SHIBATA HIDEAKI, UEMURA SHIGERU, FUJIWARA KOICHIRO
    北海道大学地球物理学研究報告 (65) 69-78  0439-3503 2002/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 大手 信人, 柴田 英昭, 徳地 直子, Mitchell M.J, 戸田 浩人
    水利科学 水利科学研究所 46 (5) 40 - 53 0039-4858 2002 [Not refereed][Not invited]
     
    窒素飽和と呼ばれる現象が、1980年代から、酸性降下物が生態系物質循環に与える影響の1つの側面として欧米で注目され、多くの事例研究がなされてきている。通常、窒素は空気中から微生物によって固定されたり、大気降下物として供給されたりして生態系に流入し、植物-土壌間で循環する。植物は主として無機能の窒素を吸収することが、これらは、土壌中で微生物が有機物を分解して生成している。酸性降下物による人為的な窒素酸化物の負荷によって生態系内の養分循環が窒素過多な状況になることがある。これが一般に、窒素飽和のメカニズムと考えられているが、症状として観察される現象に基づいて、1)1年を通して窒素の流出が生じる、2)一次生産者の生理的な窒素要求量が系内の循環で賄われてしまい、多量のNO3(-)流出が生じる、3)長期間にわたって、系外への窒素の流出量が流入量を越えているなど、様々な定義が示されている。いずれにせよ、窒素飽和が森林で生じた場合、植物と土壌との間で循環させられる量を超過した分の窒素が無機能窒素(NH4(+)、NO3(-))として根圏外に流出してしまう。NH4(+)は表層土壌中で通常、硝化菌によって容易に硝化されるし、土壌に吸着されやすくモビリティが低いが、NO3(-)は土壌水中に存在しやすいため、根圏からの無機能窒素の流出が地下水、渓流水のNO3(-)濃度を上昇させる。また、北東アメリカでは、窒素飽和が最も進行した事例の多くは最も窒素の降下物量が多い地域で見出されていることを指摘している。
  • SHIBATA Hideaki
    Japanese Journal of Ecology 日本生態学会 51 (3) 269 - 275 0021-5007 2001/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • H Shibata, F Satoh, K Sasa, M Ozawa, N Usui, O Nagata, Y Hayakawa, R Hatano
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 130 (1-4) 685 - 690 0049-6979 2001/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Annual biogeochemical fluxes (bulk precipitation, throughfall, stem flow, soil solution and vegetation uptake) of inorganic elements were observed in eight cool temperate forested ecosystems in Hokkaido, northern Japan.. in order to determine the mechanisms of acid neutralization in Japanese forest ecosystems. We compared our results with the other biogeochemical studies in Japan, north Europe and US from the literature. In many Japanese forests, the internal proton production (IPS) by base cation accumulation into the vegetation was a major proton source, rather than external acidic deposition, and the IPS also affected the base cation fluxes from the mineral. IPS in Japanese forest tended to be larger than that in north Europe and US. Our results suggested that the high acid neutralizing ability of Japanese forests could be attributed to the strong relationship between the base cation buffering of the soil and the larger contribution of IPS as a proton source.
  • M Ozawa, H Shibata, F Satoh, K Sasa
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 130 (1-4) 703 - 708 0049-6979 2001/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Seasonal fluctuation of concentration and flux of major inorganic ions in throughfall, stem flow, snowpack and soil solution was investigated at a natural cool temperate mixed forest in Hokkaido, northern Japan, in order to clarify the effect of snowmelt on the solute dynamics in the forest soil in snow-dominated region. Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO42- concentrations in soil solution showed a large fluctuation in the snowmelt period. The percentage of output of these elements from soil during the snowmelt period in the annual output was as follows. Mg2+: 51%, Na+ and Cl-: 59 and 60%, SO42-: 65%, Ca2+: 77%. Our results indicated that the snowmelt event was very important to quantify the annual elemental budgets in this region. Although the leaching of base cat ion from the soil was larger than that of inputs and accumulation into the vegetation, annual decreasing rate of acid neutralization capacity (triangle ANC((s))) from the soil was mostly affected by the base cation accumulation into the vegetation, related that the base cations weathering accompanied with bicarbonate was slow due to the acidic and weathered soil in the studied site. It is suggested that the weakly acidic soil which has tow triangle ANC((s)) in snow-dominated region will be relatively sensitive to the future increase of acidic deposition.
  • A Nakanishi, H Shibata, Y Inokura, T Nakao, H Toda, F Satoh, K Sasa
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 130 (1-4) 709 - 714 0049-6979 2001/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To clarify the characteristics in stemflow of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), we conducted the annual and extensive observation. We examined the chemistry of bulk and wet deposition, throughfall and stemflow at 26 forested sites in June and September 1998. The each sampling site was broadly distributed in all over the Japanese archipelago. The stemflow pH of Japanese cedar was significantly lower (p<0.01) than precipitation and stemflow of broad-leaved species in both months. There were significant anion deficits in stemflow of Japanese cedar, suggesting that organic anions derived from plant sources play an important role in the stemflow acidity. Our results suggested that the strong stemflow acidity in Japanese cedar was derived from an internal biological characteristic rather than influences of external acidic depsition.
  • O Nagata, A Managi, Y Hayakawa, R Hatano, H Shibata, F Satoh
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 130 (1-4) 691 - 696 0049-6979 2001/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Biogeochemical proton and base cation fluxes in a 30-year old white birch forest composed of Dystric Cambisols in northern Hokkaido, Japan were estimated using data on atmospheric deposition (AD), throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), and discharge from soils (DS) and plant uptake (UP) from early June to November 1999. In the monitoring period, proton flux was 0.20kmol(c)ha(-1) for AD, 0.07 for TF+SF, and 0.03 for DS, indicating that atmospheric acid input was neutralized through plant and soil. Base cation flux was 1.29 for AD, 1.23 for TF+SF, and 0.99 for DS and plant base cation uptake was 2.14, indicating that the soil was the major source of base cation for plant. However, these seasonal fluxes showed various trends. Cumulative base cation flux in TF+SF showed constant increase trend during the whole period, which was similar to AD. Proton flux in AD jumped once just after a heavy rain of 255mm for 8 days at the end of July. Trends for the proton and base cation fluxes in TF plus SF were similar to that of AD. Although proton and base cation fluxes of DS were not found until middle July because of vegetation uptake and no flow, both fluxes increased suddenly after the heavy rain in July. After August the base cation and proton fluxes in the DS increased continuously, due to the lack of plant uptake and intermittent rainfall. In this study, it is clear that plant activity and water flow are very important driving force for seasonal dynamics of biogeochemical cycling.
  • N Ohte, MJ Mitchell, H Shibata, N Tokuchi, H Toda, G Iwatsubo
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 130 (1-4) 649 - 654 0049-6979 2001/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To analyze the differences in the status and processes of nitrogen saturation in Japan and northeastern United States, we examined the hydrobiogeochemistry of nitrogen of forested watersheds in these regions. Two distinct differences were found between watersheds in Japan compared with those in US. 1) In Japanese watersheds, marked decreases of NO3- concentration in surface waters during the summer growing season were not found and NO3- concentrations sometimes increased especially in the summer at nitrogen saturated sites. This contrast with watersheds in US where decreases in NO3- concentration during the summer are commonly observed except those watersheds in advanced stages of nitrogen saturation. These differences in NO3- concentration relationships can be attributed to climatic differences, with Japan having high precipitation and high discharge during the summer, while in many regions of North America lowest discharges are found in the summer. The climatic regime in Japan leads to high rates of mineralization and the rapid transport of NO3- to streams in summer. 2) Japanese watersheds, even those with high NO3- concentrations in surface waters, show little evidence of acidification. This is in contrast to sites in US where increased NO3- concentrations, especially during episodic events, result in surface water acidification.
  • T Wakamatsu, K Sato, A Takahashi, H Shibata
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 130 (1-4) 721 - 726 0049-6979 2001/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The proton budget for a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, was studied by estimating biogeochemical fluxes. The proton budgets were estimated for three individual compartments of the ecosystem: vegetation canopy, and the upper (O horizon + 0-10 cm) and lower (10-100 cm) soil layers. The dominant proton sources in the compartments were atmospheric deposition (1.2 kmol(c) ha(-1) yr(-1)), nitrification (5.1 kmol(c) ha(-1) yr(-1)) and base-cation uptake by vegetation (8.0 kmol(c) ha(-1) yr(-1)) respectively. These proton sources were neutralized almost completely within the individual compartments mainly by base-cation release from the canopy or the soil. The sum of internal proton sources was five times as large as that of external ones. Nitrogen input from the atmosphere was 2.2 kmol ha(-1) yr(-1), whereas its output from the lower soil layer was 3.9 kmol ha(-1) yr(-1), indicating that a net loss of nitrogen occurred in the ecosystem. However, this did not cause the acidification of soil leachates because of a sufficient release rate of base cations from the soil.
  • M Kirikae, R Hatano, H Shibata, Y Tanaka
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 130 (1-4) 697 - 702 0049-6979 2001/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We determined proton budgets of surface soils in a deciduous forest (Df) and a coniferous forest (Cf) of Volcanogenous Regosols in Tomakomai, Hokkaido of northern Japan. The total H+ source was 12.9 and 11.6 kmol ha(-1)y(-1) at Df and Cf respectively, and the external H+ was 1% at Df and 2% at Cf. The primary H+ sources were vegetation uptake of base cations and nitrification, while the major H+ sinks were release of base cations and NO3- uptake by vegetation. Leaching incubation experiments using A horizon soils including Df and Cf with NH4+ solutions (53, 15.9 mg N L-1) showed that H+ from nitrification was generally higher in the Df soil than Cf soil, and nitrification of Tomakomai Df soil was the highest in both treatments. Results of multiple regression analyses suggested that pH(kCl) and exchangeable Ca2+ contributed to the H+ generation via nitrification. Leaching experiments with dilute HCl (pH 3.3) revealed that cation release (mainly Ca2+) occurred, and the proportion of release by decrease of exchangeable cations was higher than that by mineral weathering. Mineral weathering in the Tomakomai soil was higher than the other soils.
  • H Shibata, H Mitsuhashi, Y Miyake, S Nakano
    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES 15 (10) 1817 - 1828 0885-6087 2001/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    When evaluating forest functions and their responses to climate change, it is important to clarify carbon dynamics in forested basins. Carbon fluxes in litter fall, throughfall, soil solution, groundwater and stream water were determined from November 1997 to October 1998 for a forest stream ecosystem in a cool-temperate forested basin in the Tomakomai Experimental Forest, Hokkaido University, northern Japan. The annual carbon input to the stream by litter fall was 0(.)23 gC m(-2) year(-1), with the greatest flux in the autumn. Owing to biological decomposition of litter in the stream, the carbon concentration in stream particulate organic matter (>0(.)45 mum) decreased as particle size decreased. The upstream carbon flux was 1(.)9 gC m(-1) year(-1), and the annual carbon output in stream water was 7(.)6 gC m(-2) year(-1), mainly as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), resulting in net carbon output in stream water of 5(.)7 gC m(-2) year(-1). The mean dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in soil solution was higher than that in throughfall and stream water. The estimated annual carbon flux from soil in deep (about 1(.)5 m) soil solution was 4(.)4 gC m(-1) year(-1). About 40% of DOC in soil solution was decomposed and converted to DIC in groundwater. These results indicate that carbon dynamics in the forest stream were affected strongly by decomposition of organic matter in the soil-groundwater-stream continuum and by the hydraulic conditions, which are characterized by a large pool of groundwater and high soil permeability. Copyright (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • N Ohte, N Tokuchi, H Shibata, M Tsujimura, T Tanaka, MJ Mitchell
    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES 15 (10) 1771 - 1789 0885-6087 2001/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Hydrobiogeochemical information on forested watersheds in the Japanese archipelago is reviewed to qualitatively summarize the major factors affecting the hydrology and biogeochemistry of this region. Major features that distinguish Japanese forest watersheds from those of north central Europe and the northeast United States generally include higher temperature, greater precipitation and steeper topography. There have been three major themes in hydrobiogeochemistry research on Japanese forest ecosystems: (1) investigations of nutrient cycles with particular emphasis on the establishment and maintenance of forest ecosystems; (2) evaluations of streamwater chemistry as an output from the forest ecosystem; and (3) hydrological studies using biogeochemical tracers. High precipitation inputs during the growing season affect the seasonality of the streamwater NO(3)(-) concentration, resulting in different temporal patterns than those generally found in north central Europe and the northeast United States. The high alkalinity and pH of Japanese surface waters is due to the rapid weathering of relatively young soils that are generated by steep hillslopes. Warm temperatures and elevated soil moisture enhance high rates of mineral weathering. Hydrological studies using biogeochemical tracers have shown that the steep topography contributes to the highly heterogeneous movement of water within Japanese catchments. Copyright (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • M Kirikae, H Shibata, Y Tanaka, T Sakuma, R Hatano
    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION 47 (2) 253 - 264 0038-0768 2001/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We calculated the annual proton budgets of surface soils (O and A horizons) in a deciduous forest (Df site) and a coniferous forest (Cf site) of Volcanogenous Regosols in Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan. To estimate the nitrification and nutrient uptake by vegetation, are took soil leachates by using tension-free lysimeters under the conditions excluding and including vegetation uptake. It was suggested that the method of determining the vegetation uptake by subtracting the net flux in the horizon with vegetation uptake from the net flux in the horizon without vegetation uptake was appropriate, after comparing the calculation results obtained using growth increment in terms of nitrogen uptake. Nitrate was the major nitrogen source accounting for 97 to 96% of the total nitrogen uptake due to the remarkable nitrification activity of the Tomakomai soil. The total H+ source amounted to 13.1 and 11.5 kmol(C) ha(-1) y(-1) at the Df site and Cf site, respectively. The inflow amount of H+ from throughfall and stemflow to the O horizon was negligible and the internal H+ sources in the O and A horizons accounted for 99% of the total H+ sources at the Df site and 98% at the Cf site. Base cation uptake by vegetation and nitrification were quantitatively important H+ sources. On the other hand, weathering and ion exchange of base cations as well as NO3- uptake by vegetation were the major H+ sinks. The H+ outflow from surface soil was negligible.
  • M Kirikae, H Shibata, Y Tanaka, T Sakuma, R Hatano
    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION 47 (2) 253 - 264 0038-0768 2001/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We calculated the annual proton budgets of surface soils (O and A horizons) in a deciduous forest (Df site) and a coniferous forest (Cf site) of Volcanogenous Regosols in Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan. To estimate the nitrification and nutrient uptake by vegetation, are took soil leachates by using tension-free lysimeters under the conditions excluding and including vegetation uptake. It was suggested that the method of determining the vegetation uptake by subtracting the net flux in the horizon with vegetation uptake from the net flux in the horizon without vegetation uptake was appropriate, after comparing the calculation results obtained using growth increment in terms of nitrogen uptake. Nitrate was the major nitrogen source accounting for 97 to 96% of the total nitrogen uptake due to the remarkable nitrification activity of the Tomakomai soil. The total H+ source amounted to 13.1 and 11.5 kmol(C) ha(-1) y(-1) at the Df site and Cf site, respectively. The inflow amount of H+ from throughfall and stemflow to the O horizon was negligible and the internal H+ sources in the O and A horizons accounted for 99% of the total H+ sources at the Df site and 98% at the Cf site. Base cation uptake by vegetation and nitrification were quantitatively important H+ sources. On the other hand, weathering and ion exchange of base cations as well as NO3- uptake by vegetation were the major H+ sinks. The H+ outflow from surface soil was negligible.
  • PROKUSHKIN Anatoly S, PROKUSHKIN Stanislav G, SHIBATA Hideaki, MATUURA Yojiro, ABAIMOV Anatoly P
    Eurasian journal of forest research 北海道大学 2 (0) 45 - 58 1345-8221 2001/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Article
  • KOIKE Takayoshi, HOJYO Hajime, NANIWA Akihiko, ASHIYA Daitaro, SUGATA Sadao, SUGISHITA Yoshiyuki, KOBAYASHI Makoto, NOMURA Mutsumi, AKIBAYASHI Yukio, NAKAJIMA Junko, TAKAGI Kentaro, SHIBATA Hideaki, SATOH Fuyuki, WANG Wengie, TAKADA Masayuki, FUJINUMA Yasumi, SHI Fuchen, MATSUURA Yojiro, SASA Kaichiro
    Eurasian journal of forest research 北海道大学 2 (0) 65 - 79 1345-8221 2001/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Research Materials
  • Shibata, H, Kuraji, K, Toda, H, Sasa, K
    TheScientificWorld 1 (S2) 572 - 580 2001 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Ozawa, M, Shibata, H, Satoh, F, Sasa, K
    TheScientificWorld 1 (S2) 527 - 533 2001 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Shibata H
    Japanese Journal of Ecology 51 (3) 269 - 275 2001 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 柴田 英昭
    遺伝 裳華房 54 (11) 39 - 43 0387-0022 2000/11 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Toda H, Sasa K, Sato F, Shibata H, Nomura M, Ichikawa K, Fujito E, Takanishi T, Seiwa K, Tsukahara H, Iida T, Taniguchi N, Nakata M, Kuwabara S, Uchida T, Haruta Y, Inoue M, Yagi H, Tsukagoshi T, Kuraji K, Futada M, Ono H, Suzuki M, Imaizumi Y, Yamaguchi N, Takenaka C, Yurugi Y, Kawanabe S, Ando M, Nakanishi A, Nishimura K, Yamasaki M, Nagayama Y, Doi N, Katagiri S, Kofuji R, Shinmura Y, Inoue S, Ezaki T, Kohno S, Hujihisa M, Iwamatu I, Imayasu K, Nakamura S, Tsukamoto J, Nogami K, Enoki T
    Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 一般社団法人日本森林学会 82 (3) 308 - 312 0021-485X 2000/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Extensive research on forest stream water chemistry gives important information in understanding the effects of environmental changes in forest ecosystems. The chemical properties of stream water from 45 forested watersheds in university forests over Japan were investigated in June, 1998. The average pH was 7.1 (maximum 8.1,minimum 6.1). The average electric conductivity (EC) was 64 (maximum 178,minimum 19) μS/cm. The EC of stream water in Okinawa and Sado Island sites tended to be high because the effects of sea salt. Except for the island sites, EC had a positive correlation with pH, summ...
  • WAKAMATSU TAKASHI, SATO KAZUO, TAKAHASHI AKIRA, SHIBATA HIDEAKI
    電力中央研究所狛江研究所報告 (T99016) 19P  2000/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Soil respiration rate on the contrasting north- and south-facing slopes of a larch forests in central Siberia,
    Yanagihara, Y, Koike, T, Matsuura, Y, Mori, S, Shibata, H, Satoh, F, Masuyagina, O.V, Zyryanova, O.A, Prokushkin, A.S, Prokushkin, S.G, Abaimov, A
    Eurasian Journal of Forest Research 1 19 - 29 2000 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Toda H, Sasa K, Sato F, Shibata H, Nomura M, Ichikawa K, Fujito E, Takanishi T, Seiwa K, Tsukahara H, Iida T, Taniguchi N, Nakata M, Kuwabara S, Uchida T, Haruta Y, Inoue M, Yagi H, Tsukagoshi T, Kuraji K, Futada M, Ono H, Suzuki M, Imaizumi Y, Yamaguchi N, Takenaka C, Yurugi Y, Kawanabe S, Ando M, Nakanishi A, Nishimura K, Yamasaki M, Nagayama Y, Doi N, Katagiri S, Kofuji R, Shinmura Y, Inoue S, Ezaki T, Kohno S, Fujihisa M, Iwamatsu I, Imayasu K, Nakamura S, Tsukamoto J, Nogami K, Enoki T
    Nihon Ringakkai Shi/Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 82 (3) 308 - 312 2000 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hosobuchi Yukio, Hatano Ryusuke, Shibata Hideaki, Tanaka Yumiko
    Journal of the science of soil and manure, Japan 一般社団法人日本土壌肥料学会 69 (6) 633 - 635 0029-0610 1998/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • H Shibata, M Kirikae, Y Tanaka, T Sakuma, R Hatano
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 105 (1-2) 63 - 72 0049-6979 1998/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The proton budgets of deciduous and coniferous forest ecosystems on volcanogenous regosols in Hokkaido, northern Japan, were studied by measuring the biogeochemical fluxes (atmospheric deposition, canopy leaching, vegetation uptake and leaching from soil) at each site during a three year period. The proton budgets were developed for individual compartments of the ecosystem: vegetation canopy, organic and mineral soil layers. At both sites, atmospheric S deposition was the dominant proton source in the vegetation canopy. In organic horizons, dissociation of weak acids (bicarbonate and/or organic acids) and vegetation uptake of base cations were the dominant proton sources, and the net mineralization of base cations was the dominant proton sink. Atmospheric acid deposition was almost neutralized in the forest canopy and organic horizon. At both sites, weathering and/or ion exchange of base cations and protonation of weak acids (mainly bicarbonate) were the dominant proton sinks in the mineral soil. In both organic and mineral soil, internal proton sources (mainly vegetation uptake of base cations and dissociation of weak acids) exceeded external proton sources, indicating that acid deposition was not the main driving force of soil acidification in the studied forest ecosystems.
  • H Shibata, T Sakuma
    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION 42 (1) 1 - 10 0038-0768 1996/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Ionic concentrations and fluxes of throughfall and precipitation were measured during a period of 3 y in a deciduous stand (Df-site) and a coniferous stand (Cf-site) affected by acidic precipitation in the north-western part of Tomakomai in Hokkaido. Throughfall pH at the Df-site was higher than precipitation pH in many cases, indicating that the deciduous canopy neutralized a proton in acidic precipitation. In contrast, pH in throughfall at the Cf-site fluctuated independently of the acidity of precipitation without any significant difference between pH in throughfall and that in precipitation. Concentrations of SO42-, K+, Na+, Cl- in throughfall were higher than in precipitation at both sites, especially during the growing period (from June to October), and the magnitude of increment at the Cf-site was larger than that at the Df-site. Na+ and Cl- in net throughfall flux (throughfall flux minus precipitation flux) for both sites were markedly affected by sea salt, while other ions in net throughfall flux were supplied by non sea salt, namely, external terrestrial, biological and anthropogenic materials and internal sources of living leaves. Net throughfall flux of protons showed that proton consumption on the leaf surface was a major process of canopy modification. At the Df-site, the absolute value of net H+ flux during the growing period (from June to October) was almost equivalent to that of K+ and HCO3-, suggesting that the mechanism of H+ consumption during canopy modification was closely dependent upon K+ release from internal sources of foliage and surface reactions which were controlled by bicarbonate and/or weak organic acid equilibrium. Annual proton consumption in deciduous and coniferous canopies were 0.53 and 0.28 kmol(c) ha(-1) y(-1) respectively, and these values corresponded to about SO and 44% of the proton load as wet deposition, respectively. The smaller value of proton consumption at the Cf-site compared with the Df-site may reflect the high capturing efficiency of the coniferous canopy which acts as a collector of dry acidic deposition, especially non sea salt SO42-.
  • H Shibata, T Sakuma
    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION 42 (1) 1 - 10 0038-0768 1996/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Ionic concentrations and fluxes of throughfall and precipitation were measured during a period of 3 y in a deciduous stand (Df-site) and a coniferous stand (Cf-site) affected by acidic precipitation in the north-western part of Tomakomai in Hokkaido. Throughfall pH at the Df-site was higher than precipitation pH in many cases, indicating that the deciduous canopy neutralized a proton in acidic precipitation. In contrast, pH in throughfall at the Cf-site fluctuated independently of the acidity of precipitation without any significant difference between pH in throughfall and that in precipitation. Concentrations of SO42-, K+, Na+, Cl- in throughfall were higher than in precipitation at both sites, especially during the growing period (from June to October), and the magnitude of increment at the Cf-site was larger than that at the Df-site. Na+ and Cl- in net throughfall flux (throughfall flux minus precipitation flux) for both sites were markedly affected by sea salt, while other ions in net throughfall flux were supplied by non sea salt, namely, external terrestrial, biological and anthropogenic materials and internal sources of living leaves. Net throughfall flux of protons showed that proton consumption on the leaf surface was a major process of canopy modification. At the Df-site, the absolute value of net H+ flux during the growing period (from June to October) was almost equivalent to that of K+ and HCO3-, suggesting that the mechanism of H+ consumption during canopy modification was closely dependent upon K+ release from internal sources of foliage and surface reactions which were controlled by bicarbonate and/or weak organic acid equilibrium. Annual proton consumption in deciduous and coniferous canopies were 0.53 and 0.28 kmol(c) ha(-1) y(-1) respectively, and these values corresponded to about SO and 44% of the proton load as wet deposition, respectively. The smaller value of proton consumption at the Cf-site compared with the Df-site may reflect the high capturing efficiency of the coniferous canopy which acts as a collector of dry acidic deposition, especially non sea salt SO42-.
  • H Shibata, F Satoh, Y Tanaka, T Sakuma
    WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 85 (3) 1119 - 1124 0049-6979 1995/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To clarify the mechanisms of pH buffering in forest ecosystems, field observations of pH and ionic concentrations in precipitation (R), throughfall (Tf), stemflow (Sf), and leachates from organic horizons (Lo) were conducted for three years at three stands in Tomakomai (TK) and Teshio (TS) in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Weighted mean races of H+ input as act deposition at TK and TS were estimated in che range from 0.3 to 1.0 and 0.4-0.6 kmol, ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. While the net H+ flux was reduced significantly by the forest canopy, net fluxes of other ions by throughfall, especially for Na+, Cl-, and SO42-, were apparently greater than those by precipitation. The canopy modification of the H+ flux was more remarkable under deciduous stands than under coniferous stands, suggesting that the efficiency of conifers as the collectors of dry deposition is greater than that of deciduous ones. More than 50% of H+ flux due to throughfall was absorbed by the organic horizons and the weighted mean pH of Lo al TK and TS was in the range from 4.9 to 5.5 and 5.0-5.5, respectively. Results from field observation and field leaching experiments, showed that the major H+ sinks of the organic horizons are exchange reaction of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+. Organic acids or organo-metallic complexes of lower pK(=5.0-5.5) pla) ed a significant role as counter anions in O horizons leachate in coniferous forests. Our results indicate the importance of biogeochemical modifications in the canopy and organic horizon in acid buffering mechanisms of forest ecosystems.
  • SAKUMA Toshio, TOMITA Atsuko, SHIBATA Hideaki, TANAKA Yumiko
    Journal of the science of soil and manure, Japan 一般社団法人日本土壌肥料学会 65 (6) 677 - 683 0029-0610 1994/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The distribution of biomass and sulfur were determined for deciduous (Df) and coniferous (Cf) forests in a college experiment forest at Tomakomai (N. 42゜40', E. 141゜36') as the bases to study sulfur cycling in the forest ecosystems. The Df-forest consists mainly of Quercus mongolica var. grosserrata, Purnus sargentii, Acea mono, Tilia japonica, and other lower story broadleaved trees and its standing stock biomass (SSB) was estimated at about 240 Mg ha^<-1>. The Cf-forest, on the other hand, was a young plantation of Pinus strobus and its SSB was about 90 Mg ha^<-1>. The highest sulfur cont...
  • SAKUMA Toshio, TOMITA Atsuko, SHIBATA Hideaki, TANAKA Yumiko
    Journal of the science of soil and manure, Japan 一般社団法人日本土壌肥料学会 65 (6) 684 - 691 0029-0610 1994/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The rates of input, output, and cycling of sulfur in deciduous (Df) and coniferous (Cf) forests in a college experiment forest at Tomakomai were estimated. Because of the higher efficiency of conifers as the collector of dry deposition, the rate of atmospheric sulfur input (D) to the Cf-forest amounted to about 1.5 times that to the Df-forest. The larger D resulted in a higher ratio of cycling sulfur to accumulated or required sulfur of forest vegetation. For example, the D/R (R : required sulfur by forest vegetation) ratio of Df-forest was estimated at 1.4 but that of Cf-forest was 2.4. It...
  • SHIBATA Hideaki, TANAKA Yumiko, SAKUMA Toshio
    Journal of the science of soil and manure, Japan 一般社団法人日本土壌肥料学会 65 (4) 406 - 412 0029-0610 1994/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Snowfall and snowpack chemistry was examined in open areas in a forest region in Tomakomai Experiment forest from December, 1991 to April, 1992 to predict the flux of dry deposition to snow surface and the redistribution of materials within the snowpack. Most ions input by snowfall, except for H^+, showed a higher concentration than that of rainfall, but monthly ion load caused by snowfall was similar to that of rainfall. The flux of ions onto snow surface by dry deposition was estimated as the difference between the material amounts accumulated in snowpack (wet+dry deposition) and cumulati...
  • SHIBATA Hideaki, SAKUMA Toshio
    Journal of the science of soil and manure, Japan 一般社団法人日本土壌肥料学会 65 (3) 313 - 320 0029-0610 1994/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The bulk deposition at open site near coniferous and deciduous forest in Tomakomai Experiment Forest of Hokkaido University was examined from May, 1990 to April, 1993. The pH of bulk deposition was lower between June to August. Difference of pH between both sites was very small, but annual variation was large (pH=4.1-4.7). Annual proton load was in the range of 0.3-1.0 kmol_c ha^<-1> y^<-1>. The Na^+, Ca^<2+>, SO_4^<2->, Cl^- concentration of bulk deposition showed large fluctuation relative to that of pH. Na^+ concentration was strongly correlated to Cl^- concentration, and the Na^+/Cl^- r...

Books etc

  • 柴田 英昭 
    共立出版 2018/03 (ISBN: 9784320058231)
  • 柴田 英昭 
    共立出版 2018/03 (ISBN: 9784320058248)
  • 自然科学のためのはかる百科
    渥美茂明, 尾関 徹, 越桐國雄, 関 隆晴, 西村年晴, 松村京子, 横井邦彦 (Contributor3.9.6 生態系における物質循環・エネルギー流をはかる,第3章 生物をはかる; 柴田英昭)
    丸善出版 2016/11
  • Earth Stewardship - Linking Ecology and Ethics in Theory and Practice 2
    Rozzi, R, Chapin III, F.S, Callicott, J.B, Pickett, S.T.A, Power, M.E, Armesto, J.J, May Jr., R.H (ContributorBiogeochemistry and Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Practices in Japan; Shibata H)
    Springer International Publishing 2015/03
  • 柴田英昭 (Single work)
    共立出版 2015/03 (ISBN: 9784320057494)
  • Frontiers of Agricultural Science
    Research Faculty of Agriculuture, Hokkaido University (Contributor1.3 Forest Ecosystem and Nutrient Cycles; Shibata H)
    Shoukadoh Book Sellers 2015
  • 土の百科事典
    土の百科事典編集委 (Contributor)
    丸善出版 2013
  • 国際連合大学高等研究所, 日本の里山, 里海評価委員会 (Contributor里山・里海と生態系サービス-概念的枠組み;齊藤修・柴田英昭)
    朝倉書店 2012 (ISBN: 9784254180350)
  • Duraiappah AK, Nakamura K, Takeuchi K, Watanabe M, Nishi M (ContributorSatoyama and Satoumi, and ecosystem services: A conceptual framework; Saito O, Shibata H)
    United Nations University Press 2012 (ISBN: 9789280812107)
  • Nakano Shin-Ichi, Yahara T, Nakashizuka T (ContributorILTER and JaLTER: Their Missions and Linkage to Database Development in the Asia-Pacific Region; Ohte N, Nakaoka M, Shibata H)
    Springer 2012 (ISBN: 9784431540311)
  • 京都大学フィールド科学教育研究センター, 向井 宏 (Contributor天塩川-日本最北の大河流域-;柴田英昭・上田宏・イレバ ニーナ・長尾誠也・中村洋平・門谷茂・柴沼成一郎)
    京都大学学術出版会 2012 (ISBN: 9784876985753)
  • Mancuso Stefano (ContributorFine root dynamics and root respiration; Fukuzawa K, Dannoura M, Shibata H)
    Springer 2011 (ISBN: 9783642220661)
  • 「北海道の森林」北方森林学会(編著)
    北方森林学会 (Contributor攪乱と物質循環)
    北海道新聞社 2011
  • 「森川海のつながりと河口・沿岸域の生物生産,山下 洋・田中 克(編) 」,水産学シリーズ157巻
    山下 洋, 田中 克 (Contributor流域環境と水産資源の関係-天塩川プロジェクト-;上田宏・柴田英昭・門谷茂)
    恒星社厚生閣 2008
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World
    Canadel J, Pataki D, Pitelka L (ContributorTerrestrial ecosystems in monsoon Asia: Scaling up from shoot module to watershed; Kohyama T, Urabe J, Hikosaka K, Shibata H, Yoshioka T, Konohira E, Murase J, Wada E)
    Springer-Verlag 2007
  • 地球環境と生態系-陸域生態系の科学
    和田英太郎, 占部城太郎 (Contributor大気-森林-河川系での炭素フラックス)
    共立出版 2006
  • 森林フィールドサイエンス
    全国大学演習林協議会 (Contributor外部環境変化に対する生態系の応答(酸性沈着に対する森林の中和能力))
    朝倉書店 2006
  • Water and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems: The textbook for fifteenth IHP training course in 2005
    Hiyama T (ContributorBiogeochemical processes of carbon in forested ecosystem)
    Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University and United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 2006
  • 中村 太士, 小池 孝良 (Contributor森林生態系での無機物質の循環(柴田英昭))
    朝倉書店 2005 (ISBN: 9784254470383)
  • Kohyama T (ContributorCarbon cycling and budget in a forested basin of southwestern Hokkaido, northern Japan; Shibata H, Hiura T, Tanaka Y, Takagi, K, Koike T))
    Springer 2005 (ISBN: 4431260749)
  • 砂防学会 (Contributor)
    山海堂 2004 (ISBN: 4381015908)
  • 佐竹 研一 (Contributor森林生態系の物質循環と酸緩衝機構)
    愛智出版 2002 (ISBN: 487256376X)
  • 不破 敬一郎, 森田 昌敏 (Contributor酸性雨調査(森林生態系))
    朝倉書店 2002 (ISBN: 4254180071)
  • 相場 慎一郎, 伊東 明, 村上 正志, 百瀬 邦泰, 安田 雅俊, 山田 俊弘, 和田 直也, 井上 幹生, 加藤 悦史, 木村 一也, 酒井 暁子, 佐藤 弘和, 柴田 英昭, 柴田 銃江, 高橋 耕一, 菊沢 喜八郎, 甲山 隆司 (Joint work森の土壌をめぐる物質動態)
    北海道大学出版会 2000/10 (ISBN: 4832998919) 236
  • 佐竹 研一 (Contributor林内雨・樹幹流の測定法と問題点;柴田英昭・中尾登志雄・蔵治光一郎)
    愛智出版 2000 (ISBN: 4872562011)
  • 日本土壌肥料学会北海道支部 (Contributor森林域における物質収支)
    北農会 1999 (ISBN: 4939021025)
  • 佐竹 研一 (Contributor森林生態系の物質循環と酸緩衝機構)
    愛智出版 1999 (ISBN: 4872563751)
  • BIOGEOMON the International, Symposium on, Ecosystem Behavior, Wieder R. Kelman, Novák Martin, Černý Jiří V, Villanova University, Český geologický, stav Praha (ContributorProton Budgets of Forest Ecosystems on Volcanogenous Regosols in Hokkaido, northern Japan; Shibata H, Kirikae M, Tanaka Y, Sakuma T, Hatano R)
    Kluwer Academic 1998 (ISBN: 0792351673)
  • Ando T, International Plant, Nutrition Colloquium (ContributorRelationship between soil acidification and nutrient cycling in a forest ecosystem on Volcanogenous Regosols in Hokkaido, northern Japan; Shibata H, Tanaka Y, Sakuma T,Hatano R)
    Kluwer Academic 1997 (ISBN: 079234796X)
  • 名寄市 (Contributor気候と土壌)
    名寄市

Conference Activities & Talks

MISC

Awards & Honors

  • 2016/03 日本生態学会 Ecological Research Award
     Biogeochemical nitrogen properties of forest soils in the Japanese archipelago 
    受賞者: Urakawa R;Ohte N;Shibata H;Tateno R;Hishi H;Fukushima K;Inagaki Y;Hirai K;Oda T;Oyanagi N;Nakata M;Toda H;Tanaka K;Fukuzawa F;Watanabe T;Tokuchi N;Nakaji T;Saigusa N;Yamao Y;Nakanishi A;Enoki T;Ugawa S;Hayakawa A;Kotani A;Kuroiwa M
  • 2002 環境科学会 2002年度社団法人環境科学会奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 柴田 英昭
  • 2001 日本土壌肥料学会 第19回日本土壌肥料学会奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 柴田 英昭

Research Grants & Projects

  • 北方林における気候変動への適応:生態系レジリエンスの保全をめざした生態系管理
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 森本 淳子
  • 大気窒素沈着が森林流域の窒素循環に与える感受性の地域性評価
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 智和 正明
  • 領域テーマD「統合的ハザード予測」
    文部科学省:統合的気候モデル高度化研究プログラム
    Date (from‐to) : 2017/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 中北英一
  • 流域・河川生態系における自然資本・生態系サービス評価と沿岸域へのつながり
    環境省:環境研究総合推進費
    Date (from‐to) : 2016/04 -2021/03 
    Author : 柴田英昭, サブテーマ代表
  • 森林生態系に関する視覚情報教材「全天トレイル」の開発
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2019/03 
    Author : 藤田 良治
  • 農地~国レベルでの窒素動態の実態を反映した新たな窒素負荷指標の開発
    農林水産省:食品産業科学技術研究推進事業委託事業
    Date (from‐to) : 2016/04 -2018/03 
    Author : 江口定夫
  • 同位体を指標に用いた大気中ガス状亜硝酸の起源推定
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2015/04 -2018/03 
    Author : 中川 書子
  • 渓流水100mLでの森林窒素代謝評価:新安定同位体水質指標の開発と展開
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2014/04 -2017/03 
    Author : 木庭 啓介
  • 森林植物中の天然同位体トレーサーを用いた窒素同化過程の新解析法の開発
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(挑戦的萌芽研究)
    Date (from‐to) : 2013/04 -2015/03 
    Author : 中川 書子
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2013 -2015 
    Author : 柴田 英昭
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2010 -2012 
    Author : 柴田 英昭, 稲垣 善之, 宮本 敏澄, 舘野 隆之輔, 菱 拓雄, 戸田 浩人
     
    本年度は全体研究計画に関する打ち合わせ会議を行い、観測地点の設定と現地実験の予備実験および本培養実験を開始した。北海道、東北、関東、近畿、九州において積雪量の異なる地域を横断するように研究サイトラインを設定した。北海道、東北、関東、近畿においては日本海側から太平洋側にかけてのラインを設定し、九州では高山地域において標高別に積雪傾度に沿ったラインを設定した。また、九州の中低標高域は積雪の無いリファレンスサイトとして位置づける。研究サイトライン上に拠点サイトを複数設置し、現地交換培養実験を開始した。土壌培養カラムの上端にイオン交換樹脂を取り付けたレジンコア法を用い、積雪量および凍結・融解サイクルの異なる拠点サイトにおいて冬季から融雪期にかけての現地培養を開始した。地点間での正味窒素無機化・硝化速度を調べると同時に、いくつかの地点においては土壌の交換培養を実施し、冬季の積雪環境の違いが及ぼす影響について考察する。また、各拠点サイトにおける冬季直前と融雪後の土壌および上記の交換培養実験の培養前後土壌を採取し、15Nでラベルした安定同位体窒素をトレーサーとして総窒素無機化速度を定量する。厳冬期である2011年1月下旬から2月上旬にかけて拠点サイトである北海道において土壌カラムの回収、抽出を行い、正味窒素無機化・硝化速度の解析を進めている。また、イングロースコア法による細根動態のモニタリ...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2009 -2011 
    Author : 笹 賀一郎, 佐藤 冬樹, 柴田 英昭, 吉田 俊也, 野村 睦, 高木 健太郎
     
    本研究は、北海道大学北方生物圏フィールド科学センターの雨竜研究林と天塩研究林の操作実験流域を主な対象として、原生林状態から森林伐採・表土除去・樹木の植栽などの炭素や窒素などの物質循環への影響を地下部・根茎の状況もふくめて明らかにしようとするものである。平成21年度の主な成果は、以下のようである。1.天塩研究林の実験流域において、原生林伐採後に植栽したカラマツのバイオマスについて、根茎もふくめた測定をおこなった。また、前年度におこなった15m×15m林分の地下部調査については、根茎等の分析用サンプルの乾燥をすすめるとともに、樹種ごとの根茎量等についてのデータをとりまとめた。2.雨竜研究林・天塩研究林の実験流域においては、炭素・窒素の動態変化に加えて、水分や炭素・窒素以外の物質、および土砂・浮遊砂等に関する観測を継続した。とくに、下流域に対する溶存鉄の供給については、北方針広混交林は供給が少ないという特徴をもちながらも、森林は持続的な溶存鉄生成と供給の役割を果たしていることを明らかにした。さらに、冬季間の観測から、積雪期においても窒素の無機化や硝化は進行し、降雪前にはアンモニアの生成が進行し、融雪期には硝酸の生成か進行すること、積雪量の減少によって融雪期のアンモニア正味生成量の増加と硝酸の正味生成量が減少することなどを明らかにした。3.原生林伐採とカラマツ植栽によるCO2フラック...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2008 -2010 
    Author : Takayoshi KOIKE, 宇都木 玄, Kaichiro SASA, Atsuko SAGIMOTO, Hideaki SHIBATA, Hajime UTSUGI
     
    We studied the carbon allocation of deciduous trees infected with microbes in soils and greenhouse gas (CO_2 and CH_4) emission rates under a free air CO_2 enrichment (FACE) as affected by soil fertility and simulated tropospheric ozone (O_3). Root growth and microbes' infection of birch were clearly inhibited by O_3 with an open top chamber method. Although plant defense was enhanced by elevated CO_2 but slightly reduced with high soil fertility. At high CO_2, rate of CO_2 efflux increased and CH_4 absorption rate was reduced. Moreover, number of species of collembolan with high mobility w...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2007 -2009 
    Author : Hideaki SHIBATA, Hiroto TODA, Yoshiyuki INAGAKI, Ryunosuke TATENO, Keisuke KOBA, Asami NAKANISHI
     
    This project was conducted in northern Hokkaido, northern Kanto, central Kinki and southern Kyusyu to understand the pattern and factors of the alteration in nitrogen dynamics of forest soil along with the climatic gradient in Japanese archipelago. While the warming increased soil microbial metabolisms of nitrogen, each specific characteristic of soil nitrogen dynamics in each site was relatively maintained even under the climate change. It was suggested that the much atmospheric nitrogen deposition and the previous human utilization of forest resources strongly influenced the differences a...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2007 -2008 
    Author : Takashi KOHYAMA, 占部 城太郎, 柴崎 亮介, 近藤 明彦, 杉本 敦子, 奥田 敏統, Jotaro URABE, Ryosuke SHIBAZAKI, Yukio HIMIYAMA, Akihiko KONDO, Akio BITO, Haruhiro DOI, Mitsuru OSAKI, Zoumin KI, Atsuko SUGIMOTO, Hideaki SHIBATA, K. ADEMOLA
     
    急激に進行する温暖化と土地利用変化が、陸域システムに与える影響を統合的に評価する目的で、生態系科学と土地利用科学双方にまたがる研究連絡ネットワークを構築した。GLP 札幌拠点オフィスをネットワークの情報収集と発信に活用した。本研究ネットワークからの情報を国内向けおよび国外向けに札幌オフィスから発信し、国際的な研究ネットワークの連携を強化した。国際サマースクールや国際シンポジウムを開催し、アジアをターゲットとする共同研究を発足させた。
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2006 -2008 
    Author : Takeshi TANGE, Hideaki SHIBATA, Kyoichi OTSUKI, Koichitro KURAJI, Masahiro TAKAGI, Hiroto TODA, Noribumi HOTTA, Tomoomi KUMAGAI, Tsutomu ENOKI, Masaaki CHIWA, Hiromichi ONODERA, Tadashi NAKASHMA, Akihiko KONDO, Kosuke HOMMA
     
    北海道から沖縄までに分散して様々な環境条件の森林域に設置されている大学演習林の森林流域における水・物質動態の観測ネットワークを構築し、観測流域間で比較可能なデータの蓄積を図る体制の整備を図った。気象データについては、インターネットを活用した速やかな公開システムの運用を図った。流量・水質の形成過程に関わる降水の平均滞留時間を指標するトレーサの検討を行い、平水時の平均滞留時間の長短を流域間で比較する方法を提示した。土壌の保水量に関わる土壌撥水性発現の森林流域内での時空間的変異を観測し、乾性土壌で夏期の強度の乾燥によって撥水性が発現し、それが長期間維持されることを明らかにした。
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2006 -2008 
    Author : Ueda UEDA, Hideaki北海道大, SHIBATA, Kaoru AZUMI, Masatoshi BAN, Yuzo YAMAMOTO
     
    我国の重要な水産資源であるシロザケ・サクラマス・ベニザケ(ヒメマス)は、生まれた川(母川)を降河する時に、母川固有の溶存遊離アミノ酸(DFAA)組成を母川水のニオイ成分として記憶し、数年後に成熟した時に、嗅覚によりDAFF組成を識別して高い確率で母川を選択したが、カラフトマスは選択しなかった。また、DFAAは主に河床の付着微生物の集合体であるバイオフィルムが産生し、流域・季節・年変動の少ないDFAA組成が存在した。
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2007 
    Author : Takayoshi KOIKE, 日浦 勉, 甲山 隆司, 笹 賀一郎, 柴田 英昭, 高木 健太郎, 船田 良, 飛田 博順
     
    Since the effect of high [CO_2] is known to depend on soil conditions, we evaluated the response in two soils which are widely distributed in northern Japan: infertile and immature volcanic ash (VA) soil, and fertile brown forest (BF) soil. Except alder, most species showed photosynthetic down-regulation only in VA soil. The explanation is reduced nitrogen and Rubisco content in the leaf. For alder, the down-regulation occurred only in BF soil because of the accumulation of starch in foliage, which restricts CO_2 diffusion inside the chloroplast. The higher photosynthetic rate of alder in i...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2005 -2007 
    Author : Fuyuki SATOH, 笹 賀一郎, 小池 孝良, 柴田 英昭, 吉田 俊也, 高木 健太郎
     
    The carbon-, water- and mineral cycling were investigated in the Larix forest watersheds, associated with growth, succession and carbon storage, of southern limit area of permafrost region of Far East Asia. The research sites were set in the Larix (Larix gmelinii) forests of a) Maoershan Experimental Forestry Center, north Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China (seasonally frozen area), b) the Greater Khingan Range, China, c) Mo-he, northernmost of China and d) Blagobeshensk, Amur Region, Russia (discontinuous permafrost region). The site c) and d) were affected by the forest fires re...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2004 -2006 
    Author : Kaichiro SASA, 中静 透, 小池 孝良, 日浦 勉, 柴田 英昭, 揚妻 直樹
     
    The purposes of this project were to clarify the mechanism of relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functions at the boreal forests by the field experiments as forest cutting or fertilization, and to prepare some long term monitoring sites.In Uryu experimental forest, under the heavy snowfall climate, nine experimental basins were established and clear cutting and removal of undertory were carried out. (1)Increasing of current discharge and decline of water temperature were observed after clear cutting. (2)Concentration of NO3-N was not increased by clear cutting, but increased by...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 2003 -2005 
    Author : Shigeru OGAWA, 森山 聡之, 蔵治 光一郎, 大槻 恭一, 高木 正博, 柴田 英昭
     
    The research results are as follows.(A)The following research was done about "open database of the forest basin water balance, and open database of the basin weather environment monitoring".1.The maintenance of the forest environment measurement system for the long-term monitoring of Japan. The observation of the water, material circulation in Japanese university forests was continued for the past three terms, and the long term continuation of the large area monitoring was maintained.2.The open data system of the water circulation observation data. Continuous registration and opening of the...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2003 -2005 
    Author : 大手 信人, Atsuko SUGIMOTO, 大手 信人, 高木 健太郎, 柴田 英昭, 木庭 啓助, 徳地 直子
     
    To elucidate the mechanisms of N_2O and CH_4 gas exchange in the forested catchment, the field experiments have been conducted at the Kiryu Experimental Watershed located in the southern Shiga prefecture, focusing on the hydrologic controls on biogeochemical processes for N_2O and CH_4 dynamics. Gas emitting rate and concentration in soil gas and dissolved gas concentration in soil and ground waters were measured both for CH_4 and N_2O at the stream side wetland and riparian zones in the headwater (zero-order) catchment. In addition to those observations, the stable isotope ratio of carbon ...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 2003 -2003 
    Author : 本間 航介, 榎木 勉, 柴田 英昭, 蔵治 光一郎, 中静 透, 徳地 直子
     
    森林生態学など時空間的にスケールの大きい現象を扱う分野では、動態解析の対象とする時間スケールが100年〜1000年単位まで拡大する傾向にある。また近年、「episodic(希な、突発的な)イベント」や「間接効果」といわれる反応の連鎖が生態系全体の動態に大きな影響を及ぼすケースが次々に発見されており、これらを解析するための長期大面積調査やネットワーク研究が調査手法の重要な部分を占めるようになっている。欧米やアジアの各国では、10年〜30年ほど前からLTER (Long-Term Ecological Research)といわれる(戦略的)研究システムが多数稼働しており、人材の集中配置と継続的な予算投入により長期、大面積の生態系動態解析を可能にしている。ところが、日本の研究システムの中にはこうしたラージスケールの動態解析を行う本格的システムは存在しなかった。そこで、この企画調査研究では、日本とその周辺地域にLTERの国際基準を満たす環境解析能力を持った研究システムを構築し、国際ネットワークにリンクさせるための具体的手法を集中的に議論した。平成15年6月に、東京大学農学部附属科学の森教育研究センター愛知研究林にて第一回全体会議を開催し、大学演習林を母体として長期大規模研究ネットワークを構築するための組織JERN (Japan Ecosystem Research Network)を...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2001 -2003 
    Author : Hideaki SHIBATA, 植村 滋, 吉岡 崇仁, 大手 信人, 高木 健太郎, 吉田 俊也
     
    To clarify the effect of vegetation and land-use on biogeochemical processes in combined watershed including the forest, wet land and agricultural land, analysis of land-use characteristics, vegetation pattern, solute chemistry and dynamics in stream and lake were investigated in the Shimarinai Rake watershed located in northern Hokkaido Japan. Terrestrial vegetation pattern in the watershed was affected the soil moisture condition which closely related to the topographic features. The wetland and swamp forest distributed in the lower slope and riparian area played a significant role on the...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 2001 -2002 
    Author : Hideaki SHIBATA, 上田 龍四郎, 笹 賀一郎, 小池 孝良, 山本 晋
     
    To continuous monitoring soil respiration rate in filed condition where there is no commercial electric power supply, we developed a new machine with 6 sample cahngers. It is an urgent subject for us to devleop a new machine for measuring soil respiration in forests without any commercial electric power supply to contribute to estimate the net ecosystem production, net biomass production minus so-called soil respiration rate. The machine could run for one week with two car batteries and registered more than 1000 data set were automatically recorded. However, the size was far from a handy ty...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(特定領域研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2001 
    Author : 小池 孝良, 田中 夕美子, 村上 正志, 柴田 英昭, 日浦 勉, 高木 健太郎
     
    光合成速度のピークは6月下旬で8-16umol・m^<-2>s^<-1>低下は樹種に特徴的。CO2付加では針葉樹材の細胞内腔が増加した。成熟林の1998〜2000年の現存量成長量は0.44、0.60、0.48tC・ha^<-1>yr^<-1>であった。総胸高断面積は32322.8m^2、平均胸高断面積は14.4m^2・ha^<-1>であった。総現存量は59626.9tC、平均現存量は26.6tC・ha^<-1>であった。1999〜2001年の平均NEPは258 gC m^<-2> y^<-1>土壌から大気へ放出される炭素フラックスは平均580 gC m^<-2> y^<-1>でNEPの二倍以上を示した。GEPは838 gC m^<-2> y^<-1>でありGEPに占めるNEPの割合はおよそ30%であった。幹呼吸量は土壌呼吸速度の11〜20%に相当した。GEPの算出に幹呼吸を入れると929 gC m^<-2> y^<-1>となり、樹木葉(含枝呼吸)の総光合成速度に相当した。リタートラップによると土壌還元量は三年間平均で118 gC m^<-2> y^<-1>であり、GEP(929 gC m^<-2> y^<-1>)の約13%であった。枯死による炭素還元量は79 gC m^<-2> y^<-1>であった。地上から地下部への炭素転流量は549 gC m^<-2> y^<-1>であっ...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2001 
    Author : Kaichiro SASA, 野村 睦, 柴田 英明, 佐藤 冬樹, 戸田 浩人, 蔵治 光一郎
     
    Monitoring and extensive researches on Acid fallout, Through-fall, Stem-flow, Soil water, Stream water were carried out to clarify the interactions of environmental changes and water-matter cycle at 40 basins of University forests over Japan.In the course of these monitoring and research, the followings become clear, 1) Acid fallout pH lower than 5.6 degree were observed in 30 basin sites (75 % of the basin).And acid fallout pH lower than 5.0 degree was observed in 4 basin sites. These results suggested that acidification has reached advanced stage in Japan. 2) The stem-flow pH of Japanese ...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2001 
    Author : Ryusuke HATANO, 柴田 英昭, 佐藤 冬樹, 秦 寛, 倉持 寛太
     
    Expansion of N cycling in ecosystems with increase of human activity impacts on not only regional environments but also global environments. Global warming with increasing emission of N2O, acidification with increasing of NH3 deposition, water pollution with NO3 leaching, degradation of bio-diversity with N load are the problems associated with N cycling in ecosystems. This report discussed about optimum N cycling in agro-forested ecosystems. In order to evaluate optimum amount of N cycling in agro-forested ecosystems, we studied following topics: 1) Impact of N cycling in basin ecosystem c...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2001 
    Author : 佐藤 冬樹, Mutumi NOMURA, 野村 睦, 柴田 英昭, 笹 賀一郎
     
    Dissolved organic matter produced in forest basin discharges to stream in the form of organic-inorganic compound combined to the metal in soils. This compound contains Fe, which is nutrition for seaweed. Dissolved organic-inorganic compound is important factor in order to discuss about the ecosystem from forest to ocean. On the contrary, it is necessary to clear the discharge of the injurious matters for the ecosystem from forest basin.We investigated the products of dissolved organic matter and the movements of the various kinds of ions and heavy metals in northern forest basins. These inv...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2001 
    Author : Takayoshi KOIKE, 植村 滋, 船田 良, 日浦 勉, 伊豆田 猛, 笹 賀一郎, 安江 恒, 柴田 英昭, 植村 滋, 船田 良
     
    Comparative study was carried out for evaluation of future vegetation change in central Siberia, Russia, For this study, we selected typical forests on north- and south-facing slopes as present and future conditions, respectively in central Siberia. Vegetation there was clearly changed along micro-climatic conditions. Maximum photosynthetic rate of trees grown under the north-facing slope was slightly lower than that under the southfacing slope. Light acclimation was found in the composition of Chl. a/b. Shrubs showed relatively high photosynthetic rate under light saturation. Based on form...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2000 
    Author : Takayoshi KOIKE, 柴田 英昭, 窪田 順平, 笹 賀一郎, 上田 龍四郎
     
    Portable CO_2 sampling system with 6 channels auto-sampler was developed and its practical use in a larch plantation was performed. A new system can provided information of diurnal change on CO_2 concentration and flow rate at the sampling of 6 different strata in a larch plantation. A machine could work for 4 days with two batters(for auto mobiles, 12 V). This system could work well but we could not confirm the lessen its weight and fail the improvement of waterproof. These are big point for requiring further improving. CO_2 concentration near ground varied largely from 350ppm at daytime t...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(B))
    Date (from‐to) : 1999 -2000 
    Author : Kaichiro SASA, 野村 睦, 植村 滋, 佐藤 冬樹, 柴田 英昭
     
    Vegetation, snow depth, ground freezing, discharge of water and mineral cycle were investigated at the basin in which the ground freezes and one in which the ground does not freeze in Sakhalin and northern Hokkaido.The existence of three species of sasa (Sasa krilensis, Sasa senanensis and Sasa nipponica) in Sakhalin was confirmed. Sasa krilensis and Sasa senanensis communities can survive in mid-winter environment only in area with a thick snow cover. And distribution of sasa communities provided mid-winter environmental indices in a cold and windy region. Most of snow cover in Sakhalin wa...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(国際学術研究, 基盤研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 1998 -2000 
    Author : Takashi KOHYAMA, Turner Ian, 柴田 英昭, 東 昭雄, 中静 透, 鈴木 英治, 工藤 岳, 大崎 満, 小林 繁男
     
    Tropical rain forests in Borneo Island support amazing amount of biomass with fast turnover of phytoproduction and tree species diversity. This type of forest ecosystem is experiencing the immense human impact, responding quickly to changing climate and land use. It is thus particularly important to monitor the changing process of tropical rain forests along the purpose of projecting ecosystem change in response to climatic change. This program monitored typical foothill dipterocarp mixed forest, lowland heath forest, and lowland freshwater peat swamp forest in West and Central Kalimantan, ...
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(奨励研究(A))
    Date (from‐to) : 1998 -1999 
    Author : 柴田 英昭
     
    森林生態系における物質準過程における土壌中の物質動態を明らかにするために、北海道北部に位置する北海道大学農学部附属雨龍地方演習林内のM-1実験流域内において土壌溶液組成、土壌水分ポテンシャル、土壌体積水分率ならびに気相中のpCO_2濃度を経時観測した。調査地域は多雪寒冷地域に位置しており、年間降水量のおよそ半数が降雪として供給される。通年にわたる土壌溶液組成ならびに土壌内水収支の解析により、当該地域における年間スケールでの土壌内物質動態を考える上で積雪-融雪過程が非常に重要な役割を担っていることが明らかとなった。厳冬期間は積雪によって土壌表面の通気性が低下することによって、土壌気相中のpCO_2濃度が高まり、その結果土壌溶液中の溶存無機炭素濃度が上昇することが示唆された。融雪期における土壌への多量の融雪水の供給は土壌溶液のイオン濃度低下させると共に土壌から多量の物質を根圏下から溶脱させていた。融雪期における土壌系での物質収支解析によって、土壌から正味放出した物質量は無雪期のそれらと比較して非常に大きく、とりわけNa、Mg、CaおよびCl、SO4では融雪期の正味流出量は年流出量のおよそ60〜95%を占めていた。CaやMgといった塩基性カチオンは土壌表面でのイオン交換ならびに一次鉱物の風化によって液相中に放出されたものと考えられた。土壌からの塩基性カチオン流出量は土壌の酸性化速度...
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology:Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research(基盤研究(C))
    Date (from‐to) : 1998 -1999 
    Author : Nobuhito OHTE, 小杉 賢一朗, 小杉 緑子, 柴田 英昭, 徳地 直子, 杉本 敦子
     
    In order to examine the various impacts of the forest growth on the acid buffering processes, hydrochemical observations were carried out in three different temperate catchments, each shares the same granitic bedrock , but having a forest different in growth conditions and soil depth. Hydrological processes in those watersheds were classified as; (1) the throughfall process, (2) soil infiltration process, (surface and subsurface soil layer infiltration sub-process, and the saturated groundwater transfer sub-process) and (3) the stream runoff process. The spatial distribution of pH, proton f...
  • Biogeochemical Processese in Forest Ecosystem

Educational Activities

Teaching Experience

  • Fundamental Lecture in Biological Diversity
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 環境科学院
    キーワード : 生物多様性、生態系、生物種、生物群集、海洋、陸域、地球環境変化 biodiversity, ecosystem, species, community, ocean, land, global-change
  • Inter-Graduate School Classes(General Subject):Natural and Applied Sciences
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 生物多様性、生態系、生物種、生物群集、海洋、陸域、地球環境変化
  • Advanced Course in Forest Sphere Science I (Ecosystem Function)
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 環境科学院
    キーワード : 森林環境 森林機能 酸性雨  森林水文 二酸化炭素収支 地表変動 forest environment, forest function, acid rein, forest hydrology, CO2 budget, earth surface process
  • Forest Influence
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 森林、環境保全機能、生物多様性保全、野生生物保全、土地利用、流域保全、森林利用
  • Arts and Science Courses in English 2
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 国際本部
    キーワード : Ecosystem conservation, Sustainable bioproduction, Biodiversity, Material cycling, Harmonizable relation between human and environment
  • Seminar on Forest Influence
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 森林の種類と分布、森林空間、環境保全機能、森林保全、資料作成方法、発表方法、ディスカッション
  • Freshman Seminar
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 野外調査・観察,グループ学習,寒冷多雪環境,森林生態系,地域資源,森林観察
  • General Education Seminar
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 総合教育部
    キーワード : Ecosystem conservation, Sustainable bioproduction, Biodiversity, Material cycling, Harmonizable relation between human and environment
  • General Education Seminar
    開講年度 : 2018
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 現代日本学プログラム課程
    キーワード : Ecosystem conservation, Sustainable bioproduction, Biodiversity, Material cycling, Harmonizable relation between human and environment

Committee Membership

  • 2008/01 -2014/03   Global Land Project   Scientific Steering Committee   Global Land Project


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