研究者データベース

今井 圭理(イマイ ケイリ)
水産学部 附属練習船おしょろ丸
助教

基本情報

所属

  • 水産学部 附属練習船おしょろ丸

職名

  • 助教

学位

  • 博士(水産学)(北海道大学)

科研費研究者番号

  • 40725983

J-Global ID

研究分野

  • 環境・農学 / 環境動態解析

所属学協会

  • 日本海洋学会   

研究活動情報

論文

  • Atsuhiko Isobe, Takafumi Azuma, Muhammad Reza Cordova, Andrés Cózar, Francois Galgani, Ryuichi Hagita, La Daana Kanhai, Keiri Imai, Shinsuke Iwasaki, Shin’ichro Kako, Nikolai Kozlovskii, Amy L. Lusher, Sherri A. Mason, Yutaka Michida, Takahisa Mituhasi, Yasuhiro Morii, Tohru Mukai, Anna Popova, Kenichi Shimizu, Tadashi Tokai, Keiichi Uchida, Mitsuharu Yagi, Weiwei Zhang
    Microplastics and Nanoplastics 1 1 2021年12月 
    Abstract A total of 8218 pelagic microplastic samples from the world’s oceans were synthesized to create a dataset composed of raw, calibrated, processed, and gridded data which are made available to the public. The raw microplastic abundance data were obtained by different research projects using surface net tows or continuous seawater intake. Fibrous microplastics were removed from the calibrated dataset. Microplastic abundance which fluctuates due to vertical mixing under different oceanic conditions was standardized. An optimum interpolation method was used to create the gridded data; in total, there were 24.4 trillion pieces (8.2 × 104 ~ 57.8 × 104 tons) of microplastics in the world’s upper oceans.
  • Mao Kuroda, Keiichi Uchida, Tadashi Tokai, Yoshinori Miyamoto, Tohru Mukai, Keiri Imai, Kenichi Shimizu, Mitsuharu Yagi, Yuichi Yamanaka, Takahisa Mituhashi
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 161 Pt A 111670 - 111670 2020年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    © 2020 The Authors Marine debris on the seafloor has not been thoroughly investigated, and there is little information compared to other types of marine debris. We conducted bottom trawl surveys to determine the present situation of marine debris on the seafloor in offshore areas around Japan. The survey was conducted in three sea areas with different characteristics. As a result, it was found that the amount of marine debris in submarine canyons (2926.1 items/km2) was higher than on the continental shelf. It was revealed that most marine debris on the seafloor is comprised of plastic products, and that debris on the seafloor retains its condition for a long time (over 30 years) without deterioration. In addition, the type of marine debris is affected by the industries operating in each area. Continuing to investigate marine debris on the seafloor in more areas will contribute to solving the problem of marine debris.
  • Xiaorong Fang, Yutaka Isoda, Isao Kudo, Takafumi Aramaki, Keiri Imai, Naoto Ebuchi
    Water (Switzerland) 12 8 2020年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    © 2020 by the authors. To better understand the behavior of water mass beneath the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC), we use the vertical cross-sections of potential temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen in the Japan Sea obtained by the T/V Oshoro Maru of the Hokkaido University during 8-29 June in 2011 to analyze its origins and variations. The results show that the potential temperature and salinity beneath the TWC varies little, but the dissolved oxygen varies largely with the geographical location. There are two deep water masses with different dissolved oxygen content below the TWC. One is on the coastal side with the low dissolved oxygen, and the other is on the offshore side with the high dissolved oxygen. It is inferred that the former one is relatively old water and the latter is the new water. By using the phosphate (PO4) and the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) relationship, we calculate the PO40 (preformed PO4) as a water mass tracer. These results suggest that the water masses beneath the TWC with high and low dissolved oxygen originate from the same surface water mass in the central Japan Sea.
  • Yutaka W. Watanabe, Bofeng F. Li, Royce Yamasaki, Shun Yunoki, Keiri Imai, Shigeki Hosoda, Yoshiyuku Nakano
    JOURNAL OF OCEANOGRAPHY 76 2 155 - 167 2020年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We constructed parameterizations for the estimation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH in the western North Pacific, including Japanese coastal regions. Parameterizations, determined as a function of potential temperature (theta) and dissolved oxygen (DO), provided strong correlations with direct measurements for DIC [the coefficient of determination (R-2) = 0.99; the root mean square error (RMSE) = 8.49 mu mol kg(-1)] and pH (R-2 = 0.98, RMSE = 0.030). Predicted DIC and pH values were consistent with previous independent hydrographic observations, generally within 3 mu mol kg(-1) for DIC and 0.010 for pH. By applying these parameterizations to climatological seasonal theta and DO data and time-series theta and DO data from autonomous profiling floats (Argo) in the western North Pacific, large spatiotemporal variations in DIC and pH were demonstrated. Results indicated that the rate of increase in anthropogenic DIC above a depth of 400 m along 30 degrees N in the western North Pacific was + 0.86 +/- 0.11 mu mol kg(-1) year(-1) between 1994 and 2004. This decreased by + 0.58 +/- 0.05 mu mol kg(-1) year(-1) after 2004 partly due to increasing anthropogenic nitrogen input, suggesting that the decrease has induced the slowdown of ocean acidification in the western North Pacific. The declining trend in anthropogenically induced ocean pH was found to be 0.0021 +/- 0.0016 during 1994-2013.
  • Hiromichi Ueno, Mizuki Komatsu, Zhaoqianyi Ji, Ryo Dobashi, Miaki Muramatsu, Hiroto Abe, Keiri Imai, Atushi Ooki, Toru Hirawake
    Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 181-182 2020年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    © 2020 Elsevier Ltd We investigated spatial and interannual variation in the physical environment in the northern Bering Sea focusing on stratification, which is one factor affecting biological production in Arctic/subarctic regions. In particular, we analyzed in situ data obtained onboard the training ship Oshoro Maru in early summer in 2017 and 2018. We found that stratification in the areas just north of St. Lawrence Island (around 64.5°N and west of 168.5°W) and south/southwest of St. Lawrence Island was significantly weaker in 2018 than in 2017. These results are consistent with the extremely low sea-ice extent present in the winter of 2017/2018, which would have resulted in less freshwater being supplied to the surface layers and a warmer and less saline bottom water. Conversely, stratification was as strong in 2018 as in 2017 in the area close to the Alaska mainland, including the Bering Strait area, suggesting that the Alaskan Coastal Water dominates stratification in this area in early summer. Moreover, we found that the weakly stratified water column in the Bering Strait area stratified quickly shortly after the occurrence of strong northerly winds, likely because of the Ekman transport of warm and low-salinity Alaskan Coastal Water from the east.
  • Ryohei Sasayama, Nanako Hioki, Yuichiroh Morita, Yutaka Isoda, Keiri Imai, Atsushi Ooki, Kenshi Kuma
    Journal of Oceanography 74 4 367 - 379 2018年08月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    © 2018, The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature. We studied the behavior of chemical substances in the upper 300 m of the water column across the continental shelf–slope interface in the East China Sea off the Okinawa Trough. The behaviors of iron, inorganic nutrients, and humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter were strongly influenced by the extensive water exchange between the East China Sea and the Kuroshio Current across the shelf break and slope via upwelling and frontal processes. We attributed the high humic-like fluorescent intensity at the subsurface of the shelf break and slope regions to the lateral supply of humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter from the shelf sediments to the outer shelf region due to the intrusion of shelf water into Kuroshio subsurface water. We found that the behavior of iron at the continental shelf–slope was remarkably different from the conservative mixing of inorganic nutrients and humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter. In deep and bottom waters at the shelf–slope, high total iron concentrations, which were closely related to water transmittance, possibly resulted from the swept transport of iron-rich resuspended sediments over the shelf floor from the slope by the invading Kuroshio Intermediate Water close to the bottom.
  • Yuichiro Kumamoto, Michio Aoyama, Yasunori Hamajima, Hisao Nagai, Takeyasu Yamagata, Yoshimi Kawai, Eitarou Oka, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Keiri Imai, Akihiko Murata
    Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 311 2 1209 - 1217 2017年02月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    © 2016, The Author(s). In 2014, we measured activity concentration of radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean. In the north of Kuroshio Front high activity concentration of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in surface mixed layer in 2012 had been transported eastward by 2014. In the south of the front we found a radiocesium subsurface maximum in 200–600 m depth, which was similar to that observed in 2012. The subsurface maximum spread southward from 18°N to 15°N between 2012 and 2014, which suggests spreading of Fukushima-derived radiocesium into the whole western subtropical area by 2014 due to formation and subduction of the subtropical mode water.
  • 今井 圭理, 渡邉 豊
    北海道大学水産科学研究彙報 65 2 111 - 116 北海道大学大学院水産科学研究科 2015年08月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    2011年3月11日,東北地方太平洋沖地震とそれに伴った大津波の影響で東京電力・福島第一原子力発電所において原子力事故が発生し,原子炉の崩壊および汚染水の意図的な放水によって,大量の放射性物質が大気および海洋へ放出された。この原子力発電所から直接海洋に流入したと推定される放射性セシウム量は,事故後から2ヶ月以内の間に,原子力発電所内部から高放射能汚染水として発電所専用港湾を経由して海洋に流出した部分が大半を占めると報告されている(Tsumune et al.,2013; Kanda,2013; 神田,2013)。また,多くの研究機関によって放射性物質による汚染状況を把握するために,海洋,大気および陸域の調査が行われ,放射性セシウムの測定がなされた(Honda et al.,2012; Aoyama et al.,2013a,b)。同時に数値シミュレーションを用いて,福島第一原子力発電所から大気および海洋へ放出された放射性物質量や,その広がりが予測され(Takemura et al.,2011; Tsumune et al.,2013)。
  • 山内 泰孝, 久万 健志, 館野 愛実, 今井 圭理, 大和田 真紀, 荘司 堅也, 磯田 豊, 有田 駿, 河野 航平, 藤原 将平, 方 曉蓉, 朝日 啓二郎, 伊田 智喜, Yasutaka Yamauchi, Kenya Shoji, Yutaka Isoda, Shun Arita, Kohei Kawano, Shohei Fujiwara, Xiaorong Fang, Keijiro Asahi, Satoki Ida, Kenshi Kuma, Manami Tateno, Keiri Imai, Maki Owada, Graduate School of Env. Earth Science Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Fisheries Science Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Fisheries Science Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Fisheries Science Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Fisheries Science Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Fisheries Science Hokkaido University, Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University, Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University, Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University
    海の研究 24 4 147 - 169 日本海洋学会 2015年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     

    本研究では,非静水圧の力学領域においてN (浮力振動数)とf (慣性振動数)がほぼ等しい成層状態で浮力振動と慣性振動の性質をあわせ持つ「fN振動」について,その特性と実在の可能性を検証した。まず,Nfの極限において内部波の分散関係から水平方向の群速度が極大となる場合にfN振動の水平波数kと鉛直波数mの比,k/m,が1/√ 3に等しいことと,Nfの理想的な成層条件下では群速度が零となるため,この振動は強制領域内に捕捉されることを示した。ついで,局所的なフロントを模した数値モデル実験によって,フロントに捕捉されたfN振動のエネルギーの一部が内部波として離脱することを示した。この内部波の海洋現場での発生源の候補として大和海盆底層水と日本海盆底層水の境界域に形成されている底層フロントに注目して,その近傍で観測を行い,fN振動の間接的な証拠と考えられるk/m~1/√ 3を満たす内部慣性重力波の擾乱の存在を水温と溶存酸素の変動から確認した。

  • Kenshi Kuma, Ryohei Sasayama, Nanako Hioki, Yuichiroh Morita, Yutaka Isoda, Tohru Hirawake, Keiri Imai, Takafumi Aramaki, Tomohiro Nakamura, Jun Nishioka, Naoto Ebuchi
    Journal of Oceanography 70 4 377 - 387 2014年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    In the southwestern Okhotsk Sea, the cold water belt (CWB) is frequently observed on satellite images offshore of the Soya Warm Current flowing along the northeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, during summertime. It has been speculated that the CWB is upwelling cold water that originates from either subsurface water of the Japan Sea off Sakhalin or bottom water of the Okhotsk Sea. Hydrographic and chemical observations (nutrients, humic-type fluorescence intensity, and iron) were conducted in the northern Japan Sea and southwestern Okhotsk Sea in early summer 2011 to clarify the origin of the CWB. Temperature-salinity relationships, vertical distributions of chemical components, profiles of chemical components against density, and the (NO3 + NO2)/PO4 relationship confirm that water in the CWB predominantly originates from Japan Sea subsurface water. © 2014 The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Japan.
  • 鶴島 修夫, 今井 圭理
    海洋理工学会誌 20 1 29 - 36 海洋理工学会 2014年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Dissolution of silica from glass bottle sometimes influences accuracy of precision analysis of sea water, e.g. density and pH. We assessed and developed inside-coated glass vials to avoid dissolution of silica from glass at least < 1 mM for seawater sample storage. Seawater storage experiments using specially-treated vials available commercially (sulfur treatment, coating with fluoloresin or inorganic-organic hybrid material or silicone) suggests that dissolution of silica decreases by up to 60–70% related to that in uncoated glass vial at 25–40°C. As a result of storage experiments using test product of thick fluororesin coated vials, we found that dissolution of silica from glass can be avoided by repeating coating process (application and calcination) at least 10 times. We made trial products of thick fluororesin coated vials by this coating process. The results of seawater storage experiments showed that this newly developed vials can avoid dissolution of silica from glass surface at least 163 days at 25–40°C.
  • Takeshi Yoshimura, Hiroshi Ogawa, Keiri Imai, Takafumi Aramaki, Yukihiro Nojiri, Jun Nishioka, Atsushi Tsuda
    Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 56 26 2863 - 2874 2009年12月15日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The dynamics of organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) were examined during an in situ mesoscale iron-enrichment experiment in the western North Pacific in the summer of 2004. We separately determined the production of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) and their subsequent removal during the bloom decline. As the iron-induced phytoplankton bloom progressed (days 0-14), POM increased in the surface mixed layer, while DOM did not increase significantly. The molar ratios for C:N, C:P, and N:P of the newly produced POM were estimated to be 4.9, 190, and 37 in the surface mixed layer, whereas the dissolved inorganic nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus drawdown ratio was 17. Preferential remineralization of P over C and N from the POM was postulated during the developing phytoplankton bloom. During the bloom decline (days 16-25), surface POM decreased with a similar C:N of 5.2. The N:P ratio of surface DOM increased during the bloom decline. Below the surface mixed layer, DOC and DON increased moderately after the peak of the bloom. The time-series variation of DOC and DON was not identical. The C, N, and P dynamics through the accumulation and removal of POM and DOM were complex. Grazing by mesozooplankton during the experiment may have played a significant role in the uncoupling of the dynamics of C, N, and P. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hiroaki Saito, Atsushi Tsuda, Yukihiro Nojiri, Takafumi Aramaki, Hiroshi Ogawa, Takeshi Yoshimura, Keiri Imai, Isao Kudo, Jun Nishioka, Tsuneo Ono, Koji Suzuki, Shigenobu Takeda
    Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 56 26 2852 - 2862 2009年12月15日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Biogeochemical cycles of N and Si were examined in the surface mixed layer during the mesoscale iron-enrichment (IE) experiment in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS-II). Although the IEs increased nitrate uptake, silicic acid utilization was not stimulated. The nitrate drawdown in the iron-patch (IN-patch, 140.3 mmol m-2 in the surface mixed layer, 0-30 m) was only 25% of the initial inventory, which was 1/3-2/5 of the previous IE experiments in the subarctic Pacific. This relatively weak response of nutrient drawdown to IEs was due to the high biomass of mesozooplankton (MZ) dominated by copepod Neocalanus plumchrus. Feeding of MZ (247.2 mmol m-2 during Day 0-21 from the first IE) in the IN-patch was higher than the nitrate drawdown and prevented further development of the phytoplankton bloom. In the later period of the experiment (Day 14-21), the increase in the feeding activity and resultant decrease in phytoplankton biomass induced the accumulation of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and ammonium. Among total growth of MZ (81.6 mmol N m-2), 89% (72.8 mmol N m-2) was transported to the depth by the ontogenetic downward migration of N. plumchrus. Although silicic acid drawdown was not increased by the IEs, Si export flux increased by 2.7 times. The increase in Si export was also due to the increase in MZ, which egested faecal pellets with higher Si:N ratio and faster sinking speed than diatoms. The export efficiency (78% of new production) and total amount of export flux (143.8 mmol N m-2, 1392 mmol C m-2) were highest records within the IE experiments despite weak responses of nutrient drawdown to the IE. During SEEDS-II, the high biomass of MZ reduced the phytoplankton response and nutrient drawdown to the IEs but via grazing and ontogenetic vertical migration accelerated the export flux as well as accumulations of dissolved forms of N. Results of the present and previous IE experiments indicate that the ecosystem and biogeochemical responses to IEs in the HNLC region are quite sensitive to the ecosystem components, especially for grazers of diatoms such as copepods and heterotrophic dinoflagellates. More attention needs to be paid to the ecosystem components and their biogeochemical functions as well as physical and chemical properties of the ecosystems in order to hindcast or forecast the impacts of changes in atmospheric iron deposition. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Takafumi Aramaki, Yukihiro Nojiri, Keiri Imai
    Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 56 26 2875 - 2888 2009年12月15日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    During two mesoscale iron-enrichment studies in the northwestern subarctic Pacific (SEEDS in 2001 summer and SEEDS II in 2004 summer), particulate materials from the iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the upper water column were monitored to analyze the export processes beneath the upper mixed layer, mainly with drifting sediment traps. We could not observe the total downward export process of the high accumulation of particulate organic carbon from the mixed layer induced by the large diatom bloom of SEEDS [e.g., Tsuda, A., Takeda, S., Saito, H., Nishioka, J., Nojiri, Y., Kudo, I., Kiyosawa, H., Shiomoto, A., Imai, K., Ono, T., Shimamoto, A., Tsumune, D., Yoshimura, T., Aono, T., Hinuma, A., Kinugasa, M., Suzuki, K., Sohrin, Y., Noiri, Y., Tani, H., Deguchi, Y., Tsurushima, N., Ogawa, H., Fukami, K., Kuma, K., Saino, T., 2003. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces large centric diatom bloom. Science 300, 958-961] because the 2-week observation period was too short to examine the decline phase of the bloom. In contrast, in SEEDS II, the particulate organic carbon and particulate organic nitrogen were accumulated 123 and 23 mmol m-2, respectively, in the mixed layer until day-15 (days from iron-enrichment), and then ca. 90% were removed from the mixed layer by day-25. The sediment traps at 40 m depth between day-15 and day-25 accounted for at least more than 35% of these particles. There was no large variation in chemical composition in settling particles above 100 m depth throughout the experimental periods both in SEEDS and SEEDS II. The content of biogenic opal remained more than 50% of all settling particles during SEEDS, while the content of biogenic calcium carbonate was relatively high, with a low biogenic opal content of consistently less than 30% during SEEDS II. These results suggest that high standing stock of seed population of diatoms before the iron fertilization, indicated by low C/Si ratio of particulate matter, is an important factor to induce the large diatom bloom in SEEDS. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Atsushi Tsuda, Shigenobu Takeda, Hiroaki Saito, Jun Nishioka, Isao Kudo, Yukihiro Nojiri, Koji Suzuki, Mitsuo Uematsu, Mark L. Wells, Daisuke Tsumune, Takeshi Yoshimura, Tatsuo Aono, Takafumi Aramaki, William P. Cochlan, Maki Hayakawa, Keiri Imai, Tomoshi Isada, Yoko Iwamoto, William K. Johnson, Sohiko Kameyama, Shungo Kato, Hiroshi Kiyosawa, Yoshiko Kondo, Maurice Levasseur, Ryuji J. Machida, Ippei Nagao, Fumiko Nakagawa, Takahiro Nakanishi, Seiji Nakatsuka, Akira Narita, Yoshifumi Noiri, Hajime Obata, Hiroshi Ogawa, Kenji Oguma, Tsuneo Ono, Tomofumi Sakuragi, Motoki Sasakawa, Mitsuhide Sato, Akifumi Shimamoto, Hyoe Takata, Charles G. Trick, Yutaka W. Watanabe, Chi Shing Wong, Naoki Yoshie
    Journal of Oceanography 63 6 983 - 994 2007年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    A mesoscale iron-enrichment study (SEEDS II) was carried out in the western subarctic Pacific in the summer of 2004. The iron patch was traced for 26 days, which included observations of the development and the decline of the bloom by mapping with sulfur hexafluoride. The experiment was conducted at almost the same location and the same season as SEEDS (previous iron-enrichment experiment). However, the results were very different between SEEDS and SEEDS II. A high accumulation of phytoplankton biomass (∼18 mg chl m-3) was characteristic of SEEDS. In contrast, in SEEDS II, the surface chlorophyll-a accumulation was lower, 0.8 to 2.48 mg m-3, with no prominent diatom bloom. Photosynthetic competence in terms of Fv/ Fm for the total phytoplankton community in the surface waters increased after the iron enrichments and returned to the ambient level by day 20. These results suggest that the photosynthetic physiology of the phytoplankton assemblage was improved by the iron enrichments and returned to an iron-stressed condition during the declining phase of the bloom. Pico-phytoplankton (<2 μm) became dominant in the chlorophyll-a size distribution after the bloom. We observed a nitrate drawdown of 3.8 μM in the patch (day 21), but there was no difference in silicic acid concentration between inside and outside the patch. Mesozooplankton (copepod) biomass was three to five times higher during the bloom-development phase in SEEDS II than in SEEDS. The copepod biomass increased exponentially. The grazing rate estimation indicates that the copepod grazing prevented the formation of an extensive diatom bloom, which was observed in SEEDS, and led to the change to a pico-phytoplankton dominated community towards the end of the experiment. © The Oceanographic Society of Japan/TERRAPUB/Springer 2007.
  • Chika Komuro, Hisashi Narita, Keiri Imai, Yukihiro Nojiri, Richard W. Jordan
    Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 52 16-18 2206 - 2217 2005年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The microplankton communities on filter samples from three shallow (0-300 m) hydrocasts, conducted in August 1999, January 2000, and May 2000 at Station KNOT in the Western Subarctic Gyre of the NW Pacific, have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results clearly show that small (<10 μm) phytoplankton, such as coccolithophorids, Parmales, and the pennate diatom Fragilariopsis pseudonana, play important roles in seasonal productivity. The Parmales were the most dominant mineralized phytoplankton group in May and August, and their year-round presence in scaly form suggests they are not cysts as previously thought. As the Parmales are rare or absent in the underlying sediment traps or surface sediments, their siliceous scales are undoubtably being efficiently recycled in the euphotic zone where silica levels are never depleted. The phytoplankton community structure observed by SEM is different to those reported previously, in which more traditional light microscopical techniques were used, with the consequence of missing the smaller phytoplankton. This study, regardless of its biogeographic location, highlights the potential problem of enumerating marine phytoplankton assemblages purely by light microscopy. An inability to determine the contribution made by these small phytoplankton can lead to an overestimation of the importance of large phytoplankton, and an underestimation of total productivity. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Neelam Ramaiah, Shigenobu Takeda, Ken Furuya, Takeshi Yoshimura, Jun Nishioka, Tatsuo Aono, Yukihiro Nojiri, Keiri Imai, Isao Kudo, Hiroaki Saito, Atsushi Tsuda
    Progress in Oceanography 64 2-4 253 - 261 2005年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Dynamics of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) was studied during the first in situ iron-enrichment experiment conducted in the western subarctic Pacific in July-August 2001, with the goal of evaluating the contribution of TEP to vertical flux as a result of increased primary production following iron enrichment in open ocean ecosystems. Subsequent to the enhancement of phytoplankton production, we observed increase in TEP concentration in the surface layer and sedimentation of organic matter beneath it. Vertical profiles of TEP, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and particulate organic carbon (POC) were obtained from six depths between 5 and 70 m, from a station each located inside and outside the enriched patch. TEP and total mass flux were estimated from the floating sediment traps deployed at 200 m depth. Chl a and TEP concentrations outside the patch varied from 0.2 to 1.9 μg L-1 and 40-60 μg XG equiv. L-1, respectively. Inside the patch, Chl a increased drastically from day 7 reaching the peak of 19.2 μg L-1 on day 13, which coincided with the TEP peak of 189 μg XG equiv. L-1. TEP flux in the sediment trap increased from 41 to 88 mg XG equiv. m-2 d-1, with 8-14% contribution of TEP to total mass flux. This forms the basic data set on ambient concentrations of TEP in the western subarctic Pacific, and evaluation of the effect of iron enrichment on TEP. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Tatsuo Aono, Masatoshi Yamada, Isao Kudo, Keiri Imai, Yukihiro Nojiri, Atsushi Tsuda
    Progress in Oceanography 64 2-4 263 - 282 2005年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The Subarctic Pacific Iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study (SEEDS) was carried out in the western subarctic gyre of the North Pacific to verify the iron-limitation hypothesis. Activities of dissolved 234Th in the upper 200 m of the water column and of particulate 234Th collected in a drifting sediment trap were measured during SEEDS 2001. Dissolved 234Th activities decreased and suspended particulate 234Th increased in the upper 20 m of the water column with the formation of an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom. The calculated residence times of the dissolved and particulate 234Th in the upper 20 m of the water column ranged from 2 to 13 d and 13 to 29 d, respectively. The ratios of particulate organic carbon (POC)/234Thp (μmol dpm-1) in the settling particles at 200 m depth varied between 1.94 and 4.02, and these levels were 10% those for the suspended particles. No large increase of the POC export flux was observed for the drifting sediment trap deployments during the observation period. In addition, the POC export fluxes derived from 234Th with a non-steady-state model varied from 10.1 to 38.3 mmol m-2 d-1. The ratio of the estimated POC export flux to primary production, ThE, was nearly constant (0.23-0.24) from July 20 to 27 (D2 and D9 after iron-enrichment) and decreased to 0.18 on July 31 (D13 after iron-enrichment). Regardless of whether the POC export fluxes increased, there was no change in ThE. The increase of the POC export fluxes estimated from 234Th was much smaller than the increase of primary production. Thus, no large POC export fluxes are concluded to have occurred from the iron-enrichment patch, though the removal flux of 234Th in settling particles increased with particulate biogenic silica fluxes as the phytoplankton bloom progressed. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Atsushi Tsuda, Hiroshi Kiyosawa, Akira Kuwata, Mamiko Mochizuki, Naonobu Shiga, Hiroaki Saito, Sanae Chiba, Keiri Imai, Jun Nishioka, Tsuneo Ono
    Progress in Oceanography 64 2-4 189 - 205 2005年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Phytoplankton species composition was analyzed inside and outside of the iron-enriched patch during the SEEDS experiment. Before the iron-enrichment, the phytoplankton community consisted of similar proportions of pico-, nano- and micro-sized phytoplankton, and the micro-phytoplankton was dominated by the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia turgidula. Although all the diatoms, except the nano-sized Fragilariopsis sp., increased during the two weeks of the observation period, the flora in the patch dramatically changed with the increase of phytoplankton biomass to a centric diatom-dominated community. Neritic diatoms, especially Chaetoceros debilis, showed higher growth rates than other diatoms, without any delay in the initiation of growth after the enrichment, and accounted for 90% of the micro-phytoplankton after day 9. In contrast, the oceanic diatoms showed distinct delays in the initiation of growth. We conclude that the responses of the diatoms to the manipulation of iron concentration were different by species, and the fast and intensive response of the phytoplankton to iron-enrichment resulted from the presence of a small amount of neritic diatoms at the study site. The important factors that determine the dominant species in the bloom are the potential growth rates under an iron-replete condition and the growth lag. Abundant species in the patch are widely distributed in the North Pacific and their relative contributions in the Oyashio area and at Stn KNOT are high from spring to summer. However, a characteristic difference of species composition between the SEEDS bloom and natural blooms was the lack of Thalassiosira and Coscinodiscus species in the patch, which usually account for a major part of the phytoplankton community under blooming conditions in the western North Pacific. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Isao Kudo, Yoshifumi Noiri, Keiri Imai, Yukihiro Nojiri, Jun Nishioka, Atsushi Tsuda
    Progress in Oceanography 64 2-4 207 - 221 2005年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Primary productivity and uptake rates of nitrate and ammonium were measured during an iron enrichment-experiment in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean using stable 13C and 15N isotope methods with simulated, on-board, for 24-h incubations. Nitrate, phosphate and silicate before the iron enrichment in the surface mixed layer (0-10 m) were abundant at 17, 1.5 and 34 μM, respectively. Primary productivity in the upper 20 m ranged from 10 to 30 mg C m-3 d-1 on Day 0 (the day of iron fertilization) and did not change outside the iron patch during 13 days of the observation. Primary productivity in the iron patch increased more than 10-fold after Day 7 and the maximum of 310 mg C m-3 d-1 was observed on Day 9. The elevated primary productivity continued until Day 13 (end of the observation). The integrated primary productivity in the photic zone was about 2 g C m-2 d-1 after Day 7. During 13 days of the observation, 16.5 g C m-2 was fixed in the patch, while C fixation was 4.5 g C m-2 outside. Absolute nitrate uptake at 5 m depth was 0.2 μM d-1 on Day 0, almost same as the ammonium uptake rate. Nitrate uptake sharply increased 20 times after Day 7. The maximum rate of 4.2 μM d-1 was observed on Day 9. Total nitrate uptake at 5 m between Days 4 and 9 was 10.8 μM, which was comparable to the net decrease of nitrate at 8.5 μM at this depth. Uptake rate of ammonium was 0.2 μM d-1 on Day 0 and had not changed by Day 13. The f-ratio (a ratio of nitrate uptake to total nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) uptake) was 0.4-0.6 before Day 4, but increased to 0.95 on Day 7 and remained high until Day 13. These results suggest that the nitrate assimilation pathway was induced by the iron enrichment to meet the high nitrogen demand from rapid growth of the dominant diatom Chaetoceros dedilis. Relative uptake rate among nutrients was estimated from their apparent concentration change at 5 m in the patch. Nitrate and phosphate decreased at a molar ratio of 15.5, close to Redfield's stoichiometry. Silicate to nitrate uptake ratio, however, changed sharply on Day 9 from 1.6 to 3.0, indicating physiological stress on growing diatoms. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 5 m decreased from 400 to <100 μmol m-2 s-1 after Day 8 due to the high biomass of phytoplankton within the patch. Dissolved iron concentration also decreased to less than 0.3 nM after Day 9. This concentration was below the half saturation level for iron (K s) obtained from on-board iron-addition incubations. These results suggest that low light and low iron concentration caused the physiological stress on diatoms after Day 8. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • T. Odate, K. Imai
    Journal of Plankton Research 25 12 1497 - 1505 2003年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Chlorophyll-specific growth (μ) and grazing mortality rates (g) due to microzooplankton (grazers of <200 μm) were estimated, based on the dilution method, in surface waters collected at four stations in Funka Bay, Japan, from December 1995 to March 1997. From May to October, the mean μ and g were 0.66 ± 0.44 day-1 (n = 21) and 0.60 ± 0.31 day-1 (n = 21), respectively. The estimated chlorophyll variation was 0.02 ± 0.31 μg l-1 day-1 (n = 21), which is consistent with field observations in this bay. On the other hand, μ was 0. 51 ± 0.37 day-1 (n = 4) during the spring bloom (February and March). There was no significant difference between the mean μ in summer and in the spring bloom (P > 0.05). However, g during the bloom (0.15 ± 0.09 day-1) (n = 4) was significantly lower than in summer (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the low g was one of the factors contributing to the development of the spring bloom. On a seasonal basis, it was estimated that 83 and 39% of phytoplankton production were grazed by microzooplankton in summer and winter-spring seasons, respectively. The seasonal variation in the microzooplankton gracing pressure seems to result from the dominant size class of the phytoplankton community of this bay, i.e. picophytoplankton (<2 μm) predominate in summer, while phytoplankton >10 μm prevail in winter-spring.
  • Nojiri Y, Imai K, Saito H, Tsuda A, Whitney F
    Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 67 18 A342  2003年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Atsushi Tsuda, Shigenobu Takeda, Hiroaki Saito, Jun Nishioka, Yukihiro Nojiri, Isao Kudo, Hiroshi Kiyosawa, Akihiro Shiomoto, Keiri Imai, Tsuneo Ono, Akifumi Shimamoto, Daisuke Tsumune, Takeshi Yoshimura, Tatsuo Aono, Akira Hinuma, Masatoshi Kinugasa, Koji Suzuki, Yoshiki Sohrin, Yoshifumi Noiri, Heihachiro Tani, Yuji Deguchi, Nobuo Tsurushima, Hiroshi Ogawa, Kimio Fukami, Kenshi Kuma, Toshiro Saino
    Science 300 5621 958 - 961 2003年05月09日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We have performed an in situ test of the iron limitation hypothesis in the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. A single enrichment of dissolved iron caused a large increase in phytoplankton standing stock and decreases in macronutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide. The dominant phytoplankton species shifted after the iron addition from pennate diatoms to a centric diatom, Chaetoceros debilis, that showed a very high growth rate, 2.6 doublings per day. We conclude that the bioavailability of iron regulates the magnitude of the phytoplankton biomass and the key phytoplankton species that determine the biogeochemical sensitivity to iron supply of high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters.
  • KNOT: Ocean time-series program in western North Pacific completes first phase
    Tsurushima N, Imai K, Nojiri Y, Murphy P.P
    U. S. JGOFS NEWS 11 4 11 - 13 2002年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • K Mizobata, SI Saitoh, A Shiomoto, T Miyamura, N Shiga, K Imai, M Toratani, Y Kajiwara, K Sasaoka
    PROGRESS IN OCEANOGRAPHY 55 1-2 65 - 75 2002年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Using satellite altimeter and ship data, Bering Sea cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were observed in summer 2000 and 2001 to examine their biological, chemical and physical structures. Results from the ship transect revealed the interactions between the physical and biological conditions of Bering Sea eddies. At the center of a cyclonic (anticlockwise) eddy, upwelling was transporting nutrient (NO3 + NO2) rich water (>25 muM) to the surface, which resulted in relatively high chlorophyll a concentrations (>1.0 mg m(-3)) developing under the pycnocline. In contrast, in the center of an anticyclonic (clockwise) eddy there was downwelling. This downwelling of surface warm water was destroying a cold layer (at about 150 m depth) caused by winter convection. However, around the periphery of the anticyclonic eddy the isopycnals were tilted up and nutrient-rich water was being transported along with them up into the euphotic zone, so that high chlorophyll a concentrations were being developed above the pycnocline inside the anticyclonic eddy. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • A Shiomoto, S Saitoh, K Imai, M Toratani, Y Ishida, K Sasaoka
    Progress in Oceanography 55 1-2 147 - 163 2002年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Surface chlorophyll a concentrations were measured at seven stations located at 1degrees latitude intervals between 52degrees30' N and 58degrees30' N along longitude 179degrees30' W, in late June and early July from 1991 through 1999. Surface chlorophyll a concentrations at the same locations were estimated from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data from mid June through mid July 2000. Shipboard data collected from 1993-95 showed that the surface chlorophyll a concentration was correlated with chlorophyll a standing stock integrated in the upper 100 m of the water column. Based on the 8-day time series of mean chlorophyll a concentrations at stations on 179degrees30' W in 1998, 1999, and 2000 from SeaWiFS data, high concentration and great variability were observed in chlorophyll a in June. When examining interannual differences in phytoplankton biomass, it is preferable to use a month when high chlorophyll a concentrations are high, and show great variability than one when its concentrations are low with little variability. Thus a comparison of surface data from shipboard and satellite observations in June, was considered best to represent the interannual variation in phytoplankton biomass in the Bering Sea basin in the 1990s. There were no significant differences in chlorophyll a concentrations among years (1991-2000) or among stations, though high chlorophyll a concentrations were observed occasionally around the shelf edge. Chlorophyll a concentrations rarely exceeded 2 mug 1(-1) in the Bering Sea basin and the values were usually < 1 mug 1(-1). The results suggest that phytoplankton biomass in the basin is relatively stable and rather low; in other words, the Bering Sea basin may be considered to be a high nitrate, low chlorophyll (HNLC) region. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • K Sasaoka, S Saitoh, Asanuma, I, K Imai, M Honda, Y Nojiri, T Saino
    DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART II-TOPICAL STUDIES IN OCEANOGRAPHY 49 24-25 5557 - 5576 2002年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The objectives of this study are to describe and understand the processes controlling the temporal and spatial variability of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) in the subarctic northwestern Pacific Ocean from 1997 to 1999. Remotely sensed data from multi sensors, including ocean color (OCTS and SeaWiFS), sea-surface temperature (SST, AVHRR), and wind (SSM/I) datasets were utilized for the purpose of this study. Ocean-color imagery clearly showed seasonal and interannual variability in the spatial abundance and distribution of chl-a in the study area. Chl-a concentrations were generally low (0.53 +/- 0.24 mg m(-3)) for most part of the year, except for a few peaks (1.0-2.0 mg m(-3)) observed in the spring and fall bloom seasons (May, June, September, and October). Chl-a concentrations (> 10 mg m(-3)) were consistently high along the Kuril Islands and in the coastal waters around the Kamchatka Peninsula, and in 1998 they were clearly higher than in 1999. The Western Subarctic Gyre (WSG) was characterized by positive sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) during the summer to fall of 1998. These anomalies appear to be a high-latitude response to 1997/1998 ENSO event. High concentrations of chl-a appeared in WSG in September-November only in 1998. We suggest that the high chl-a around the WSG from summer to fall in 1998 was facilitated by (1) negative SSTA in winter, in spite of the negative wind anomaly, which provided larger amount of nutrients to the sea surface, (2) positive wind anomaly from April to June, which might cause light limitation of the phytoplankton growth, due to deepening of the surface-mixed layer in summer, and (3) positive SSTA, even with the slightly positive wind anomaly, which was accompanied with the water-column stabilization and hence recovered light limitation of the phytoplankton. Warmer SST also might have enhanced the phytoplankton growth. During summer to fall in 1999, the phytoplankton biomass between 42degreesN and 43degreesN along 165degreesE was greater than in other years. The enhanced chl-a concentration coincided with a distinct frontal temperature gradient located between 40degreesN and 45degreesN in September 1998 and 1999. The peak chl-a concentration in September 1999 (> 2.0 mg m(-3)) within the temperature front was much larger than in L998 (about 0.7 mg m(-3)). The position of this front in September 1999 (41degreesN) was south of its position in 1998 (43degreesN). Convergence of chl-a is linked to the temperature gradient and southward expansion of well-mixed subarctic water that is cold, low in salinity, and nutrient-rich. Our results showed significant interannual biological variability, and illustrate how remote sensing with multi sensors can aid in monitoring relationships between local ecosystems and global climate change. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • MC Honda, K Imai, Y Nojiri, F Hoshi, T Sugawara, M Kusakabe
    DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART II-TOPICAL STUDIES IN OCEANOGRAPHY 49 24-25 5595 - 5625 2002年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    To characterize the export flux of biogenic and lithogenic materials to the ocean interior and evaluate the ability of the biological pump to take up atmospheric CO2 in the northwestern North Pacific, sediment trap experiments were conducted at three stations (station KNOT: 44degreesN, 155degreesE; 50N: 50degreesN, 165degreesE; station 40N: 40degreesN, 165degreesE). The export fluxes showed seasonal variability with a high flux period in summer at station KNOT and in spring and autumn at stations 50N and 40N. The settling particles were mostly biogenic opal, comprising 50% of the total mass flux. The annual average export flux in 1998 was smaller than that in 1999 at the three stations, perhaps a result of the calm 1997/ 1998 winter associated with an El Ni (n) over tildeo event. Station KNOT had the largest total mass, organic carbon, and opal fluxes and the largest mole ratios of opal to carbonate (opal/CaCO3(mole)) and organic carbon to inorganic carbon (Co/Ci) compared with those at other two stations. These fluxes and ratios in the western, central and eastern parts of the northern North Pacific tended to decrease eastward. It is likely that the intensity of winter mixing or the supply of macro- and micronutrients influences the biogeochemistry of the northern North Pacific. Compared to the export flux of biogenic materials previously observed in the world ocean, the northwestern North Pacific, including the Bering Sea, has high opal/CaCO3(mole) and Co/Ci ratios. Moreover, at station KNOT, the ratio of the organic carbon flux in the deep sea to surface primary productivity (transfer efficiency: TE) was estimated to be approximately 5%, 3%, and 2% at 1000, 3000, and 5000 m, respectively. These values were significantly higher than TE values reported previously in the other oceanic regions. The high Co/Ci ratio and TE lead us to conclude that the biological pump in the northwestern North Pacific works more efficiently to decrease pCO(2) in the surface seawater and, consequently, to enhance the uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the ocean. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • M Mochizuki, N Shiga, M Saito, K Imai, Y Nojiri
    DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART II-TOPICAL STUDIES IN OCEANOGRAPHY 49 24-25 5421 - 5439 2002年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The standing stock and, species composition of phytoplankton (> 10 mum) were studied using monthly water samples collected at Stn KNOT (Kyodo North Pacific Ocean Time Series; 44degreesN, 155degreesE) in the western subarctic gyre in the Pacific Ocean through June 1998 to June 1999 (except for January-April 1999) and January-February 2000. One-liter water samples were preserved in 1% neutrally buffered formalin. Identification and enumeration of phytoplankton were made with an inverted microscope. Nutrients did not appear to be depleted for phytoplakton growth during any season. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton was primarily restricted by the pycnocline, and the bulk of phytoplankton assemblage existed within the surface mixed layer. In July, however, some senescent cells were observed at 200-m. Phytoplankton abundance clearly showed a spring maximum (i.e. spring bloom) in May. The seasonal change in cell numbers, however, did not coincide closely with the change in chlorophyll a concentration. Centric diatoms, which were composed of Thalassiosira, Chaetoceros, and Coscinodiscus, dominated all year round, and showed temporal succession. Pennate diatoms (mostly Neodenticula seminae and Fragilariopsis) increased only during the spring bloom. Dinoflagellates (mostly Gymnodinium and Prorocentrum) were low in abundance, although they increased in summer when the phytoplankton standing stock was low. Silicotlagellate abundance was extremely low. Comparing the annual species composition of phytoplankton between Stn KNOT and Stu P (50degreesN, 145degreesW) in the Alaskan Gyre, there was a remarkable difference between the two sites. The phytoplankton assemblage at Stu P is characterized by a high abundance of Rhizosolenia alata and low abundance of Thalassiosira. In contrast, Thalassiosira dominates at Stu KNOT during most seasons. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • HB Liu, K Imai, K Suzuki, Y Nojiri, N Tsurushima, T Saino
    DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART II-TOPICAL STUDIES IN OCEANOGRAPHY 49 24-25 5409 - 5420 2002年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Picoplankton community structure in the upper 200 m at Station KNOT in the western subarctic North Pacific was studied by flow cytometric analysis of the time-series samples collected from June 1998 through June 2000. Phototrophic picoplankton, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes, displayed a clear seasonal cycle in population abundance during the 2-yr period, where chlorophyll a concentration remained relatively low and constant throughout the year, except in spring when the diatom bloom occurred. High picoplankton abundance occurred after the spring diatom bloom when the water column became more stratified. The maximum abundance of Synechococcus occurred in late June to early August, whereas the peak in picoeukaryotes abundance appeared to take place earlier in May and remained high through the summer. Heterotrophic bacteria abundance also displayed a seasonal variation pattern that was closely related to the picoplankton biomass, but not total chlorophyll biomass. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Nobuo Tsurushima, Yukihiro Nojiri, Keiri Imai, Shuichi Watanabe
    Deep Sea Research Part II 49 24-25 5377 - 5394 2002年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and related chemical species have been measured since June 1998 at the western subarctic time-series station KNOT (44°N, 155°E). Seasonal changes in hydrography, concentrations of nutrients and DIC, and total alkalinity (TAlk) were observed above the pycnocline, which exists at 150-300m. DIC in the surface mixed layer showed a maximum in February 2000 (2093 μmol kg-1) and minima in August 1998 and 1999 (1980 and 1987 μmol kg-1, respectively). The seasonal amplitude of DIC was 107 μmol kg-1 in the 1999-2000 time series, which is larger than those at other pelagic ocean time-series sites. This large variation is due mainly to biological production in spring to fall and strong vertical mixing in winter. Surface fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) ranged from 300 to 390 μatm in the 1999-2000 time series, generally decreasing in spring and summer and increasing in fall and winter. The seasonal change in fCO2 was controlled mainly by the large variation in surface DIC. The invasion of atmospheric CO2 into the surface seawater continues from June to January, showing a maximum in October. The decrease in carbon in summer was explained by biological uptake on the basis of Redfield stoichiometry and air-sea CO2 exchange. Net community production in the surface mixed layer estimated from the change in nutrients ranged from 250 to 600 mg C m-2 day-1 and was higher in spring. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Keiri Imai, Yukihiro Nojiri, Nobuo Tsurushima, Toshiro Saino
    Deep Sea Research Part II 49 24-25 5395 - 5408 2002年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity were measured as a part of the station KNOT (44°N, 155°E) time-series observation program in the western North Pacific, which began in June 1998 and continued on a nearly monthly basis until February 2000. Primary productivity was measured by the 13C uptake method using a clean sampling technique. The surface temperature changed from 2°C to 15°C, and the minimum and maximum temperatures were in February and August, respectively. The minimum and maximum concentrations of surface-layer nutrients were 2.2 and 19.6 μM for nitrate + nitrite, 0.32 and 1.64 μM for phosphate, and 3.3 and 33.3 μM for silicate. The averaged depth of euphotic zone was about 50 m, which did not show clear seasonality. Integrated chlorophyll a in the euphotic zone ranged between 20 and 40 mg Chl a m-2, except for the high values (51-64 mg Chl a m-2) in early June and middle October 1998 and May 1999, and the low value (17 mg Chl a m-2) in late June 1998. The integrated primary productivities in the upper part of the euphotic zone for spring (May), summer (June-August), autumn (October-November), and winter (December-February) were 517-535 (av. 526), 153-304 (av. 227), 101-307 (av. 173), and 25-121 (av. 48) mg C m-2 d-1, respectively. The annual productivity was estimated to be 90 g C m-2 yr-1. The results showed that primary productivity had a distinct seasonal variation, with a 10-fold range during winter-spring, which is far larger than that at Ocean Station Papa (OSP) in the eastern North Pacific. However, the annual productivity at station KNOT was lower than the at OSP. It was found that the light utilization index was constant during all seasons, and the annual average (± 1 SD) was 0.30±0.10 g C (g Chl a)-1 m2 (mol quanta)-1. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • A possible explanation for the dominance of chlorophyll in pico and nano-size fractions in the waters around the south Shetland Islands
    Kawaguchi S, Shiomoto A, Imai K, Tsuruga Y, Yamaguchi H, Noiri Y, Iguch N, Kameda T
    Ocean and Polar Research 23 4 379 - 388 2001年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • 小達 恒夫, 坂岡 桂一郎, 梶原 善之, 今井 圭理, 小林 直人, 目黒 敏美, 福地 光男
    日本プランクトン学会報 46 2 134 - 142 日本プランクトン学会 1999年08月25日 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • 飯沼 友章, 今井 圭理, 小達 恒夫, 米田 義昭
    水産海洋研究 62 4 406 - 407 1998年11月01日
  • Iinuma Tomoaki, Imai Keiri, Odate Tsuneo, Maita Yoshiaki
    MEMOIRS OF THE FACULTY OF FISHERIES HOKKAIDO UNIVERSITY 45 1 30 - 35 北海道大学 1998年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Ⅰ. Physical, Chemical Environment, Primary Production, Zooplankton and Their Coupling Model Studies
  • 今井 圭理, 小達 恒夫, 簗田 満, 米田 義昭
    水産海洋研究 62 2 89 - 96 水産海洋学会 1998年05月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • A Shiomoto, S Kawaguchi, K Imai, Y Tsuruga
    POLAR BIOLOGY 19 5 361 - 364 1998年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Size-fractionated chlorophyll a (Chla)-specific productivity (mu gC mu gChla(-1) h(-1)) was measured at 11 stations off the northern coast of the South Shetland Islands during summer. The Chla-specific productivity of the 2- to 10 or 10- to 330-mu m fraction was highest at 100% and 23% light depths. The Chla-specific productivity of the 2- to 10-mu m fraction was generally highest, and that of the < 2 or 10- to 330-mu m fraction was sometimes highest at 12% and 1% light depths. Temperature was less than 3 degrees C within the euphotic zone at all stations. The hypothesis of Shiomoto et al., according to which Chin-specific productivity of picophytoplankton (< 2 mu m) is not significantly higher than that of larger phytoplankton (> 2 mu m) in water colder than 10 degrees C, was supported on condition that light is not limited for larger phytoplankton.
  • Imai Keiri, Yanada Mitsuru, Maita Yoshiaki
    北海道大学水産学部研究彙報 49 1 41 - 49 北海道大学水産学部 1998年03月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 小達 恒夫, 今井 圭理, 福地 光男
    日本プランクトン学会報 45 1 1 - 8 日本プランクトン学会 1998年02月28日 [査読有り][通常論文]

その他活動・業績

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • 海洋物質循環の基準値であるレッドフィールド比を再考する
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)
    研究期間 : 2021年04月 -2024年03月 
    代表者 : 芳村 毅, 工藤 勲, 今井 圭理
  • 日本沿岸海域における海洋酸性化の動態予測手法の開発
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)
    研究期間 : 2019年04月 -2022年03月 
    代表者 : 今井 圭理, 渡辺 豊
  • 日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 新学術領域研究(研究領域提案型)
    研究期間 : 2012年06月 -2017年03月 
    代表者 : 神田 穣太, 喜多村 稔, 西川 淳, 青野 辰雄, 山口 篤, 高木 省吾, 土屋 光太郎, 立田 穣, 林 敏史, 野田 明, 渡辺 豊, 茂木 正人, 田中 祐志, 守屋 繁春, 小林 卓也, 芳村 毅, 石丸 隆, 五十嵐 敏, 須賀 次郎, 山川 紘, 大津 秀暁, 伊藤 友加里, 高澤 伸江, 内山 香織, 久保 篤史, 今井 圭理
     
    海洋生態系における福島第一原子力発電所事故由来の放射性物質について、以下の研究を行った。1)福島沿岸域において生物と環境の放射性セシウムについて、年に2回の船舶観測による経時的なデータセットを得た。また外洋域の動物プランクトンについても複数の海域で時系列データを得た。2)岩礁性の底生魚に重点を置いて、生態系への移行経路を検討した結果、懸濁・沈降粒子や堆積物の有機物画分等からの移行は小さいことを確認した。3)現場観測データを用い、生態系内の放射性セシウム推移をモデルにより再現し、海洋生物の放射能レベルの今後の推移について検討した。

教育活動情報

主要な担当授業

  • 一般教育演習(フレッシュマンセミナー)
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 海洋環境、水圏生態、水産資源、海洋物理学、海洋化学、プランクトン、イカ、耳石


Copyright © MEDIA FUSION Co.,Ltd. All rights reserved.