山形 定(ヤマガタ サダム)
工学研究院 環境工学部門 環境工学



  • 工学研究院 環境工学部門 環境工学


  • 助教


  • 工学博士(東京大学)


J-Global ID


  • ロケットストーブ   燃焼   ペレット   木質バイオマス   大気エアロゾル   雲粒   光ファイバー   光触媒   リアルタイム   ディーゼル排ガス   PHS   ゼオライト   環境計測   エアロゾル吸収係数   


  • 環境・農学 / 環境政策、環境配慮型社会 / エネルギーにおける民主主義
  • 環境・農学 / 環境材料、リサイクル技術 / 自然エネルギー利用
  • 環境・農学 / 循環型社会システム / 自然エネルギー利用
  • 環境・農学 / 環境動態解析
  • 自然科学一般 / 大気水圏科学


  • 2013年 北海道大学 工学(系)研究科(研究院) 助教



  • 小型熱電併給装置による木質バイオマス地産地消の可能性に関する検討
    岡田和也, 山形 定
    北海道自然エネルギー研究 16 1 17 - 25 2022年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • 堆雪層底面から空気供給した熱による融雪実験
    山形 定, 大澤俊信, 深澤達矢
    北海道自然エネルギー研究 16 1 5 - 15 2022年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • 北海道における木質バイオマス利用
    山形 定
    北海道における脱炭素社会に向けた取組み 2021年12月 [査読無し][招待有り]
  • 北海道における雪氷冷熱利用の可能性
    山形 定
    住民と自治 699 20 - 22 2021年07月 [査読無し][招待有り]
  • 薪ストーブを熱源とする空気融雪システムの屋根落雪部への設置とその試運転
    山形 定, 大澤俊信, 米田直司, 立藏祐樹, 小林由快
    北海道自然エネルギー研究 15 1 15 - 24 2021年06月 [査読有り]
  • 衛星搭載された合成開口レーダを用いた森林消失エリアのリアルタイムモニタリング
    山形 定, 蒲生将大
    北海道自然エネルギー研究 15 1 7 - 14 2021年06月 [査読有り]
  • H. Araki, H. Nakano, S. Ichikawa, T. Kawai, T. Jishi, S. Yamagata, M. Kamide
    Acta Horticulturae 1301 117 - 122 2020年12月 [査読有り]
  • 公益電力事業における情報開示の必要性-ブラックアウトの教訓とアンケート調査
    山形 定
    北海道自然エネルギー研究 14 1 9 - 22 2020年05月 [査読有り]
  • 日本初のブラックアウト-失敗学からの考察
    北海道 自然エネルギー研究 13 1 5 - 16 2019年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Emission and Cost Analysis in Asparagus Fusekomi Forcing Culture with Wood Pellet Boiler
    Z.Jie, T.Kumano, M.Fujii, S.Yamagata, M.Kamide, H.Araki
    Japanese journal of farm work research 54 1 3 - 13 2019年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • 村有林由来の薪を燃料とするボイラー導入が占冠村にもたらした経済効果
    北海道自然エネルギー研究 12 1 5 - 16 2018年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Culture bed heating comparison between electric wire and hot water generated from pellet boiler in asparagus forcing production
    Zeng J, T. Kumano, S. Yamagata, M. Kamide, M. Fujii, H. Araki
    Acta Horticulturae 1208 265 - 270 2018年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Teppei J. Yasunari, Masashi Niwano, Yasushi Fujiyoshi, Atsushi Shimizu, Masamitsu Hayasaki, Teruo Aoki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Brent N. Holben, Sumito Matoba, Naoto Murao, Sadamu Yamagata, Kyu-Myong Kim
    SOLA 13 96 - 101 2017年 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Monitoring particulate matter is essential to alert the public about health risks. The Terra/MODIS true color image clearly captured a yellow band over Hokkaido prefecture in Japan on 7 March 2016. We investigated whether this event was an Asian dust (Kosa) transport or not with the ground-based observations in Sapporo and Takikawa in Hokkaido and NASA's MERRA-2 re-analysis data. The timing of increased particle number concentrations (PNCs; greater than 0.5 mu m) was clearly measured by a low-cost aerosol sensor at Sapporo and Takikawa in the early afternoon. For this particle size range, the PNC by this aerosol sensor had greater agreement with another commercial instrument for the 1-hourly mean data. The lidar data at Takikawa and NASA's AERONET at Sapporo also implied the increased dust particles (i.e., dominance of non-spherical and coarse particles, respectively), which supported that the PNC increase was due to the dust transport. The hourly PM2.5 data in Sapporo significantly increased in the evening rather than around the noon to early afternoon. We concluded that this event was judged as an Asian dust (Kosa) event in Hokkaido starting from the early afternoon, which was, however, not reported by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) based on their visible observations.
  • 北海道における木質バイオマス利用の現状と課題
    電気設備学会誌 36 791 - 797 2016年11月 [査読無し][招待有り]
  • 自然エネルギー利用の現状と課題-木質バイオマス利用と競合するおが粉製造業から考える-
    酪農ジャーナル 69 3 2016年03月 [査読無し][招待有り]
  • Teppei J. Yasunari, K. M. Lau, Sarith P.P. Mahanama, Peter R. Colarco, Arlindo M. Da Silva, Teruo Aoki, Kazuma Aoki, Naoto Murao, Sadamu Yamagata, Yuji Kodama
    Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere 12 1 c1  2016年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • 坂内 俊暁, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 山口 高志, 深澤 達矢
    土木学会論文集G(環境) 71 5 227 - 233 公益社団法人 土木学会 2015年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Hiroshi Hara, Takumi Kashiwakura, Kyo Kitayama, Sonoko Deothea Bellingrath-Kimura, Tomohiro Yoshida, Masao Takayanagi, Sadamu Yamagata, Naoto Murao, Hiroshi Okouchi, Hiroko Ogata
    ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT 97 511 - 518 2014年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Dry deposition of Black Carbon (BC) to the actual leaves of konara oak (Quercus serrata) was evaluated in a foliar rinse method in an experimental forest in the suburbs of Tokyo, Japan in order to explore deposition levels and vertical profile within the forest. At three heights of the forest of 20 m height, 20 m, 15 m, and 6 m or 4 m, leaves were sampled on a weekly basis for a couple of months in 2011 and 2012 and subjected to rinsing with water and chloroform. The BC in the rinse solution was collected on a quartz fiber filter and determined by spectrophotometry. The BC mass deposited to leaves increased with height and this profile pattern was generally maintained in the study period. The specific BC mass deposited to leaves showed considerable fluctuations with time, but the deposited BC increased rapidly with time in the bud flushing stage, then attained to a plateau, and began to decrease as the defoliation advanced. The plateau is a result of a simple accumulation with time and occasional removal due to rainfall and strong winds. The maximum BC mass deposited to leaves per leaf surface unit area occurred in June where the level was 10-15 mg-BC m(-2). The rate of BC mass deposited to leaves at the time of leaves growing was determined to be 0.237 and 0.277 mg-BC m(-2) day(-1) for measurements in 2011 and 2012, respectively. On the basis of the observed BC mass deposited to the leaves, BC mass deposited to leaves per forest floor unit area estimated with LAI showed a strong seasonality. The BC mass deposited to leaves per forest floor unit area was compared to the deposition flux from the atmosphere to the forest canopy, which would be interpreted as indicating that 30% of atmospheric BC deposition to the canopy was retained on the leaves in time of leaves growing. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Teppei J. Yasunari, Teppei J. Yasunari, K. M. Lau, Sarith P, P Mahanama, Sarith P, P Mahanama, Peter R. Colarco, Arlindo M, da Silva, Teruo Aoki, Kazuma Aoki, Naoto Murao, Sadamu Yamagata, Yuji Kodama
    SOLA 10 50 - 56 2014年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    The snow darkening module evaluating dust, black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) depositions on the mass of snow impurities and albedo has been developed for the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth System Model, as the GOddard SnoW Impurity Module (GOSWIM). GOSWIM consists of the updated snow albedo scheme from a previous study (Yasunari et al. 2011) and a newly developed mass concentration calculation scheme, directly using aerosol depositions from the chemical transport model (GOCART) in GEOS- 5. Compared to observations at Sapporo, the off-line simulations, forced by observation-based meteorology and aerosol depositions from GOES-5, reasonably simulated the seasonal migration of snow depth, albedos, and impurities of dust, BC, and OC in the snow surface. However, the simulated dust and BC mass concentrations in snow were especially underestimated except for the BC in the early winter, compared to the observations. Increasing the deposition rates of dust and BC could explain the observations. Removing BC deposition could possibly lead to an extension of snow cover duration in Sapporo of four days. Comparing the offline GOSWIM and the GEOS-5 global simulations, we found that determining better local precipitation and deposition rates of the aerosols are key factors in generating better GOSWIM snow darkening simulation in NASA GEOS-5.
    Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan 91 1 63 - 73 Meteorological Society of Japan 2013年 [査読有り][通常論文]
    The optical and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols were determined from the ground-based measurements at Amami Oshima in April 2001 during the Asian Atmospheric Particle Environmental Change Studies (APEX) campaign and at Fukue Island in March 2001. At Amami Oshima from April 10 to 16, an aerosol event was observed in which the volume scattering coefficient and sulfate concentration of fine particles increased conspicuously. At the former term of the aerosol event, the single scattering albedo reached 0.98. At the latter term of the event, on the other hand, it was 0.80-0.90 and the concentrations of elemental carbon, aluminum, and zinc increased by a factor of several to ten times compared with the rest of the observation terms. Using chemical and backward trajectory analyses, it was established that the transparent aerosols, rich in sulfate, were converted from sulfur dioxide gas emitted by the Miyake Island volcano at the former term of the aerosol event, while the turbid and absorptive aerosols were anthropogenic aerosols appearing together with Asian yellow dust from continental China at the latter term of the event. The measurements at Fukue Island showed that the volume scattering coefficients as well as the concentrations of sulfate, elemental carbon, aluminum, and zinc were higher than those at Amami Oshima, while the single scattering albedo was relatively low. This study elucidates that in spring, large amounts of anthropogenic particles are frequently transported together with Asian yellow dust from inland continental China to the Pacific Ocean, and that the single scattering albedo and the ratio of organic to elemental carbons are approximately 0.80-0.85 and 1, respectively, over the north-western Pacific Ocean.
  • 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定, 近藤 浩毅, 佐藤 久靖
    地球環境シンポジウム講演集 4 123 - 128 Japan Society of Civil Engineers 1996年 
    The increasing attention to large-scale air pollution has resulted in numerous air monitoring networks and field studies. Trajectory calculations are often usedto understand the behavior of air pollutants and the results of measurements. However the accuracy of trajectory calculations is not well known, especially for the long-range transport in East Asia. In this study, some recent measurement data are used to determine the accuracy of isentropic trajectory model. The separation between isentropic trajectories and three-imensional trajectories derived from meteorological data which have sufficient temporal resolution is used to assess the validity of the isentropic technique. The results indicate that the isentropic trajectories arrived closest the boundary layer sometimes differ greatlyfrom three dimensional trajectories arrived at the surface measurement points. The causes of discrepancy is considered. Although the details of each trajectory do not necessarily reflect the actual path of motion of pollutants, the calculations suggest that the emsumble mode of trajectory analysis provides a useful tool of the relative patterns of large scale air motion.
  • 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 深沢 達矢, 長谷川 就一, 荒生 公雄
    地球環境シンポジウム講演集 4 117 - 122 Japan Society of Civil Engineers 1996年 
    Atmospheric turbidity coefficients were calculated at five sites (Nemuro, Sapporo, Shionomisaki, Tosa-Shimizu and Ishigaki) in Japan from 1980 through 1995. Theturbidity coefficients ranged 0.03-0.30 at Nemuro, 0.05-0.45 at Sapporo, 0.05-0.45 at Shionomisaki, 0.03-0.40 at Tosa-Shimizu and 0.03-0.40 at Ishigaki. In 1982-1984 and 1991-1993 they had the maximum due to large volcanic eruptions of Mt. E1 Chichon and It.Pinatubo, respectively. Except effect of the volcanic eruption, the turbidity coefficients had tendency of increase from 1955 through 1990 due to increase of human activities. Global increase of the turbidity coefficient of 0.042 may cause the decrease of the global mean surface temperature of 0.3°C.
  • 中山 里美, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定
    地球環境シンポジウム講演集 3 225 - 230 Japan Society of Civil Engineers 1995年 
    A two-dimensional channel model for the troposphere covering between 30N and 60N is constructed in order to simulate the effect of human activities on global troposphere. The model treats the processes of advection, diffusion, chemical transformation, emission from sources, dry and wet deposition and cloud transport. Calculated concentrations of ozone and PAN show a good agreement with observations. The amount of ozone is about10-20ppb, which accounts for 20-60% of present ozone concentration. This amount depends primarily on local NOxconcentration. Calculated distribution of PAN reflects temperature field. Furthermore, we run the model with the anthropogenic emissions from East Asia increased to the same emission strength of the most industrialized part of the U. S. HNO3 concentration increased significantly near the source area at low levels, whereas PAN shows little dependence on height and longitude. The difference of these behavior is explained by the difference of their removal process from atmosphere. On the other hand, ozone shows 50% decrease in winter and 50% increase in summer near the surface over East Asia.
  • 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定, 溝口 勲, 窪田 和彦
    地球環境シンポジウム講演集 2 114 - 119 Japan Society of Civil Engineers 1994年 
    ABSTRACT;Analysis of PAN measurement in Sapporo indicated that the variation of PAN in Sapporo was highly affected by the transport from a wide area rather than the photochemical formation in Sapporo city. In this study, a two dimensional channel model for chemistry and transport in the troposphere is constructed to study the behavior of trace species at mid latitude in the northern hemisphere. Evaluation of the model performance is attempted with the results of our PAN measurements in Sapporo. The calculated seasonal variation of PAN concentrations at 140E near the surface, which shows a maximum in the late winter and a minimum in summer, presents a similar pattern to that observed in Sapporo. However the model tends to overpredict the concentrations during winter months and underpredict the concentrations during summer months.


  • 自然エネルギーの内発的発展に資する「失敗の共有」を!
    山形 定 住民と自治 (703) 34 -34 2021年11月 [査読無し]
  • 放逐される総長-北海道大学
    山形 定 「私物化」される国公立大学 56 -65 2021年09月 [査読無し]
  • 北大と軍事研究
    山形 定 北海道大学ピースガイド 36 -37 2019年12月 [査読無し]
  • 産学共同・軍学共同の今
    山形 定 北海道大学ピースガイド 99 -101 2019年12月 [査読無し]
  • 北海道における自然エネルギーへの展望-ブラックアウト(全域停電)の教訓を踏まえて-
    山形定 自治と分権 (75) 79 -89 2019年04月 [査読無し][招待有り]
  • ブラックアウトを経験した北海道で考える自然エネルギーの方向性
    山形定 建築とまちづくり (482) 18 -24 2019年02月 [査読無し][招待有り]
  • 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 深澤 達矢 地球環境シンポジウム講演集 22 1 -4 2014年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 内山 政弘, 奥村 聰, 河上 由行, 中川 太郎, 山形 定, 村尾 直人 環境化学 24 (1) 19 -24 2014年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    A wireless sensor network was developed for continuously measuring ozone concentration in the atmosphere. The network was constructed of sensor nodes, each of which was made of an ozone sensor and a communications transmitter connected to a cellular phone network. In order to examine the performance of the sensor network, one-year observations were made at local air pollution monitoring stations in Sapporo and in Ayabe (in Kyoto Prefecture), and the ozone concentrations derived from the sensor outputs were compared with those obtained by the standard monitoring instruments. As a result, it was proved that the ozone sensor used in the node had enough ability to follow the change in the ozone concentration in the atmosphere. The correlation coefficients between the sensor network and the monitoring-station observations exceeded 0.86. Thus the ozone monitoring sensor network developed in this study was found to be at a stage of practical application.
  • 山形 定, 三浦 二郎, 太田 幸雄, 藤吉 康志 低温科学 72 21 -27 2014年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    高度430mにおよぶ準実スケールの人工雲実験施設において硫酸アンモニウムエアロゾル粒子を発生させ, 雲核活性化が起きる高度40m程度までのエアロゾル, 雲粒について測定をおこなった. バックグラウンド粒子数濃度を低下させたことにより, 実験室用粒子発生装置を用いた安定的なエアロゾル粒子供給が可能となった. エアロゾル粒子および雲粒を同時に捕集可能な2段式インパクターを用い複数高度で両粒子の数濃度, 粒径分布を求めた.粒子発生用の硫酸アンモニウム溶液濃度を高くすると, 発生粒子個数が増加したが粒径に大きな変化は見られなかった. エアロゾル粒子数増加により生成する雲粒粒子数は増加, 雲粒径は減少し, Twomey効果が検証された.The volume fraction (ε) of water soluble material in atmospheric aerosol particles is an important parameter related to their hygroscopicity and activation processes to form cloud and ice particles. To estimateεof coarse dust particles, confocal scanning laser microscope was applied to measure the volume difference of individual particles before and after water dialysis directly. Individual particles (sphere equivalent diameter approx. 1-8 μm) of Asian reference dusts (CJ1 and CJ2) and atmospheric coarse particles during four Asian dust events were analyzed to ascertainε. Median values ofεfor CJ1 and CJ2 were, respectively, 29% and 13% with no size trend. Median values ofεfor coarse aerosol particles during two dust events were 18-42%. Dust particles with high εare potentially important for acting as giant CCN. Therefore aging of dust particles during transport might enhance the number of giant CCN over the North Pacific.
  • 山田 哲郎, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演集 21 231 -234 2013年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 服部 哲也, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演集 20 197 -200 2012年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 永田 大樹, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演集 20 201 -204 2012年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 原 圭一郎, 松木 篤, 山形 定, 岩坂 泰信, 山内 恭, Herber Andreas 南極資料 54 (0) 845 -867 2010年12月28日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    北極ヘイズが頻繁に出現する春季(3-4月),清浄な大気へ変化する時期(5-6月)の北極対流圏内のエアロゾル粒子の組成とその混合状態の空間分布に関して知見を得るため,日本-ドイツ共同で航空機を用いたエアロゾル観測を2000年3-4月(ASTAR 2000)と2004年5-6月(ASTAR 2004)にスバールバル諸島周辺で実施した.春季には酸性状態の硫酸粒子が主要だったのに対し,夏季に移行する時期(6月)には中性の硫酸塩粒子(おそらく(NH_4)_2SO_4)の割合が増加していた.北極ヘイズ現象下ではススを含む粒子の割合が増加し,その多くは外部混合状態で存在していた.一方,バックグラウンド時(非北極ヘイズ時)には,スス粒子の割合は減少し,多くが硫酸(塩)粒子と内部混合した状態だった.ここでは,海塩粒子変質の鉛直変化や土壌粒子の空間分布についても報告を行う.
  • 山形 定, 原 圭一郎, 松木 篤 南極資料 54 (0) 868 -881 2010年12月28日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    アークティックヘイズの特性を解明するためにおこなわれた3つの観測キャンペーン(ASTAR 2000,AAMP 2002,ASTAR 2004)で,エアロゾルの散乱係数,粒径分布などの航空機観測をおこなった.いずれのキャンペーンにおいてもエアロゾル粒子をステンレス製インレットから客室内に導入し,ディフューザーで減速後に各測定装置に分配した.エアロゾルの光学的散乱係数はアークティックヘイズ時,4000 m程度までの高度でそれ以上と際立った違いが認められた.これに対し,対流圏上層の散乱係数は,アークティックヘイズ期,清浄期でほぼ同じレベルであった.ヘイズ期にはエアロゾルの粒径分布は,清浄期のものよりも大きく,気塊が発生から長時間経っていることを示した. ヘイズ層の微細構造を明らかにするためおこなったカーテンフライトの結果,エアロゾルは等温位面を輸送されていることがわかった.
  • 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (50) 507 -507 2009年08月20日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 清水 裕士, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (50) 508 -508 2009年08月20日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 兼保 直樹, 山形 定, 小林 拓 エアロゾル研究 24 (3) 201 -208 2009年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Community aerosol inlet is designed for the super sites of SKYNET ground monitoring network in accordance with the guideline proposed by World Meteorological Organization/Global Atmosphere Watch project. The basic structure of this GEOSS-SKYNET inlet consists of a vertical pipe installed through the roof of the laboratory so that air is brought from the inlet top (>4.5 m from the ground level) to the iso-kinetic air splitter attached at the bottom of pipe with minimal bending. Aerosols are pre-separated at the inlet top with PM<SUB>10</SUB> impactor head which is newly designed for SKYNET super sites. The size separation characteristic of the inlet is tested with poly-dispersed fly-ash particles in a factory. The fly-ash particles collected on Nuclepore filters in the experiment were counted with Coulter counter method in 300 size bins. The obtained 50 % cut-off particle diameter of the inlet is 6.65 μm, which corresponds to 9.4 — 10.3 μm in aerodynamic diameter. Although the size separation characteristic of the inlet deviates from that of single-jet impactor with flat impaction plate in low Stokes Number region, it has better performance than commercially available PM<SUB>10</SUB> inlets in the region of relatively small Stokes number.
  • 真田 あすみ, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (49) 430 -430 2008年08月29日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (49) 356 -356 2008年08月29日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 内山 政弘, 泉 克幸, 桃野 浄行, 平野 裕, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (49) 569 -569 2008年08月29日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 小川 洸平, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 15 31 -36 2007年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient. size distribution and mass of atmospheric aerosols were measured at Fukue Island in the East China Sea in March 2007. The scattering coefficient varied from 6 to 340Mm<SUP>-1</SUP> with an average of 67Mm<SUP>-1</SUP> at 530nm wavelength. and the absorption coefficient varied from 0.1 to 49Mm<SUP>-1</SUP> with an average of 7.6Mm<SUP>-1</SUP> at 565 nm wavelength. On March 22. the mass concentration increased with increase of scattering and absorption coefficients. which might be caused by long range transport of aerosols originated in the continental China.
  • 真田 あすみ, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 15 63 -66 2007年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Although the Air Quality Standard achievement rate of Suspended Particulate Matter hasbeen improved recently, particulate air pollution is estimated to be one of the main environmental healthrisks in Japan. In this study, we estimate the changes in life expectancy due to the exposure to particulatesin urban area in Japan based on the relative risks obtained from a recent epidemiological study. The lifeloss expectancies (LLEs) for long-term exposure calculated for Yokohama city range from 1.0 to 1.8 years, which are comparable to those estimated for major European cities. These differences, however, comeslargely from social data such as age structure of the population and age-specific mortality rather thanparticulate concentrations.
  • 村尾 直人, 佐藤 和弥, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 15 67 -70 2007年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    An Eulerian hemispheric model is used to investigate emission source contributions to the Arctic air pollution such as the Arctic haze and black carbon (BC) accumulation. Four cities, including Tiksi (71° 38' N, 128° 52' E), Barrow (71° 18' N, 156° 44' W), Alert (82° 28' N, 62° 30' W), and Spitsbergen (77° 55' N, 11° 56' E), are selected to evaluate the estimations. The results indicate that more than half of the wintertime sulfur deposition comes from emission sources in north America, and the contributions donot differ greatly with those in summer. The results from the calculations for BC suggests that three majoremission sources, namely open burning, biofuel, and fossil fuel, equally contribute to BC levels in thearctic cities.
  • 山下 智生, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄, 原 宏 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 15 71 -76 2007年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to daily wet deposition data fromthree satations in Japan to find the source profiles from which the precipitation samples areconstituted. For most ions more than 90% of the weighted variation was explained with 4 factors. Thefactors are characterized by the following compounds: strong acids (H<SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB> and HNO<SUB>3</SUB>), (NH<SUB>4</SUB>) <SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB>, NaCl, and CaSO<SUB>4</SUB>. Based on the chemical compositions of the factors, a time series of the factor contributions, andthe results from trajectory analysis, the factors are considered to represent sea salt, soil, (NH<SUB>4</SUB>) <SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB> andacidity. Although the three stations show different temporal trends for total nss-SO4 wet deposition amount, the monthly contributions of the (NH<SUB>4</SUB>) <SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB> factor to nss-SO<SUB>4</SUB> wet deposition were fairly constant for thestudying years. The acidity seemed to be controlled by the neutralization by soil particles.
  • 村尾 直人, 原 弘之, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄, 原 宏 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 14 199 -204 2006年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to daily wet deposition data from three stations in Japan to find the source profiles from which the precipitation samples are constituted. For most ions more than 90% of the weighted variation was explained with 4 factors. The factors are characterized by the following compounds: strong acids (H<SUP>2</SUP>SO<SUB>4</SUB> and HNO<SUB>3</SUB>), (NH<SUB>4</SUB>)<SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB>, NaCl, and CaSO<SUB>4</SUB>. The anion-cation balance was fairly good in the factors. Based on the chemical compositions of the factors, a time series of the factor contributions, and the results from trajectory analysis, the factors are considered to represent sea salt, soil, (NH<SUB>4</SUB>) <SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB> and acidity. Although the total nss-SO<SUB>4</SUB> wet deposition amount decreased in the last 7 years at Wajima station, the contributions of the (NH<SUB>4</SUB>) <SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB> factor to nss-SO<SUB>4</SUB> wet deposition were fairly constant (ca.50%). The acidity seemed to be controlled by the neutralization by soil particles.
  • 山﨑 高, 北野 智也, 秋本 裕輔, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 高津 宏和 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 13 147 -150 2005年11月16日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第13回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成17年11月17日(木)-18日(金) 北海道大学クラーク会館) . 一般セッション . 4 建築 都市エネルギー利用 . 4-9
  • 山崎 高, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 高津 宏和 日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 14 (14) 214 -215 2005年08月04日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 野亀 梢, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 13 111 -116 2005年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    In order to characterize optical properties of atmospheric aerosols in East Asia, the absorption coefficient (σ<SUB>ap</SUB>) and the scattering coefficient (σ<SUB>sp</SUB>) were monitored at three islands (Fukue Island, Miyako Island and Amami-ohshima Island) in East China Sea from 2002 through 2004. The optical properties ?Dap and ?Dsp at these islands showed high values in winter to spring and low values in summer. The single scattering albedo at Fukue Island ranged from 0.7 to 0.9. Further, aerosol measurement campaigns were performed in springs among the period. During the campaign besides the measurement of optical parameters, aerosol particles were collected on filters to determine chemical component concentrations. Using the chemical concentrations, σ<SUB>ap</SUB> and σ<SUB>sp</SUB> were calculated by Mie scattering theory for assumed mixing conditions and particle size distributions in aerosol model. The calculation use twenty kinds of particle size distributions and three mixing conditions as parameters. The best correlation with observed values were obtained in the geometric mean radius of 0.075?Em, the geometric standard deviation of 1.3 and external mixing condition.
  • 山崎 高, 高津 宏和, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 13 225 -230 2005年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Changes in the amount and composition of tar according to superficial velocity (SV) were investigated in a downdraft biomass gasifier. SV of the downdraft gasification with air was varied in the range of 0.3-0.7m/s, and tar was recovered at the gasifier outlet. The tar was classified as gravimetric tar and gas-chromatography-detectable (GC-detectable) tar. The lowest gravimetric tar yield (0.7%) was obtained at 0.4m/s SV and the highest at 0.7m/s. GC-detectable tar yield was highest (1.5%) at 0.7m/s. One-ring aromatics and naphthalene accounted for more than 80% of GC-detectable tar mass. Some constituents of GC-detectable tar showed specific trends according to SV, although the main composition did not show extreme change. The effect of SV on the production of gases and particles was also studied.
  • 久高 將佑, 平安山 武雄, 阿出川 隆之, 木原 一禎, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定, 山崎 高, 北野 智也, 帆秋 利洋, 天 石文, 高山 百合子, 岩田 芳隆, 信田 浩司, 小倉 礁, 三富 聡, 大友 祥太, 渡辺 義公, 市村 靖光, 鈴木 健, 大野 文良, 長谷 一矢, 多喜川 昇, 小林 仁, 岩崎 秀治, 篠原 伸和, 長 雄一, 高田 雅之, 大橋 和彦, 岡崎 克則, 金子 正美, 遠藤 大二, 浅川 満彦, 坪田 敏男, 淺野 玄, 赤松 里香, 小野寺 収, 濱田 靖弘, 後藤 隆一郎, 窪田 英樹, 中村 真人, 桑原 浩平, 長田 勉, 三浦 二郎, 松島 健将, 中島 義晴, 竹森 憲章, 樺澤 雅之, 渡辺 克実, 大山 成人, 久保 田学, 安保 芳久, 大束 淳一 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 13 341 -366 2005年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 山崎 高, 高津 宏和, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 椎谷 悟, 大場 龍夫 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 12 153 -156 2004年10月31日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第12回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成16年11月4日(木)-5日(金) 北海道大学クラーク会館) . 一般セッション . 5 廃棄物処理とリサイクル . 5-4
  • MURAO Naoto, OHTA Sachio, YAMAGATA Sadamu, FUKASAWA Tatsuya, SHITABA Toshiaki, TAKEUCHI Kazuyuki Journal of global environment engineering 10 11 -26 2004年08月01日
  • 山崎 高, 高津 宏和, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 椎谷 悟, 大場 龍雄 日本エネルギー学会大会講演要旨集 13 (13) 192 -193 2004年07月29日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 泉 克幸, ゲラジディン ホルシダ, 内山 政弘, 福山 力, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 エアロゾル研究 = Journal of aerosol research 19 (2) 142 -148 2004年06月20日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Fogs are thought to play an important role in deposition of acidic constituents in the atmosphere and also to be closely related to the decline of forests. We applied the polymeric water absorbent of a commercial diaper to the measurement of the deposition flux of fog water, for the first time. The absorbent was molded into a disk of 13 mm in diameter and 1mm in thickness, and characteristics of the disk, such as water vapor absorptivity and water retention ability, were studied in detail. Then we exposed the disk to the artificial fog in a cloud experiment facility, a large-scale vertical shaft (a long vertical passage or space in a mine) of Kamaishi Mine in Iwate Prefecture, in which a steady fog suitable for methodological studies on fogs was formed. The disks were hung on branches of a model pine tree, and the flux was determined from the increase in weight, the surface area of the disk and the exposure time to the fog. It was found through the present new method that the deposition flux was almost independent of wind directions, being 46 ∼ 65 g/m<SUP>2</SUP>/h. These values fell in the range of past data for tree leaves reported in literature.
  • 佐々木 聰, 播磨屋 敏生, 蝶野 洋平, 藤吉 康志, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定, 山田 正, 内山 政弘, 泉 克幸 大会講演予講集 85 437 -437 2004年05月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 三浦 二郎, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人 大気環境学会誌 39 (2) 63 -76 2004年03月10日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    霧によるエアロゾルの変化をとらえるため,北西太平洋上および根室海峡〜南オホーツク海上で霧多発期間(2001年4月,7月)と霧がほとんど発生しない期間(2001年10月,2002年1月)にガス成分(SO_2,NH_3),エアロゾル(粒径2μm以下の微小粒子,2〜10μmの粗大粒子,10μm以上の水滴)を捕集し主要無機イオン成分の分析を行った。単独で発生した霧に対して事例解析を行った結果,霧形成時には2μm以上の水滴へのNH_3,HNO_3ガスの吸収が,霧消散時には水滴の分裂で微小粒子領域のNaCl粒子の増加が確認された。そこで,霧形成時のガス吸収,霧消散時の水滴分裂がエアロゾル化学組成の季節特性の変化にまで寄与しているかどうかを確認するため,ガス吸収は粒子化率,水滴の分裂は微小粒子分率を用いて調べた。 SO_4^<2->,NH_4^+の粒子化率は霧多発期間であった4月,7月に増加しており,霧の発生によりガスの吸収量が増加したことが示された。また,Na^+の微小粒子分率は観測期間の平均直でも10月や1月に比べ3倍の違いが生しており,霧が多発する地域においては分裂現象が頻発する環境にあると判断された。よって,水滴のガス吸収および水滴の分裂の影響はエアロゾルの季節傾向にまで及んでいることが示唆された。
  • 加藤 秀樹, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 環境工学研究論文集 41 105 -110 2004年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Using tape type filter, an absorption photometer suitable for continuous absorptioncoefficient monitoring in remote area and black carbon (BC) monitoring in urban area was developed. This instrument is equipped with two fiber optic sensors, monitoring reflected light from aerosolcollecting spot and non-collecting part of the filter. The latter signal was used as a reference tocorrect the shift of the sensor sensitivity caused by temperature fluctuations. Collection spot was automaticallychanged when the signal from the spot decreased below a threshold value. Measurements were conductedin Sapporo in October and November 2003 (period-I), and February and March 2004 (period-II) toevaluate and characterize the instrument. The good correlation between absorption coefficients measure by the instrument and EC concentrations measured by thermal method was found (R<SUP>2</SUP>=0.961 at period-I and R<SUP>2</SUP>=0.797 at period-II). One-hour BC concentrations calculated based on the regressions rangedfrom 0.5 to 7.8μg/m<SUP>3</SUP>. The instrument was found to be easy to use and had sufficient sensitivity to beuseful in atmospheric monitoring.
  • 加藤 秀樹, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 環境工学研究論文集 41 111 -117 2004年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Cancer risk from diesel exhaust particle (DEP) was estimated using data collected at ambient and roadside air monitoring stations in Sapporo. DEP concentrations were calculated based on the three assumptions: i) 90% of ambient elemental carbon (EC) originate from DEP, ii) 40% of DEP consists of EC, and iii) Human exposed DEP concentration is 80% of ambient DEP concentration. The cancer risks from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were compared to the cancer risk from DEP (1.3×10<SUP>-3</SUP> in summer and 1.5×10<SUP>-3</SUP> in winter). The sum of the cancer risks from five PAHs and three NPAHs (1.1×10<SUP>-7</SUP> in summer and 4.1×10<SUP>-7</SUP> in winter) was much less than that from DEP. The correlation between EC and available data (NOx and SPM) at the air monitoring station in Sapporo was examined. EC and NOx showed higher correlations (R<SUP>2</SUP>=0.583 (summer), 0.775 (winter)) than EC and SPM. DEP cancer risks were calculated for each air monitoring stations with the regression between EC and NOx. The risks for the ambient air monitoring stations and roadside air monitoring stations ranged from 8.4×10-4 to 1.5×10<SUP>-3</SUP> and 1.4×10<SUP>-3</SUP> to 2.5×10<SUP>-3</SUP>, respectively.
  • 三浦 二郎, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人 大気環境学会誌 39 (2) 63 -76 2004年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    霧によるエアロゾルの変化をとらえるため, 北西太平洋上および根室海峡~南オホーツク海上で霧多発期間 (2001年4月, 7月) と霧がほとんど発生しない期間 (2001年10月, 2002年1月) にガス成分 (SO<SUB>2</SUB>, NH<SUB>3</SUB>), エアロゾル (粒径2μm以下の微小粒子, 2~10μmの粗大粒子, 10μm以上の水滴) を捕集し主要無機イオン成分の分析を行った。 単独で発生した霧に対して事例解析を行った結果, 霧形成時には2μm以上の水滴へのNH<SUB>3</SUB>, HNO<SUB>3</SUB>ガスの吸収が, 霧消散時には水滴の分裂で微小粒子領域のNaCl粒子の増加が確認された。<BR>そこで, 霧形成時のガス吸収, 霧消散時の水滴分裂がエアロゾル化学組成の季節特性の変化にまで寄与しているかどうかを確認するため, ガス吸収は粒子化率, 水滴の分裂は微小粒子分率を用いて調べた。 SO<SUB>4</SUB><SUP>2-</SUP>, NH<SUB>4</SUB><SUP>+</SUP>の粒子化率は霧多発期間であった4月, 7月に増加しており, 霧の発生によりガスの吸収量が増加したことが示された。 また, Na<SUP>+</SUP>の微小粒子分率は観測期間の平均値でも10月や1月に比べ3倍の違いが生じており, 霧が多発する地域においては分裂現象が頻発する環境にあると判断された。 よって, 水滴のガス吸収および水滴の分裂の影響はエアロゾルの季節傾向にまで及んでいることが示唆された。
  • 山形 定 エアロゾル研究 = Journal of aerosol research 18 (4) 266 -270 2003年12月20日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Artificial Cloud Experiment Systems (ACES) in a vertical shaft of a mine were established at a coal mine in Kami-sunagawa, Hokkaido then at an iron mine in Kamaishi, Iwate. Updraft of air by electric fans induced the adiabatic expansion of air that resulted in generation of artificial clouds. We conducted basic measurements of temperature profiles, updraft air velocity, size distribution of droplets, etc. and investigated the dissolution of SO<SUB>2</SUB> into cloud droplets, the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, and the flux of droplet deposition onto trees using the stable cloud in ACES. Recent improvements of experimental conditions allowed for precise experiments in studying the influence of aerosol properties on the cloud properties which is the key process of indirect radiative forcing by aerosol particles.
  • 野田 和宏, 播磨屋 敏生, 佐々木 聰, 藤吉 康志, 山形 定, 山田 正, 内山 政弘, 泉 克幸, 雲物理観測グループ, 雲物理観測グループ 大会講演予講集 83 2003年05月21日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 下羽 利明, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 11 105 -110 2003年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    VOCs and aerosols measurements were conducted at Barrow, Alaska, USA from July, 1999 to July, 2001, to obtain their seasonal variation. Heavy metals, EC and sulfate concentration showed minimum in summer and autumn, and maximum in winter and spring, which is a character of Arctic Haze. Some VOCs (Xylene etc.) also showed the same seasonal variation, which suggest that VOCs are the component of Arctic Haze.<BR>Source contributions of aerosols samples at Barrow were estimated by using a new type of factor analysis, positive matrix factorization (PMF). The PMF analysis identified three factors that indicate three aerosol sources contribute to aerosol concentrations at Barrow. The first factor was considered to represent sea salt, and remaining two factors were considered to represent anthropogenic sources.<BR>To verify a difference in transport pathways between sampling periods, 5day backward trajectories were constructed. In winter and spring, some trajectories indicated long-range transport from emission sources in Eurasia. It was thus considered that long-range transport from emission sources in Eurasia was one of the causes of Arctic Haze at Barrow.
  • 高津 宏和, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (44) 332 -332 2003年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 泉 克幸, 内山 政弘, 福山 力, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄, 佐々木 聰, 播磨屋 敏生 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (44) 388 -388 2003年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 藤谷 雄二, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 遠藤 辰雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (44) 449 -449 2003年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 加藤 秀樹, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (44) 579 -579 2003年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 野亀 梢, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (44) 649 -649 2003年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 石黒 貴彦, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 藤吉 康志 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (44) 674 -674 2003年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 三浦 二郎, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (44) 681 -681 2003年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 山崎 高, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 和田 誠, 山内 恭 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 10 125 -128 2002年10月31日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第10回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成14年10月31日(木)-11月1日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 4 環境計測 . P4-7
  • 山形 定, 吉舗 大, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 10 129 -132 2002年10月31日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第10回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成14年10月31日(木)-11月1日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 4 環境計測 . P4-8
  • 三浦 二郎, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大会講演予講集 82 2002年10月09日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 加藤 潤, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大会講演予講集 82 144 -144 2002年10月09日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 石黒 貴彦, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大会講演予講集 82 178 -178 2002年10月09日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 下羽 利明, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 大会講演予講集 82 280 -280 2002年10月09日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 長谷川 就一, 太田 幸雄, 加藤 亮, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大会講演予講集 82 412 -412 2002年10月09日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 平田 陽介, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (43) 252 -252 2002年09月11日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 石黒 貴彦, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (43) 269 -269 2002年09月11日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 加藤 潤, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (43) 270 -270 2002年09月11日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 藤谷 雄二, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 遠藤 辰雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (43) 341 -341 2002年09月11日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 三浦 二郎, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (43) 514 -514 2002年09月11日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 山形 定, 吉舗 大, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (43) 588 -588 2002年09月11日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 山形 定, 庄司 和弘, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄 南極資料 46 (1) 167 -176 2002年06月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    北極圏航空機観測1998 (AAMP 98)中, 大気エアロゾルをガルフストリームIIのインレットから機内に導入し,ディフューザーで減速した後,テフロンフィルター上に捕集した.ディフューザー内の0.3µm以上の粒径を持つ粒子数濃度をフィルターサンプリングのラインと並列につないだオプティカルパーティクルカウンタ(OPC)でモニタ ーした. OPCのデータはシリアル通信でパソコンに転送,記録した.フィルターサンプルは実験室に持ち帰り,イオン交換水で抽出後イオンクロマトグラフを用い、陽・陰イオン濃度を測定した.Cl^- , N02^- , NO3^- , SO4^2-, Na^+ , NH4^+, K^+, Mg^2+, Ca^2+のイオンが検出された.成層圏にはSO4^2- を含んだエアロゾル層が知られているが,本観測では,これに加えCl^-, Ca^2+が上空でしばしば検出された.During the Arctic Airborne Measurement Program 1998 (AAMP 98), atmospheric aerosols were collected onto PTFE filters from the inlet of Gulfstream II through a diffuser installed in the cabin. During the sampling the number concentrations of aerosol particles with diameters larger than 0.3 µm were continuously monitored with an optical particle counter (OPC) connected to the diffuser in parallel to the filter sampling line. The data from the OPC were transferred by serial communication to a computer and recorded. The filter samples were brought back to the laboratory, then extracted with ion exchanged water and the concentrations of anions and cations were analyzed by ion chromato­graphy. Detected ions were as follows: Cl^-, N02^-, 1 , N03^-, SO4^2-, Na^+, NH4+, K^+, Mg^2+, Ca^2+. Even at high altitudes Cl^- and Ca^2+ were frequently detected, in addition to SO4^2- , which is known as a major ionic component in the stratosphere.
  • 渡辺 征春, 岩坂 泰信, 長谷 正博, 中田 滉, 山形 定, 猪股 弥生, 酒井 哲 南極資料 46 (1) 177 -229 2002年06月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    98年3月に名古屋を起点として北極点を横断する北極航空機観測計画AAMP 98が実施された.ガルフストリームII型双発ジェット機の胴体下部に光散乱式粒子計数器(Optical Particle Counter, OPC)が搭載され,中緯度~極域の対流圏,成層圏エアロゾル粒子数混合比が計測された.観測結果は成層圏(高度12 km巡航)では水平方向には非常に粒子数の変化が少ない,安定した数濃度分布の状態を示したが,数カ所で粒子数に大きな変化が見られた.客観解析,および流跡線解析デー タと比較した結果,極ジェット外縁部,特に気圧の谷東側付近で発生している温暖コンベアーベルトの影響を受けた上昇気流が,この粒子数変化の原因である可能性が高いことが分かった.Particle number mixing ratios of tropospheric and stratosphenc aerosols were observed in the Arctic Airborne Measurement Program 1998 (AAMP 98) using an Optical Particle Counter onboard a sub-sonic aircraft, the Gulfstream II (G-11) in March 1998. The observational results showed horizon­tally homogeneous distributions of particle number mixing ratio at the cruise altitude (about 12 km). On the other hand, distinct size-number distributions were found at some points on the flight paths, which suggest that effects of the warm conveyor belts appeared eastward of trough of atmospheric pressure. The characteristics of observed particle size-number distributions are discussed with isentropic backward trajectory analyses and geopotential maps.
  • 原 圭一郎, 岩坂 泰信, 猪股 弥生, 長田 和雄, 松永 捷司, 山形 定, 長谷 正博, 中田 滉 南極資料 46 (1) 230 -242 2002年06月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    春季北極大気中の大気エアロゾル粒子の性状を知るために, AAMP98において境界層内~成層圏下部にかけて,大気エアロゾル粒子の直接採集を行った.捕集されたエアロゾル粒子は,走査型電子顕微鏡—エネルギ一分散型X線分析装置により,形態観察と組成分析を行った.対流圏~成層圏下部の全体の空間では,硫酸と見られるSを含む粒子が多数を占めていた.また,土壌・ ダスト粒子と考えられる不定形粒子,海塩粒子のような結晶質の粒子は境界層内~約7000 mに確認された.In order to know the morphology and mixing state of atmospheric aerosol particles in the spring Arctic atmosphere, direct sampling of aerosol particles was carried out using an aerosol impactor system during the Arctic Airborne Measurement Program (AAMP 98). Aerosol samples were observed with a scanning electron microscope and analyzed with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Aerosol particles with clear satellite structure due to sulfuric acid droplets were observed in samples collected in the lower stratosphere and free troposphere. On the other hands, aerosol particles with crystal and satellite structure due to droplets of sea salt particles were observed in the boundary layer.
  • 和田 誠, 山形 定, 菊地 正 南極資料 46 (1) 261 -268 2002年06月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    1997年12月15日から1998年3月日日までの期間,北極圏スパ ールパル諸島ニーオルスンにおいてエアロゾルの観測を行った.本報告では,主としてパーティクルカウンターのデータを用い、他の観測デー タを参考にして,この期間のエアロゾル個数濃度の変動を報告する.さらに北極圏航空機観測(Arctic Airborne Measurement Program 1998: AAMP 98)がスパールパル諸島周辺で行われた1998年3月8日から10日のエアロゾル,雲,降水のデー タについて,他の観測デー タの参考になるので,より詳細に報告し,エアロゾル濃度の変動の原因について考察した.Aerosol observations were carried out at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard. Arctic from December 15, 1997 to March 11, 1998. Variation of aerosol particle number in the period measured by the optical particle counter is reported in this paper. Three observational flights around Svalbard were carried out between March 8 and 10,1998. The flights were part of the Arctic Airborne Measurement Program 1998 (AAMP 98). Detailed data in the above period are also reported for supporting discussions with flight observation data.
  • 下羽 利明, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 10 209 -214 2002年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    VOCs and aerosols sampling was conducted at Barrow, Alaska, USA from July, 1999 to July, 2001, to obtain their seasonal variation.Heavy metals, EC and sulfate concentration showed minimum in summer and autumn, and maximum in winter and spring, which is the character of Arctic Haze.Some VOCs (Xylene etc.) also showed the same seasonal variation, which suggest that VOCs are the component of Arctic Haze.<BR>To verify a difference in transport pathways between in winter and in summer, 5day backward trajectories were constructed. In winter and spring, some trajectories indicated long-range transport from emission sources in Eurasia. It was thus considered that long-range transport from emission sources in Eurasia was one of the causes of Arctic Haze at Barrow.
  • 伊藤 晃佳, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 10 215 -220 2002年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    In this study stratospheric sulfate production from carbonyl sulfide (COS) oxidation is calculated with a steady-state photochemical model including the currently available photochemical parameters. As a result, the sulfate production in the stratosphere is estimated to be 2 to 5 times larger than that obtained from previous studies by other authors. Additionaly, the production is evaluated by 40 to more than 100% with regard to estimates of sulfate required to sustain the stratospheric background aerosol layer. Based on these results, contribution of COS to the stratospheric sulfate production can not be ignored. In the view of seasonal and latitudinal trend, sulfate production in the stratosphere is shown to be dominant in summer and tropics.
  • 佐々木 聰, 播磨屋 敏生, 藤吉 康志, 山形 定, 山田 正, 福山 力, 泉 克幸 大会講演予講集 80 51 -51 2001年10月10日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 池谷 有理, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (42) 298 -298 2001年10月06日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 小野塚 綾, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (42) 352 -352 2001年10月06日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 長谷川 就一, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (42) 377 -377 2001年10月06日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 加藤 亮, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (42) 380 -380 2001年10月06日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 藤谷 雄二, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 遠藤 辰雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (42) 383 -383 2001年10月06日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 山崎 高, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (42) 388 -388 2001年10月06日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 村井 公寿, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (42) 393 -393 2001年10月06日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 三浦 二郎, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 西尾 文彦 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (42) 499 -499 2001年10月06日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 藤吉 康志, 青木 一真, 久保田 圭, 播磨屋 敏生, 山形 定, 山田 正, 内山 政弘, 泉 克幸 大会講演予講集 79 78 -78 2001年05月08日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 原 圭一郎, 岩坂 泰信, 山内 恭, 塩原 匡貴, 佐藤 薫, 山形 定, HERBER Andreas, 長谷 正博, 中田 滉 大会講演予講集 79 252 -252 2001年05月08日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 長谷川 就一, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 9 175 -180 2001年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Aerosol optical thickness on the East China Sea was evaluated by using radiances observed by Terra-MODIS. We measured optical and chemical properties of aerosols such as scattering and absorption coefficient, chemical composition, and optical thickness in Fukue Island, Nagasaki Prefecture. The optical thickness was calculated from the single scattering albedo, phase function, and reflectance of sea surface based on the measurement synchronized with Terra-MODIS. The evaluated optical thickness at the wavelength of 1μ m agreed well with that observed in Fukuoka. The optical thickness on the coastal sea of Korea Peninsula was larger than that on off the shore. This suggested that it is also important to determine the surface reflectance on the coastal sea that eutrophication or flowage of sand from rivers may occur.
  • 藤谷 雄二, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 遠藤 辰雄 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 9 181 -186 2001年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    It is necessary to assess the spatial distribution and variation of optical properties and chemical species of atmospheric aerosols to estimate the direct effect on climate. In the western Pacific Ocean, where the pollutants are transported from the East Asia, there are little aerosol measurements available to estimate the climate effect. In this study the aerosol optical and chemical properties were measured in June-July 2000 in the western Pacific Ocean on board the research vessel Mirai. In the southern area of 30° N, it was found that the area was under marine background condition due to less concentration of anthropogenic elements of aerosols such as V, Ni and Pb than those in the area north of 30° N. In south of 30° N, absorption coefficient (σ<SUB>ap</SUB>) were extremely low as those less than 2× 10<SUP>-7</SUP>m<SUP>-1</SUP>, and scattering coefficients (σ<SUB>ap</SUB>) ranged from 80× 10<SUP>-7</SUP>m<SUP>-1</SUP> to 212× 10<SUP>-7</SUP>m<SUP>-1</SUP>. The single scattering albedo (ω), then, ranged from 0.97 to 0.99, which shows the aerosols were highly transparent in summer in the western Pacific Ocean.
  • 竹内 和之, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 9 187 -192 2001年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), trace metals (vanadium, lead, etc), sulfate and elemental carbon (EC) were measured at Barrow, Alaska, USA (71.32N, 156.60W) during July, 1999-December, 2000. The concentrations of nine VOCs (i. e. Xylene, Ethylbenzene, Stylene etc.), EC, sulfate and four trace metals (i.e. Ni, V, As and Pb) showed a similar seasonal variation with a broad maximum extending from winter to spring. Because EC, trace metals and sulfate are major component of "Arctic haze", good agreement of seasonal variations between these species and VOCs suggests that VOCs, together with EC, trace metals and sulfate, are transported over distances of several thousands of km from industrialized areas in mid-latitude.
  • Fukasawa Tatsuya, Ohta Sachio, Enomoto Kyoichi, Murao Naoto, Yamagata Sadamu, Shimizu Tatsuo, Makarov Vladimir N., Rastegaev Igor Polar meteorology and glaciology 14 92 -102 2000年11月 
    Air pollution, deposition and its accumulation in surface soil were investigated in Norilsk, Russia. Concentrations of SO_2 and NO_2 gas were measured in Norilsk by using passive samplers 29 July-4 August 1993 and 31 July-4 August 1995. SO_2 concentrations were more than 100ppb in downtown Norilsk; the highest value was 260ppb in 1995. On the other hand, NO_2 concentrations were rather lower than those in Sapporo, Japan. Aerosol chemical species were continuously measured from summer 1993 to summer 1995 at Norilsk Experimental Center in downtown Norilsk. Major components of aerosol chemical species were sulfate (0.9-16μgm^<-3>), organics (1.6-12μgm^<-3>) and elemental carbon (0.1-4.2μgm^<-3>). The ranges of heavy metal concentrations (ng m^<-3>) were Cu, 2-300; Pb, 0.5-83 and Ni, 1-48 with no significant seasonal variations, about ten times more than those in Sapporo. We also collected larch needles, mosses and soil samples to evaluate the deposition and accumulation of the air pollutants. The concentrations of heavy metal and sulfate in larch needles, mosses and surface soil samples decrease with distance from the center of Norilsk. Heavy metal concentrations in deep soil (20-30cm) were nearly equal to the global mean, whereas the concentrations in surface soil (5-10cm depth) were several times to hundreds times higher than those in deep soil (20-30cm depth). This suggests that the emitted pollutant has been deposited and accumulated in surface soil for 40 years, since the nickel-copper smelting companies started operations.
  • 山内 恭, 塩原 匡貴, 平沢 尚彦, 佐藤 薫, 和田 誠, 山形 定, 藤谷 雄二, 原 圭一郎, 柴田 隆, 西田 千春, 矢吹 正教, HERBER A 大会講演予講集 78 272 -272 2000年10月18日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 矢吹 正教, 塩原 匡貴, 山内 恭, 平沢 尚彦, 原 圭一郎, 藤谷 雄二, 山形 定, 西田 千春, 柴田 隆, 竹内 延夫, 久世 宏明 大会講演予講集 78 385 -385 2000年10月18日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 上田 厚志 千葉大学環境リモートセンシング研究センター年報 5 27 -27 2000年10月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 太田 幸雄, 林 正幸, 山形 定, 村尾 直人 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (41) 228 -228 2000年09月26日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 太田 幸雄, 加藤 亮, 長谷川 就一, 山形 定, 村尾 直人 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (41) 229 -229 2000年09月26日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 山形 定, 吉舗 大, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (41) 237 -237 2000年09月26日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 山形 定, 君島 智子, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (41) 317 -317 2000年09月26日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 藤谷 雄二, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山内 恭, 塩原 匡貴, 原 圭一郎, Herber Andreas 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (41) 375 -375 2000年09月26日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 津崎 昌東, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 8 289 -294 2000年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) measurement were made at Sapporo from July 1997 to September 1999 and at Mt. Teine (1000m altitude), a site near Sapporo urban area, from February to May 1999. Median concentrations of PAN for each month show seasonal variation. Maximum levels of about 0.3-0.4ppb were observed during winter months. On sunny days in summer PAN concentrations showed a distinct diurnal variation and local formation of PAN was apparent. Whereas, in winter PAN concentrations showed little diurnal variation and there was little difference between concentrations at Mt. Teine and surface concentrations in Sapporo, which indicate wintertime PAN in Sapporo were not formed by local photochemistry. Regional scale three-dimensional transport/chemistry simulations were performed for the period February 1999, The model results were compared to measured concentration and PAN levels were found to be influenced by continental outflow of air pollutants.
  • 秋元 慎介, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 8 301 -306 2000年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Chemical properties measurements of aerosols were made over a few years in Tiksi, Norilisk and Yakutsk, Siberia. Results at Tiksi indicate a strong seasonal variation, high concentration in late winter to early spring and low value in summer, and that the major component of aerosols is sulfate. These results suggest that Siberian Arctic have been also poluted by Arctic Haze as well as other Arctic region. Optical properties of Siberian Arctic Haze were calculated using scattering theory of Mie. And also upward radiative flux from the top of atmosphere was estimated based on the optical properties. Furthermore, possibility of application of infrared remote sensing to Arctic haze was discussed.
  • 上田 厚志, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 遠藤 辰雄 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 8 307 -311 2000年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Two research cruises were conducted in the western Pacific Ocean on board the R/V Mirai in winter and summer, 1999. Optical properties of atmospheric aerosols were observed, and the chemical components were analyzed. In winter cruise, in the region from 20° N to 32° N, scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient were as high as those observed in Sapporo. The concentrations of SO<SUB>4</SUB><SUP>2-</SUP>, NH<SUB>4</SUB><SUP>+</SUP> and elemental carbon (EC) were high, and Al was detected in the same region, which represents the existence of soil dust. Therefore, the aerosols in this region seem to be transported from land. In summer cruise, even in the region more than 1, 000km far from land, the aerosols had the chemical species derived from land. On the other hand, in other regions in the two cruises, scattering coefficient σ<SUB>sca</SUB> ranged from 10 to 20×10<SUP>-6</SUP> (m<SUP>-1</SUP>), and single scattering albedo ε was more than 0.98. These results suggest that the aerosols observed in the regions had much scattering properties, and little absorptive components such as EC.
  • 小林 拓, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 橘 治国, 山形 定 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 7 85 -90 1999年11月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第7回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成11年11月11日(木)-12日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 3 地球環境 . 3-3
  • 庄司 和弘, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 塩原 匡貴, 藤井 理行 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 7 96 -101 1999年11月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第7回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成11年11月11日(木)-12日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 3 地球環境 . P3-5
  • 上田 厚志, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 遠藤 辰雄 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 7 91 -95 1999年11月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第7回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成11年11月11日(木)-12日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 3 地球環境 . 3-4
  • 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 池内 和泉 千葉大学環境リモートセンシング研究センター年報 4 21 -21 1999年10月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 池内 和泉, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 金城 義勝, 村野 健太郎 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (40) 422 -422 1999年09月28日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 池谷 有理, 津崎 昌東, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (40) 431 -431 1999年09月28日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 泉 克幸, 内山 政弘, 福山 力, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (40) 493 -493 1999年09月28日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 加藤 秀樹, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定, 深沢 達矢 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (40) 533 -533 1999年09月28日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 太田 幸雄, 竹内 和之, 長谷川 就一, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (40) 550 -550 1999年09月28日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 上田 厚志, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (40) 586 -586 1999年09月28日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 榎本 恭一, 太田 幸雄, 深沢 達矢, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (40) 1999年09月28日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 泉 克幸, 内山 政弘, 福山 力, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 エアロゾル科学・技術研究討論会 = Symposium on Aerosol Science & Technology 16 133 -135 1999年07月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 佐々木 聰, 播磨屋 敏生, 藤吉 康志, 山形 定, 福山 力, 山田 正, 稲毛 正昭 大会講演予講集 75 B106 1999年04月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 伊藤 晃佳, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 環境工学研究論文集 36 81 -86 1999年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    A method for the field sampling of reduced sulfur compounds such as carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS<SUB>2</SUB>) was developed and applied to sewage treatment facility. This method has-100% trapping efficiency and more than 90% recovery and shows little loss for at least 24 hr storage for these sulfur compounds. Ambient concentrations of COS and CS<SUB>2</SUB> were measured at Sapporo from Oct. 1997 to Feb. 1999. During this periods COS and CS<SUB>2</SUB> concentrations were typically 528 ± 77pptv (parts per trillion by volume) and 46 ± 30pptv, respectively, andoccasional high COS concentrations up to 800pptv were observed, indicating the presence of COS source in urban area.The COS concentrations of exhaust from the sewage treatment facility were several times higher than ambient concentrations, while CS<SUB>2</SUB> values were larger than ambient by an order of magnitude. Estimated COS and CS<SUB>2</SUB> emissions based on this results, however, suggested that sewage treatment works were minor source of COS and CS<SUB>2</SUB>.
  • 津崎 昌東, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 7 207 -212 1999年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN), measurement were made during the winter 1999 at Mt. Teine (1000m altitude) in Sapporo. Median concentration during February was 0.21ppb. Higher concentration >1.0ppb were sometimes observed with southerly wind and higher ozone concentrations. There was little difference between PAN concentration at Mt. Teine and surface concentration in Sapporo, which indicate wintertime PAN in Sapporo was not formed by local photochemistry. Results from concurrent measurements of aldehydes and ozone also indicate that variation of PAN during winter in Sapporo was regional in nature. From the results, we conclude at least during winter surface PAN measurement in Sapporo is a good indicator of photochemical state and long-range transport of polluted air mass in East Asia.
  • 太田 幸雄, 榎本 恭一, 深沢 達矢, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 7 231 -236 1999年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Atmospheric concentrations of aerosol chemical species and SO2 have been measured at Tiksi, Yakutsk and Norilsk in Siberia from 1993. Concentrations of SO4<SUP>2-</SUP>, Pb, Cu, Ni and V at Tiksi increase in winter and spring, and decrease in summer. Soil, moss and larch leaf samples were collected at Norilsk and Yakutsk, and soil samples at Tiksi. Concentrations of SO4<SUP>2-</SUP>, Ni and Cu in the moss and larch leaf samples decreased with the distance from nickel and copper smelters in Norilsk. Moss and larch leaf, thus, can be used as bio-monitor of the air pollution. Concentrations of pollutants in the surface soil were higer than those in the soil 20-30cm below in Norilsk and Tiksi. It suggests that the long range transported atmospheric pollutants deposit on the surface and accumulate in the upper layer of permafrost in the Siberian Arctic.
  • 加藤 秀樹, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 深沢 達矢 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 6 194 -199 1998年11月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第6回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成10年11月5日(木)-6日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 5 測定・解析 . P5-10
  • 庄司 和弘, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 塩原 匡貴, 藤井 理行 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 6 286 -291 1998年11月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第6回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成10年11月5日(木)-6日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 7 調査事例 . P7-10
  • 津崎 昌東, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 257 -257 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 堀 雅裕, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 271 -271 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 財満 健彦, 黒田 武志, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 播磨屋 敏生, 藤吉 康志, 泉 克幸, 山田 正, 内山 政弘, 福山 力 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 272 -272 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 伊藤 晃佳, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 泉 克幸, 内山 政弘, 福山 力, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 323 -323 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 庄司 和弘, 山形 定, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 塩原 匡貴, 藤井 理行 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 359 -359 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 玉井 伸哉, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 深沢 達矢, 榎本 恭一 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 393 -393 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 長谷川 就一, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 加藤 秀樹, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定, 深沢 達矢 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 500 -500 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 上田 厚志, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 511 -511 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 秋元 慎介, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 堀 雅裕 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 512 -512 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 有田 実代, 山形 定, 堀 雅裕, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄 大気環境学会年会講演要旨集 (39) 516 -516 1998年09月24日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 内山 政弘, 福山 力, 泉 克幸, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 エアロゾル科学・技術研究討論会 = Symposium on Aerosol Science & Technology 15 186 -188 1998年08月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 泉 克幸, 内山 政弘, 福山 力, 山形 定, 太田 幸雄 エアロゾル科学・技術研究討論会 = Symposium on Aerosol Science & Technology 15 189 -191 1998年08月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 渡辺 征春, 岩坂 泰信, 柴田 隆, 長谷 正博, 中田 滉, 長田 和雄, 猪股 弥生, 足立 宏, 林 政彦, 土屋 政義, 塩原 匡貴, 山形 定, 大橋 敏次 エアロゾル科学・技術研究討論会 = Symposium on Aerosol Science & Technology 15 256 -258 1998年08月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 津崎 昌東, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 環境工学研究論文集 35 199 -204 1998年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    An automated measurement system is developed to monitor Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN). This systemis made of an automatic valve device and a gas chromatograph with a <SUP>63</SUP>Ni electron capture detector. A 5ml airsample is directly introduced in the gas chromatograph without any focusing process. Continuous measurements of PAN concentration were made in Sapporo from July 1997 to April 1998. Medianconcentration of PAN for each month show seasonal variation with a maximum of 0.37ppb in spring. Thisvariation resembles background PAN variation measured in England. However on warm sunny days in summer, PAN showed a distinct diurnal variation and local formation of PAN was apparent. Whereas, in spring andwinter, PAN concentration showed little diurnal variation. Moreover monthly maximum concentration in springwas as high as that in summer. During winter and spring, it is so cold in Sapporo that PAN production in theurban atmosphere is rather limited. Thus variation of PAN concentration during winter and spring is affectedby large scale air pollution.
  • 堀 雅裕, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 6 103 -108 1998年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    To estimate indirect radiative forcing of water soluble aerosols, we measured critical supersaturations of dicarboxylic acid aerosols which are major components of water soluble organic aerosols in laboratory experiments, and then calculated albedo of marine stratiform cloud and downward net flux at tropopause within stratiform cloud area under clean and polluted (concentrations of water soluble aerosols enhanced) conditions. Experimental results indicated that critical supersaturations of oxalate, malic acid and phtharic acid were found to be comparable to that of sulfate aerosol which is easily activated to cloud droplets at naturally occuring supersaturations in the atmosphere, in contrast to high critical supersaturation of adipic acid. Caluculations indicated that at polluted condition cloud-top albedo was enhanced and downward net flux at tropopause decreased by 40-60W/m<SUP>2</SUP> from clean condition. Although these estimates are confined within polluted and stratus cloud aera, the indirect forcing is so high compared with global averaged radiative forcing (+2.5W/m<SUP>2</SUP>) of greenhouse gases, that it is possible that the forcing offsets the greenhouse effect to a large extent.
  • 長谷川 就一, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 6 109 -114 1998年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Mixing condition and size distribution of atmospheric aerosols were investigated for determination of suitable optical aerosol model. If the geometric number mean radius and the standard deviation were 0.055-0.079μm and 1.97-2.29 in internal mixing condition respectively, calculated values of the ratio of diffuse solar radiation to direct solar radiation correlated well with those observed. Whereas the geometric number mean radius of 0.035 μm and standard deviation of 2.10, which have been recommended, gave less correlation. The difference of calculated single scattering albedo between external and internal mixture was 0.03, which has the possibility of the difference of 0.15°C of the global mean surface temperature.
  • 伊藤 晃佳, 村尾 直人, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定 地球環境シンポジウム講演論文集 6 115 -119 1998年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    A simple method for the field sampling of reduced sulfur compounds was developed and evaluated. This method has-100% trapping efficiency and more than 90% of recovery and shows little loss for 24hr storage for both carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS<SUB>2</SUB>). Using this method, ambient concentrations of COS and CS<SUB>2</SUB> and emissions from sewage treatment plant and municiple landfill sanitary sites (M. L. S) were measured.The result shows that (1) COS and CS<SUB>2</SUB> concentrations were typically 515±87ppty (parts per trillion by volume) and 44±16pptv, respectively and showed little diurnal variation. However Increase of COS level sometimes occured, indicating emission of COS from urban area.(2) Exhaust from sewage treatment plant and M. L. S. contained more COS and CS<SUB>2</SUB> than ambient concentrations. From this, annual emissions of COS and CS<SUB>2</SUB> were estimated.
  • FUKASAWA Tatsuya, OHTA Sachio, MURAO Naoto, YAMAGATA Sadamu, MAKAROV Vladimir N. Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Polar Meteorology and Glaciology 11 150 -160 1997年11月 
    Atmospheric concentrations of total particulate mass (TPM) and aerosol chemical species were measured at three sites in the Siberian Arctic; Tiksi, Norilsk and Yakutsk. Continuous samplings of aerosols were carried out from August 1993 in Norilsk and Yakutsk, and from August 1994 in Tiksi. Tiksi is located on the coast of the Laptev Sea connecting to the Arctic Ocean. Norilsk is located at the base of the Taimyr Peninsula, which is the largest single sulfur dioxide emission source in the world. Yakutsk is situated on the middle reaches of the Lena river. Measured concentrations of the main aerosol chemical species at Tiksi ranged from 0.06-0.3μ(gm)^<-3> for elemental carbon, 0.55-1.5μ(gm)^<-3> for organic carbon and 0.09-1.6μ(gm)^<-3> for SO_4^<2->. The measured sulfate and elemental carbon concentrations showed remarkable seasonal variations with winter maxima and summer minima. The seasonal variations were consistent with other studies of Arctic haze in the Alaskan, Canadian and Norwegian Arctic. There were no significant seasonal variations of pollutant concentrations at Norilsk and Yakutsk. The TPM ranged from 6 to 30μ(gm)^<-3> at Norilsk and from 7 to 39μ(gm)^<-3> at Yakutsk. Major aerosol composition was sulfate at Norilsk, and carbonaceous particles at Yakutsk. We also performed trajectory analyses of air parcels to estimate the potential source regions which caused elevation of pollutant concentrations in winter at Tiksi. We calculated 10-day backward trajectories at Tiksi and forward trajectories at Norilsk in 1994. According to the calculations, the pollutants which arrived at Tiksi were frequently transported from Norilsk, the Urals and other source areas in winter. Further, it was suggested that Norilsk was one of the source areas for Arctic haze.
  • 長谷川 就一, 深沢 達矢, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 5 95 -100 1997年11月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第5回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成9年11月6日(木)-7日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 2 評価・モデル . P2-9
  • 堀 雅裕, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大会講演予講集 72 P104 1997年10月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 内山 政弘, 福山 力, 竹内 延夫, 山形 定, 大田 幸雄, 播磨屋 敏生, 佐々木 聡, 田野中 武志, 小島 勝彦, 山田 正, 稲毛 正昭 エアロゾル科学・技術研究討論会 = Symposium on Aerosol Science & Technology 14 33 -35 1997年08月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 山形 定, 西尾 明子, 太田 幸雄, 原 宏 大気環境学会誌 = Journal of Japan Society for Atmospheric Environment 32 (1) 68 -72 1997年01月10日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    土壌の存在が, 水溶液中での4価の硫黄の光酸化反応に与える影響を, 7種類の土壌を用いて検討した。土壌3mgを1mmoll-1の亜硫酸水素ナトリウム水溶液20mlに分散させた時, すべての土壌は光照射しなくとも4価の硫黄の酸化を促進し, その速度は0.3-1.5×10-5moll-1min-1であった。光照射すると酸化速度は0.5~2.3×10-5moll-1min-1になった。反応促進と土壌の組成の間に明瞭な関連は見出されなかった。4価の硫黄の酸化反応が進行するとともに土壌粒子から鉄の溶出が見られた。
  • 山形 定, 西尾 明子, 太田 幸雄, 原 宏 大気環境学会誌 32 (1) 68 -72 1997年01月10日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    土壌の存在が, 水溶液中での4価の硫黄の光酸化反応に与える影響を, 7種類の土壌を用いて検討した。土壌3mgを1mmoll^<-1>の亜硫酸水素ナトリウム水溶液20mlに分散させた時, すべての土壌は光照射しなくとも4価の硫黄の酸化を促進し, その速度は0.3〜1.5×10^&lg;-5> mon-ll^&lg;-1> min^&lg;-1>であった。光照射すると酸化速度は0.5〜2.3×10^&lg;-5> mon-ll^&lg;-1> min^&lg;-1>になった。反応促進と土壌の組成の間に明瞭な関連は見出されなかった。4価の硫黄の酸化反応が進行するとともに土壌粒子から鉄の溶出が見られた。
  • 山形 定, 西尾 明子, 太田 幸雄, 原 宏 大気環境学会誌 32 (1) 68 -72 1997年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    土壌の存在が, 水溶液中での4価の硫黄の光酸化反応に与える影響を, 7種類の土壌を用いて検討した。土壌3mgを1mmoll<SUP>-1</SUP>の亜硫酸水素ナトリウム水溶液20m<I>l</I>に分散させた時, すべての土壌は光照射しなくとも4価の硫黄の酸化を促進し, その速度は0.3-1.5×10<SUP>-5</SUP>moll<SUP>-1</SUP>min<SUP>-1</SUP>であった。光照射すると酸化速度は0.5~2.3×10<SUP>-5</SUP>moll<SUP>-1</SUP>min<SUP>-1</SUP>になった。反応促進と土壌の組成の間に明瞭な関連は見出されなかった。4価の硫黄の酸化反応が進行するとともに土壌粒子から鉄の溶出が見られた。
  • 小林 拓, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 橘 治国, 山形 定 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 4 219 -224 1996年11月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第4回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成8年11月7日(木)-8日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 5 測定 . P5-8
  • OHTA Sachio, HORI Masahiro, MURAO Naoto, YAMAGATA Sadamu, GAST Karl Journal of global environment engineering 2 67 -78 1996年03月01日
  • 小林 拓, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 橘 治国, 山形 定 環境工学研究論文集 33 85 -93 1996年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    For satellite remote sensing of red tides, a radiative transfer model for a coupled atmosphere-ocean system was developed to estimate upward flux of radiation from the polluted sea surface.Size distribution and the complex index of refraction of two kinds of red tide algae (<I>Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo</I>) were measured in batch cultures. The equation of radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system was solved by using Delta-P3 approximation method.Upward flux of radiation from the polluted sea surface which contained only the red tide algae decreased with the inclease of algae concentration.Whereas, in case of the sea which contained detritus in addition to the red tide algae, the upward flux had a peak at the wavelength of yellow region.It is, thus, important to determine the concentration and optical properties of detritus for the red tide remote sensing.Ratio of the upward flux at the wavelength of 410nm to one at 560nm decreased with the algae concentration.It is, then, possible to determine the red tide algae concentration by using the ratio of upward flux in satellite remote sensing.
  • 山形 定, 荻原 研二, 住吉 力, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山田 正, 藤吉 康志, 播磨屋 敏生, 福山 力, 内山 政弘, 稲毛 正昭 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 3 208 -213 1995年11月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第3回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成7年11月9日(木)-10日(金) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . 4 都市・水・室内等の環境 . P4-7
  • 深澤 達矢, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 大会講演予講集 68 219 -219 1995年10月16日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 深沢 達矢, 住吉 力, 荒生 公雄 環境工学研究論文集 32 231 -239 1995年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Atmospheric turbidity coefficients were calculated at five sites (Nemuro, Sapporo, Shionomisaki, Tosa-Shimizu and Ishigaki) in Japanese area from 1980 through 1992. The turbidity coefficients ranged 0.03-0.30 at Nemuro, 0.05-0.40 at Sapporo, 0.05-0.45 at Shionomisaki, 0.03-0.40 at Tosa-Shimizu and 0.03-0.40 at Ishigaki. They decreased in autumn and winter, and increased in spring. Variations of the turbidity coefficients had tendency of increase from 1957 through 1992 due to increase of human activities. In 1982-1984 and after 1992, the turbidity coefficients had the maximum due to large volcanic eruptions of Mt. El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo, respectively.
  • 村尾 直人, 中山 里美, 太田 幸雄, 山形 定, 溝口 勲 環境工学研究論文集 31 241 -250 1994年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    In order to construct useful transport-chemistry model for large-scale variations of tropospheric trace species, accurate and low computational cost submodel for reaction is needed. Based on sensitivity analysis, Dunker developed a simple method for parameterization of atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated the possibility of applying the method to the equations of tropospheric photochemistry. Since the method was developed for urban air chemistry, some modifications were made. One-dimensional tropospheric model was used to test its accuracy and computational speed. The results indicated little loss of accuracy compared to detailed model simulations of chemistry with high time resolution. In addition, the computation time was reduced by about 2-order of magnitude.
  • 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定, 林 健太郎, 石原 博成 環境工学研究論文集 31 251 -262 1994年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Albedo effect of anthropogenic Arctic aerosols on climate was estimated through planetary albedo calculation and surface temperature evaluation with two-layer zonal energy balance climate model. Six types of global aerosol models were assumed in the atmospheric boundary layer: Arctic aerosols, subarctic aerosols, continental aerosols, maritime aerosols in Northern Hemisphere, maritime aerosols in Southern Hemisphere and Antarctic aerosols. Optical properties of each type of aerosols were calculated based on chemical characterization. Internal mixing aerosols seriously affect on climate in Arctic Circle. Doubling anthropogenic Arctic aerosols causes 0.3°C increase of surface temperature, whereas the disappearance causes 0.15°C decrease of surface temperature in Arctic Circle.
  • 溝口 勲, 太田 幸雄, 村尾 直人, 山形 定 衛生工学シンポジウム論文集 1 385 -389 1993年11月01日 [査読無し][通常論文]
    第1回衛生工学シンポジウム(平成5年11月17日(水)-18日(木) 北海道大学学術交流会館) . パネルディスカッション . 環境をはかる



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