研究者データベース

磯田 典和(イソダ ノリカズ)
獣医学研究院 獣医学部門 病原制御学分野
准教授

基本情報

所属

  • 獣医学研究院 獣医学部門 病原制御学分野

職名

  • 准教授

学位

  • 博士(獣医学)(北海道大学)

科研費研究者番号

  • 80615732

J-Global ID

研究分野

  • ライフサイエンス / 獣医学

研究活動情報

論文

  • Taksoo Kim, Loc Tan Huynh, Shizuka Hirose, Manabu Igarashi, Takahiro Hiono, Norikazu Isoda, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Viruses 13 8 2021年08月23日 
    The GPE- strain is a live attenuated vaccine for classical swine fever (CSF) developed in Japan. In the context of increasing attention for the differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) concept, the achievement of CSF eradication with the GPE- proposes it as a preferable backbone for a recombinant CSF marker vaccine. While its infectious cDNA clone, vGPE-, is well characterized, 10 amino acid substitutions were recognized in the genome, compared to the original GPE- vaccine seed. To clarify the GPE- seed availability, this study aimed to generate and characterize a clone possessing the identical amino acid sequence to the GPE- seed. The attempt resulted in the loss of the infectious GPE- seed clone production due to the impaired replication by an amino acid substitution in the viral polymerase NS5B. Accordingly, replication-competent GPE- seed variant clones were produced. Although they were mostly restricted to propagate in the tonsils of pigs, similarly to vGPE-, their type I interferon-inducing capacity was significantly lower than that of vGPE-. Taken together, vGPE- mainly retains ideal properties for the CSF vaccine, compared with the seed variants, and is probably useful in the development of a CSF marker vaccine.
  • Kaknokrat Chonsin, Ruchirada Changkwanyeun, Achiraya Siriphap, Apiradee Intarapuk, Watsawan Prapasawat, Kanjana Changkaew, Chaiwat Pulsrikan, Norikazu Isoda, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Orasa Suthienkul
    Journal of food protection 2021年08月19日 
    Salmonella causes foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide and raises considerable concerns about public health and economic losses. To determine prevalence, serovar, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, the present cross-sectional study collected a total of 418 fecal, carcass (three slaughterhouses), pork and cutting board (four markets) samples from a province in central Thailand in 2017 and 2018. Results showed that 65.1% (272/418) of samples were positive for Salmonella. The percentage of Salmonella positive samples from markets (88.8%; 158/178) was significantly higher than those from slaughterhouses (47.5%; 114/240) ( P<0.05 ). In total, 1,030 isolates were identified; of these, 409 were assigned to 45 serovars with S. Rissen (20%; 82/409) being the most common. New serovars of Thai isolates, S. Cannstatt and S. Braubach, were identified in market and slaughterhouse samples, respectively. AMR of Salmonella isolates showed that 73.9% (133/180) of 19 different serovars exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR). Screening for ESBL production showed that 10.3% (41/399) of isolates were ESBL positive. ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates in market samples (75.6%; 31/41) were significantly higher than those in slaughterhouse samples (24.4%; 10/41) ( P<0.05 ). In market samples, 77.4% (24/31) were isolated from pork and 22.6% (7/31) from cutting boards. Nine ESBL-producing isolates carried single type ESBL genes bla TEM (9.8%; 4/41) or bla CTX-M (12.2%; 5/41), while 11 (26.8%) carried both bla TEM and bla CTX-M . No ESBL-producing Salmonella isolate carried the gene bla SHV . Results suggest that pigs, their flesh, and cutting boards could be reservoirs for widespread MDR, ESBL-producing Salmonella outbreak across the food chain.
  • Shizuka Hirose, Kosuke Notsu, Satoshi Ito, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Norikazu Isoda
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 10 8 2021年07月21日 
    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) caused by BVD virus (BVDV) leads to economic loss worldwide. Cattle that are persistently infected (PI) with BVDV are known to play an important role in viral transmission in association with the animal movement, as they shed the virus during their lifetime. In this research, the "hot spot" for BVD transmission was estimated by combining phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses for PI cattle and cattle that lived together on BVDV affected farms in Tokachi district, Hokkaido prefecture, Japan. Viral isolates were genetically categorized into BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a, based on the nucleotide sequence of the entire E2 region. In BVDV genotype 1, subgenotype b (BVDV-1b), cluster I was identified as the majority in Tokachi district. Network analysis indicated that 12 of the 15 affected farms had cattle movements from other facilities (PI-network) and farms affected with BVDV-1b cluster I consisted of a large network. It was implied that the number of cattle movements themselves would be a risk of BVD transmission, using the PageRank algorithm. Therefore, these results demonstrate that cattle movements would contribute to disease spread and the combination of virological and epidemiological analysis methods would be beneficial in determining possible virus transmission routes.
  • Chiho Kaneko, Michihito Sasaki, Ryosuke Omori, Ryo Nakao, Chikako Kataoka-Nakamura, Ladslav Moonga, Joseph Ndebe, Walter Muleya, Edgar Simulundu, Bernard M Hang'ombe, George Dautu, Masahiro Kajihara, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Yongjin Qiu, Naoto Ito, Herman M Chambaro, Chihiro Sugimoto, Hideaki Higashi, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa, Aaron S Mweene, Norikazu Isoda
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 10 6 2021年06月11日 
    Rabies remains endemic in Zambia. Despite conducting canine vaccinations in Lusaka district, the vaccination coverage and actual seropositivity in the dog population in Lusaka district are rarely evaluated. This study estimated the seropositivity-based immunization coverage in the owned dog population in Lusaka district using the expanded program on immunization cluster survey method. The time-series trend of neutralizing antibodies against rabies in vaccinated dogs was also evaluated. Of 366 dogs in 200 dog-owning households in Lusaka district, blood samples were collected successfully from 251 dogs. In the sampled dogs, 42.2% (106/251) had an antibody titer ≥0.5 IU/mL. When the 115 dogs whose blood was not collected were assumed to be seronegative, the minimum immunization coverage in Lusaka district's owned dog population was estimated at 29.0% (95% confidence interval: 22.4-35.5). It was also found that a single vaccination with certified vaccines is capable of inducing protective levels of antibodies. In contrast, higher antibody titers were observed in multiple-vaccinated dogs than in single-vaccinated dogs, coupled with the observation of a decline in antibody titer over time. These results suggest the importance of continuous booster immunization to maintain herd immunity and provide useful information to plan mass vaccination against rabies in Zambia.
  • Chiho Kaneko, Ryosuke Omori, Michihito Sasaki, Chikako Kataoka-Nakamura, Edgar Simulundu, Walter Muleya, Ladslav Moonga, Joseph Ndebe, Bernard M Hang'ombe, George Dautu, Yongjin Qiu, Ryo Nakao, Masahiro Kajihara, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Herman M Chambaro, Hideaki Higashi, Chihiro Sugimoto, Hirofumi Sawa, Aaron S Mweene, Ayato Takada, Norikazu Isoda
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases 15 4 e0009222  2021年04月 
    BACKGROUND: An estimated 75% or more of the human rabies cases in Africa occur in rural settings, which underscores the importance of rabies control in these areas. Understanding dog demographics can help design strategies for rabies control and plan and conduct canine mass vaccination campaigns effectively in African countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate domestic dog demographics in Kalambabakali, in the rural Mazabuka District of Zambia. The population of ownerless dogs and the total achievable vaccination coverage among the total dog population was estimated using the capture-recapture-based Bayesian model by conducting a canine mass vaccination campaign. This study revealed that 29% of the domestic dog population was under one year old, and 57.7% of those were under three months old and thus were not eligible for the canine rabies vaccination in Zambia. The population growth was estimated at 15% per annum based on the cross-sectional household survey. The population of ownerless dogs was estimated to be small, with an ownerless-to-owned-dog ratio of 0.01-0.06 in the target zones. The achieved overall vaccination coverage from the first mass vaccination was estimated 19.8-51.6%. This low coverage was principally attributed to the owners' lack of information, unavailability, and dog-handling difficulties. The follow-up mass vaccination campaign achieved an overall coverage of 54.8-76.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This paper indicates the potential for controlling canine rabies through mass vaccination in rural Zambia. Rabies education and responsible dog ownership are required to achieve high and sustainable vaccination coverage. Our findings also propose including puppies below three months old in the target population for rabies vaccination and emphasize that securing an annual enforcement of canine mass vaccination that reaches 70% coverage in the dog population is necessary to maintain protective herd immunity.
  • Enkhbold Bazarragchaa, Norikazu Isoda, Taksoo Kim, Madoka Tetsuo, Satoshi Ito, Keita Matsuno, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Viruses 13 2 2021年02月20日 
    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in the wild boar population has been spreading in Japan, alongside outbreaks on pigs, since classical swine fever (CSF) reemerged in September 2018. The vaccination using oral bait vaccine was initially implemented in Gifu prefecture in March 2019. In the present study, antibodies against CSFV in wild boar were assessed in 1443 captured and dead wild boars in Gifu prefecture. After the implementation of oral vaccination, the increase of the proportion of seropositive animals and their titer in wild boars were confirmed. Quantitative analysis of antigen and antibodies against CSFV in wild boar implies potential disease diversity in the wild boar population. Animals with status in high virus replication (Ct < 30) and non- or low-immune response were confirmed and were sustained at a certain level after initial oral vaccination. Through continuous vaccination periods, the increase of seroprevalence among wild boar and the decrease of CSFV-positive animals were observed. The epidemiological analysis based on the quantitative virological outcomes could provide more information on the efficacy of oral vaccination and dynamics of CSF in the wild boar population, which will help to improve the implementation of control measures for CSF in countries such as Japan and neighboring countries.
  • Augustin T Twabela, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Justin Masumu, Patrick Mpoyo, Serge Mpiana, Julienne Sumbu, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Keita Matsuno, Norikazu Isoda, Bianca Zecchin, Isabella Monne, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Viruses 13 2 2021年01月20日 
    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly transmissible and devastating disease that affects poultry and wild birds worldwide. Comprehensive knowledge regarding the characteristics and epidemiological factors of the ND virus (NDV) is critical for the control and prevention of ND. Effective vaccinations can prevent and control the spread of the NDV in poultry populations. For decades, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has reported the impacts of ND on commercial and traditional poultry farming systems. The reports were preliminary clinical observations, and few cases were confirmed in the laboratory. However, data on the phylogenetic, genetic, and virological characteristics of NDVs circulating in the DRC are not available. In this study, the whole-genome sequences of three NDV isolates obtained using the next-generation sequencing method revealed two isolates that were a new variant of NDV, and one isolate that was clustered in the subgenotype VII.2. All DRC isolates were velogenic and were antigenically closely related to the vaccine strains. Our findings reveal that despite the circulation of the new variant, ND can be controlled in the DRC using the current vaccine. However, epidemiological studies should be conducted to elucidate the endemicity of the disease so that better control strategies can be implemented.
  • Hirotaka Hayashi, Norikazu Isoda, Enkhbold Bazarragchaa, Naoki Nomura, Keita Matsuno, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Vaccines 8 4 2020年12月16日 
    H4 influenza viruses have been isolated from birds across the world. In recent years, an H4 influenza virus infection has been confirmed in pigs. Pigs play an important role in the transmission of influenza viruses to human hosts. Therefore, it is important to develop a new vaccine in the case of an H4 influenza virus infection in humans, considering that this virus has a different antigenicity from seasonal human influenza viruses. In this study, after selecting vaccine candidate strains based on their antigenic relation to one of the pig isolates, A/swine/Missouri/A01727926/2015 (H4N6) (MO/15), an inactivated whole-particle vaccine was prepared from A/swan/Hokkaido/481102/2017 (H4N6). This vaccine showed high immunogenicity in mice, and the antibody induced by the vaccine showed high cross-reactivity to the MO/15 virus. This vaccine induced sufficient neutralizing antibodies and mitigated the effects of an MO/15 infection in a mouse model. This study is the first to suggest that an inactivated whole-particle vaccine prepared from an influenza virus isolated from wild birds is an effective countermeasure in case of a future influenza pandemic caused by the H4 influenza virus.
  • Norikazu Isoda, Augustin T Twabela, Enkhbold Bazarragchaa, Kohei Ogasawara, Hirotaka Hayashi, Zu-Jyun Wang, Daiki Kobayashi, Yukiko Watanabe, Keisuke Saito, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Viruses 12 12 2020年12月14日 
    Global dispersion of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), especially that caused by H5 clade 2.3.4.4, has threatened poultry industries and, potentially, human health. An HPAI virus, A/northern pintail/Hokkaido/M13/2020 (H5N8) (NP/Hok/20) belonging to clade 2.3.4.4b, was isolated from a fecal sample collected at a lake in Hokkaido, Japan where migratory birds rested, October 2020. In the phylogenetic trees of all eight gene segments, NP/Hok/20 fell into in the cluster of European isolates in 2020, but was distinct from the isolates in eastern Asia and Europe during the winter season of 2017-2018. The antigenic cartography indicates that the antigenicity of NP/Hok/20 was almost the same as that of previous isolates of H5 clade 2.3.4.4b, whereas the antigenic distances from NP/Hok/20 to the representative strains in clade 2.3.4.4e and to a strain in 2.3.4 were apparently distant. These data imply that HPAI virus clade 2.3.4.4b should have been delivered by bird migration despite the intercontinental distance, although it was not defined whether NP/Hok/20 was transported from Europe via Siberia where migratory birds nest in the summer season. Given the probability of perpetuation of transmission in the northern territory, periodic updates of intensive surveys on avian influenza at the global level are essential to prepare for future outbreaks of the HPAI virus.
  • Augustin Twabela, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Keita Matsuno, Norikazu Isoda, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Viruses 12 12 2020年12月08日 
    Control measures in the case of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in poultry include culling, surveillance, and biosecurity; wild birds in captivity may also be culled, although some rare bird species should be rescued for conservation. In this study, two anti-influenza drugs, baloxavir marboxil (BXM) and peramivir (PR), used in humans, were examined in treating HPAI in birds, using chickens as a model. Chickens were infected with H5N6 HPAI virus and were treated immediately or 24 h from challenge with 20 mg/kg BXM or PR twice a day for five days. As per our findings, BXM significantly reduced virus replication in organs and provided full protection to chickens compared with that induced by PR. In the 24-h-delayed treatment, neither drug completely inhibited virus replication nor ensured the survival of infected chickens. A single administration of 2.5 mg/kg of BXM was determined as the minimum dose required to fully protect chickens from HPAI virus; the concentration of baloxavir acid, the active form of BXM, in chicken blood at this dose was sufficient for a 48 h antiviral effect post-administration. Thus, these data can be a starting point for the use of BXM and PR in treating captive wild birds infected with HPAI virus.
  • Dipti Shrestha, Bhagwan Maharjan, Nan Aye Thida Oo, Norikazu Isoda, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki
    Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 125 101985 - 101985 2020年12月 
    Mutation in rpsL (encoding ribosomal protein S12), rrs (encoding 16S ribosomal RNA) and gidB (encoding 7-methylguanosine methyltransferase) are associated with resistance to streptomycin (STR), which is used for the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Nepal. The aim of our study is to analyze the correlation between mutations in the target genes and STR-resistance in 197 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from Nepal. Mutations in rpsL was harbored by 65.9% of isolates, in which the most common mutation in rpsL is caused by K43R (58.8%) and were significantly associated with Beijing genotype (P < 0.001). About 13.2% of isolates harbored mutations in two highly mutable regions of rrs, the 530 loop and the 912 region. About 13.2% of gidB mutants do not show any mutation in rpsL and rrs, which might suggest the role of gidB mutations in STR-resistance in MTB. In addition, 5.6% of isolates do not show any mutations in three genes examined, suggesting the involvement of other mechanism in STR-resistance in MTB. Our findings can be implemented for the establishment of molecular STR-susceptibility testing, in which tuberculosis can be treated with appropriate drugs and can improve control strategies for DR-TB.
  • Hirotaka Hayashi, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Honami Ogasawara, Naoko Tsugawa, Norikazu Isoda, Keita Matsuno, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Nutrients 12 7 2020年07月05日 
    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is metabolized by the liver into 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and then by the kidney into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which activates the vitamin D receptor expressed in various cells, including immune cells, for an overall immunostimulatory effect. Here, to investigate whether oral supplementation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], a major form of vitamin D metabolite 25(OH)D, has a prophylactic effect on influenza A virus infection, mice were fed a diet containing a high dose of 25(OH)D3 and were challenged with the influenza virus. In the lungs of 25(OH)D3-fed mice, the viral titers were significantly lower than in the lungs of standardly fed mice. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-5 and IFN-γ were significantly downregulated after viral infection in 25(OH)D3-fed mice, while anti-inflammatory cytokines were not significantly upregulated. These results indicate that 25(OH)D3 suppresses the production of inflammatory cytokines and reduces virus replication and clinical manifestations of influenza virus infection in a mouse model.
  • Satoshi Ito, Jaime Bosch, Cristina Jurado, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Norikazu Isoda
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 9 4 2020年04月20日 
    In recent years, African swine fever (ASF) has become prevalent in many areas, including Asia. The repeated detection of the ASF virus (ASFV) genome in pork products brought in air passenger's luggage (PPAP) was also reported from Japanese airports. In the present study, the risk of ASFV exposure to susceptible hosts in Japan via three different pathways was assessed. Two quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were built to estimate the annual probability of ASFV exposure to domestic pigs, which could be attributed to foreign job trainees or foreign tourists. A semi-quantitative stochastic model was built to assess the risk of ASFV exposure to wild boar caused by foreign tourists. The overall mean annual probability of ASFV exposure to domestic pigs via PPAP carried by foreign job trainees was 0.169 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.000-0.600], whereas that by foreign tourists was 0.050 [95% CI: 0.000-0.214], corresponding to approximately one introduction every 5.9 and 20 years, respectively. The risk of ASFV exposure to domestic pigs was dispersed over the country, whereas that of wild boar was generally higher in the western part of Japan, indicating that the characteristics of the potential ASF risk in each prefecture were varied.
  • Satoshi Ito, Cristina Jurado, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Norikazu Isoda
    Transboundary and emerging diseases 67 2 894 - 905 2020年03月 
    The spread of African swine fever (ASF) has reached pandemic levels over the last decade, and outbreaks of this disease in China, Mongolia, Vietnam and Cambodia in 2018 and 2019 could accelerate its transmission to neighbouring Asian territories. Thus, the risk that the ASF virus (ASFV) will be introduced to disease-free territories increases each year. Since Japan is an island nation, the most likely way in which ASFV would be introduced is via pork products brought in air passengers' luggage (PPAP). Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the risk of ASFV introduction to Japan via PPAP. For the purposes of this analysis, we considered 214 international commercial flights travelling from 47 origin territories to 31 destination airports as potential routes of ASFV introduction via PPAP. The risk was estimated quantitatively through a stochastic model that considered the volume of air passengers' luggage, the amount of confiscated pork products that were carried in air passengers' luggage and the disease status of the origin territory. The overall mean annual probability of ASFV introduction to Japan via PPAP was found to be 0.941 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.661-1.000], which approximately corresponds to one introduction every 1.06 years. At the origin territory level, Mongolia was led as the highest risk territory, with a risk of 0.864 (95% CI, 0.434-1.000), followed by China (0.697; 0.223-0.999), Vietnam (0.662; 0.196-0.998) and the Russian Federation (0.136; 0.018-0.401). At the destination airport level, Narita International Airport had the highest risk (0.905; 0.537-1.000), followed by Kansai International Airport (0.496; 0.109-0.961), Tokyo International Airport (0.389; 0.072-0.879) and Chubu Centrair International Airport (0.338; 0.058-0.816). This information will help improve risk management activities and monitoring systems to prevent the introduction of ASFV to Japan.
  • Norikazu Isoda, Kairi Baba, Satoshi Ito, Mitsugi Ito, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Kohei Makita
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 9 2 2020年02月13日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The prolongation of the classic swine fever (CSF) outbreak in Japan in 2018 was highly associated with the persistence and widespread of the CSF virus (CSFV) in the wild boar population. To investigate the dynamics of the CSF outbreak in wild boar, spatiotemporal analyses were performed. The positive rate of CSFV in wild boar fluctuated dramatically from March to June 2019, but finally stabilized at approximately 10%. The Euclidean distance from the initial CSF notified farm to the farthest infected wild boar of the day constantly increased over time since the initial outbreak except in the cases reported from Gunma and Saitama prefectures. The two-month-period prevalence, estimated using integrated nested Laplace approximation, reached >80% in half of the infected areas in March-April 2019. The area affected continued to expand despite the period prevalence decreasing up to October 2019. A large difference in the shapes of standard deviational ellipses and in the location of their centroids when including or excluding cases in Gunma and Saitama prefectures indicates that infections there were unlikely to have been caused simply by wild boar activities, and anthropogenic factors were likely involved. The emergence of concurrent space-time clusters in these areas after July 2019 indicated that CSF outbreaks were scattered by this point in time. The results of this epidemiological analysis help explain the dynamics of the spread of CSF and will aid in the implementation of control measures, including bait vaccination.
  • Satoshi Ito, Cristina Jurado, Jaime Bosch, Mitsugi Ito, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Norikazu Isoda, And Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 8 4 2019年10月24日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Since September 2018, nearly 900 notifications of classical swine fever (CSF) have been reported in Gifu Prefecture (Japan) affecting domestic pig and wild boar by the end of August 2019. To determine the epidemiological characteristics of its spread, a spatio-temporal analysis was performed using actual field data on the current epidemic. The spatial study, based on standard deviational ellipses of official CSF notifications, showed that the disease likely spread to the northeast part of the prefecture. A maximum significant spatial association estimated between CSF notifications was 23 km by the multi-distance spatial cluster analysis. A space-time permutation analysis identified two significant clusters with an approximate radius of 12 and 20 km and 124 and 98 days of duration, respectively. When the area of the identified clusters was overlaid on a map of habitat quality, approximately 82% and 75% of CSF notifications, respectively, were found in areas with potential contact between pigs and wild boar. The obtained results provide information on the current CSF epidemic, which is mainly driven by wild boar cases with sporadic outbreaks on domestic pig farms. These findings will help implement control measures in Gifu Prefecture.
  • Agah MA, Notsu K, El-Khaiat HM, Arikawa G, Kubo M, Mitoma S, Okabayashi T, Mekata H, Elhanafy E, El Daous H, Mai TN, Nguyen TH, Isoda N, Sakoda Y, Norimine J, Sekiguchi S
    The Journal of veterinary medical science 81 10 1450 - 1454 2019年10月18日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) footprint has spread across the globe and is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. In Japan, some regional surveillance and preventive measures to control bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) have been implemented. However, BVDV infection is poorly understood in cattle industries, and there is no systematic BVD surveillance system and control program. Kyushu is the center for raising beef cattle in Japan. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the BVDV infection using a slaughterhouse survey among beef cattle in Kyushu, Japan. A total of 1,075 blood samples were collected at two regional slaughterhouses in Miyazaki prefecture from December 2015 to June 2016. Antigen ELISA was used for detection of BVDV antigen in blood samples. Two samples showed positive results (2/1,075; 0.18%). BVDV RNA was extracted from positive blood samples; the sequence was determined and analyzed by the neighbor-joining method for construction of the phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5'-UTR revealed that the two positive samples were grouped into the same subtype BVDV-1b in the BVDV-1 genotype, but the infected cattle belonged to two different farms. In conclusion, this is the first study to identify the presence of BVDV in a slaughterhouse survey in Kyushu. These findings suggest that a slaughterhouse survey is a useful tool for developing a surveillance system for monitoring infectious diseases in cattle.
  • Thu MJ, Qiu Y, Yamagishi J, Kusakisako K, Ogata S, Moustafa MAM, Isoda N, Sugimoto C, Katakura K, Nonaka N, Nakao R
    Microbiology resource announcements 8 37 2019年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    This is the first report of the complete genome sequence of Rickettsia asiatica strain Maytaro1284, isolated from an Ixodes ovatus tick in Japan. The genome contains a 1,344,324-bp circular chromosome and one plasmid of 74,761 bp. There was no outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene encoded in the genome.
  • Atsushi Kobayashi, Yasushi Iwasaki, Masaki Takao, Yuko Saito, Toru Iwaki, Zechen Qi, Ryouta Torimoto, Taishi Shimazaki, Yoshiko Munesue, Norikazu Isoda, Hirofumi Sawa, Keisuke Aoshima, Takashi Kimura, Hinako Kondo, Shirou Mohri, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto
    The American journal of pathology 189 6 1276 - 1283 2019年06月 
    Six subgroups of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified by distinctive clinicopathologic features, genotype at polymorphic codon 129 [methionine (M)/valine (V)] of the PRNP gene, and type of abnormal prion proteins (type 1 or 2). In addition to the pure subgroups, mixed neuropathologic features and the coexistence of two types of abnormal prion proteins in the same patient also have been reported. Here, we found that a portion of the patients previously diagnosed as MM1 had neuropathologic characteristics of the MM2 thalamic form (ie, neuronal loss of the inferior olivary nucleus of the medulla). Furthermore, coexistence of biochemical features of the MM2 thalamic form also was confirmed in the identified cases. In addition, in transmission experiments using prion protein-humanized mice, the brain material from the identified case showed weak infectivity and generated characteristic abnormal prion proteins in the inoculated mice resembling those after inoculation with brain material of MM2 thalamic form. Taken together, these results show that the co-occurrence of MM1 and MM2 thalamic form is a novel entity of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prion strain co-occurrence. The present study raises the possibility that the co-occurrence of the MM2 thalamic form might have been overlooked so far because of the scarcity of abnormal prion protein accumulation and restricted neuropathology.
  • Lam Thanh Nguyen, Mark A Stevenson, Simon M Firestone, Leslie D Sims, Duc Huy Chu, Long Van Nguyen, Tien Ngoc Nguyen, Kien Trung Le, Norikazu Isoda, Keita Matsuno, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Preventive veterinary medicine 178 104678 - 104678 2019年04月22日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The aim of this study was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of H5 HPAI outbreak reports for the period 2014-2017 and to identify factors associated with H5 HPAI outbreak reports. Throughout the study period, a total of 139 outbreaks of H5 HPAI in poultry were reported, due to either H5N1 (96 outbreaks) or H5N6 (43 outbreaks) subtype viruses. H5N1 HPAI outbreaks occurred in all areas of Vietnam while H5N6 HPAI outbreaks were only reported in the northern and central provinces. We counted the number of H5N1 and H5N6 outbreak report-positive districts per province over the four-year study period and calculated the provincial-level standardized morbidity ratio for H5N1 and H5N6 outbreak reports as the observed number of positive districts divided by the expected number. A mixed-effects, zero-inflated Poisson regression model was developed to identify risk factors for outbreak reports of each H5N1 and H5N6 subtype virus. Spatially correlated and uncorrelated random effects terms were included in this model to identify areas of the country where outbreak reports occurred after known risk factors had been accounted-for. The presence of an outbreak report in a province in the previous 6-12 months increased the provincial level H5N1 outbreak report risk by a factor of 2.42 (95% Bayesian credible interval [CrI] 1.27-4.60) while 1000 bird increases in the density of chickens decreased provincial level H5N6 outbreak report risk by a factor of 0.65 (95% CrI 0.38 to 0.97). We document distinctly different patterns in the spatial and temporal distribution of H5N1 and H5N6 outbreak reports. Most of the variation in H5N1 report risk was accounted-for by the fixed effects included in the zero-inflated Poisson model. In contrast, the amount of unaccounted-for risk in the H5N6 model was substantially greater than the H5N1 model. For H5N6 we recommend that targeted investigations should be carried out in provinces with relatively large spatially correlated random effect terms to identify likely determinants of disease. Similarly, investigations should be carried out in provinces with relatively low spatially correlated random effect terms to identify protective factors for disease and/or reasons for failure to report.
  • Isoda N, Asano A, Ichijo M, Ohno H, Sato K, Okamoto H, Nakao S, Kato H, Saito K, Ito N, Usui A, Takayama H, Sakoda Y
    The Journal of veterinary medical science 81 4 577 - 585 2019年04月16日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with BVD virus (BVDV) and can result in economic losses within the livestock industry. In Japan, the test and culling policy is a basic control measure, and implementation of an adequate vaccination program is recommended as a national policy. In addition, optional control measures, including compulsory testing of introduced animals and bulk tank milk (BTM) testing as a mass screening method, are used in several provinces, but their efficacy has not been completely assessed. We evaluated these control measures using the scenario tree model of BVD in Japan, developed in the previous study. The model outputs indicated that compulsory testing of all introduced cattle, rather than only heifers and/or non-vaccinated cattle, was cost effective and reduced the risk of BVDV introduction due to animal movement and that BTM testing could effectively monitor most part of the cattle population. Vaccination coverage and BVDV prevalence among introduced cattle could also affect the cost effectiveness of compulsory testing of targeted cattle, particularly under low vaccination coverage or high BVDV prevalence. However, even with the implementation of a highly effective monitoring scheme for many years, BVD risk could not be eliminated; it instead converged at a very low level (0.02%). Disease models with a cost-effective output could be a powerful tool in developing a control scheme for chronic animal diseases, including BVD, with the consent of relevant stakeholders.
  • Yogendra Shah, Ajay Poudel, Bhagwan Maharjan, Jeewan Thapa, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Hassan Mahmoud Diab, Basu Dev Pandey, Eddie Solo, Norikazu Isoda, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Chie Nakajima
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 113 4 203 - 211 2019年04月01日 
    BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat for successful tuberculosis control worldwide. Central Asian Strain (CAS) has been reported as one of the dominant families contributing to MDR-TB in South Asia including Nepal, India and Pakistan. The aim of this study was to better understand the genetic characteristics of MDR-TB CAS family isolates circulating in Nepal and compare the results with neighboring countries. METHODS: A total of 145 MDR-TB CAS family isolates collected in Nepal from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed by spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) analysis. In addition, we compared these data with published data from India and Pakistan to investigate a possible epidemiological link via construction of a minimum spanning tree (MST). RESULTS: Spoligotyping analysis exhibited CAS1_Delhi SIT26 (n=60) as the predominant lineage among the MDR-TB CAS family in all three countries. However, the combined analysis with spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR further discriminated 60 isolates into 49 different types and 5 clusters. Each cluster was composed of 14 isolates with a clustering rate of 23.3%, suggesting ongoing transmissions. Based on MST data from neighboring countries, we elucidated an evolutionary relationship between the two countries, Nepal and India, which could be explained by their open border. CONCLUSION: This study identified the evolutionary relationships among MDR-TB CAS1_Delhi subfamily isolates from Nepal and those from neighboring countries.
  • Atsushi Kobayashi, Zechen Qi, Taishi Shimazaki, Yoshiko Munesue, Tomomi Miyamoto, Norikazu Isoda, Hirofumi Sawa, Keisuke Aoshima, Takashi Kimura, Shirou Mohri, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Tadashi Yamashita, Ichiro Miyoshi
    The American journal of pathology 189 3 677 - 686 2019年03月 
    Localization of the abnormal and normal isoforms of prion proteins to detergent-resistant membrane microdomains, lipid rafts, is important for the conformational conversion. Lipid rafts are enriched in sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (namely, gangliosides). Alteration in the ganglioside composition of lipid rafts can affect the localization of lipid raft-associated proteins. To investigate the role of gangliosides in the pathogenesis of prion diseases, we performed intracerebral transmission study of a scrapie prion strain Chandler and a Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome prion strain Fukuoka-1 using various knockout mouse strains ablated with ganglioside synthase gene (ie, GD2/GM2 synthase, GD3 synthase, or GM3 synthase). After challenge with the Chandler strain, GD2/GM2 synthase knockout mice showed 20% reduction of incubation time, reduced prion protein deposition in the brain with attenuated glial reactions, and reduced localization of prion proteins to lipid rafts. These results raise the possibility that the gangliosides may have an important role in prion disease pathogenesis by affecting the localization of prion proteins to lipid rafts.
  • Thu MJ, Qiu Y, Matsuno K, Kajihara M, Mori-Kajihara A, Omori R, Monma N, Chiba K, Seto J, Gokuden M, Andoh M, Oosako H, Katakura K, Takada A, Sugimoto C, Isoda N, Nakao R
    Scientific reports 9 1 1500 - 1500 2019年02月06日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria mainly associated with ticks. In Japan, several hundred cases of Japanese spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia japonica, are reported annually. Other Rickettsia species are also known to exist in ixodid ticks; however, their phylogenetic position and pathogenic potential are poorly understood. We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey on questing ticks to understand the overall diversity of SFG rickettsiae in Japan. Out of 2,189 individuals (19 tick species in 4 genera), 373 (17.0%) samples were positive for Rickettsia spp. as ascertained by real-time PCR amplification of the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Conventional PCR and sequencing analyses of gltA indicated the presence of 15 different genotypes of SFG rickettsiae. Based on the analysis of five additional genes, we characterised five Rickettsia species; R. asiatica, R. helvetica, R. monacensis (formerly reported as Rickettsia sp. In56 in Japan), R. tamurae, and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae and several unclassified SFG rickettsiae. We also found a strong association between rickettsial genotypes and their host tick species, while there was little association between rickettsial genotypes and their geographical origins. These observations suggested that most of the SFG rickettsiae have a limited host range and are maintained in certain tick species in the natural environment.
  • Thu MJ, Qiu Y, Kataoka-Nakamura C, Sugimoto C, Katakura K, Isoda N, Nakao R
    Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) 19 7 474 - 485 2019年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites that transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. Ticks harbor not only pathogenic microorganisms but also endosymbionts. Although some tick endosymbionts are known to be essential for the survival of ticks, their roles in ticks remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize tick-borne microorganisms from field-collected ticks using two arthropod cell lines derived from Ixodes scapularis embryos (ISE6) and Aedes albopictus larvae (C6/36). A total of 170 tick homogenates originating from 15 different tick species collected in Japan were inoculated into each cell line. Bacterial growth was confirmed by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of eubacteria. During the 8-week observation period, bacterial isolation was confirmed in 14 and 4 samples using ISE6 and C6/36 cells, respectively. The sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA PCR products indicated that they were previously known tick-borne pathogens/endosymbionts in three different genera: Rickettsia, Rickettsiella, and Spiroplasma. These included four previously validated rickettsial species namely Rickettsia asiatica (n = 2), Rickettsia helvetica (n = 3), Rickettsia monacensis (n = 2), and Rickettsia tamurae (n = 3) and one uncharacterized genotype Rickettsia sp. LON (n = 2). Four isolates of Spiroplasma had the highest similarity with previously reported Spiroplasma isolates: Spiroplasma ixodetis obtained from ticks in North America and Spiroplasma sp. Bratislava 1 obtained from Ixodes ricinus in Europe, while two isolates of Rickettsiella showed 100% identity with Rickettsiella sp. detected from Ixodes uriae at Grimsey Island in Iceland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on successful isolation of Rickettsiella from ticks. The isolates obtained in this study can be further analyzed to evaluate their pathogenic potential in animals and their roles as symbionts in ticks.
  • Bhagwan Maharjan, Chie Nakajima, Norikazu Isoda, Jeewan Thapa, Ajay Poudel, Yogendra Shah, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Bhabana Shrestha, Harald Hoffmann, Korkut Avsar, Ashish Shrestha, Stephen V Gordon, Yasuhiko Suzuki
    Scientific reports 8 1 16634 - 16634 2018年11月09日 
    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging public health problem in Nepal. Despite the implementation of a successful TB control program in Nepal, notifications of MDR-TB are increasing, yet the reasons are unknown. The objective of this study was to understand the genetic diversity and epidemiological characteristics of MDR-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates in Nepal. We isolated and genotyped 498 MDR-MTB isolates collected from April 2009 to March 2013 and analyzed the patients' background information. Our results showed that the lineage 2 (Beijing family) was the most predominant lineage (n = 241; 48.4%), followed by lineage 3 (n = 153, 30.7%). Lineage 4 was the third most prevalent (n = 73, 14.5%) followed by lineage 1 (n = 32, 6.4%). The lineages were significantly associated with geographic region, ethnic group, age and sex of patients. The Beijing genotype was found to have an important role in transmitting MDR-TB in Nepal and was significantly associated with the eastern region, mongoloid ethnic group and younger age group. We conclude that early diagnosis and treatment including molecular-epidemiological surveillance of MDR-TB cases will help to control transmission of MDR-TB in Nepal.
  • Munesue Y, Shimazaki T, Qi Z, Isoda N, Sawa H, Aoshima K, Kimura T, Mohri S, Kitamoto T, Kobayashi A
    Neurosci Lett 668 43 - 47 2018年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • D. -H. Chu, M. A. Stevenson, L. V. Nguyen, N. Isoda, S. M. Firestone, T. N. Nguyen, L. T. Nguyen, K. Matsuno, M. Okamatsu, H. Kida, Y. Sakoda
    TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES 64 6 1991 - 1999 2017年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    In Vietnam, live bird markets are found in most populated centres, providing the means by which fresh poultry can be purchased by consumers for immediate consumption. Live bird markets are aggregation points for large numbers of poultry, and therefore, it is common for a range of avian influenza viruses to be mixed within live bird markets as a result of different poultry types and species being brought together from different geographical locations. We conducted a cross-sectional study in seven live bird markets in four districts of Thua Thien Hue Province in August and December, 2014. The aims of this study were to (i) document the prevalence of avian influenza in live bird markets (as measured by virus isolation); and (ii) quantify individual bird-, seller- and market-level characteristics that rendered poultry more likely to be positive for avian influenza virus at the time of sale. A questionnaire soliciting details of knowledge, attitude and avian influenza practices was administered to poultry sellers in study markets. At the same time, swabs and faecal samples were collected from individual poultry and submitted for isolation of avian influenza virus. The final data set comprised samples from 1,629 birds from 83 sellers in the seven live bird markets. A total of 113 birds were positive for virus isolation; a prevalence of 6.9 (95% CI 5.8-8.3) avian influenza virus-positive birds per 100 birds submitted for sale. After adjusting for clustering at the market and individual seller levels, none of the explanatory variables solicited in the questionnaire were significantly associated with avian influenza virus isolation positivity. The proportions of variance at the individual market, seller and individual bird levels were 6%, 48% and 46%, respectively. We conclude that the emphasis of avian influenza control efforts in Vietnam should be at the individual seller level as opposed to the market level.
  • Yogendra Shah, Bhagwan Maharjan, Jeewan Thapa, Ajay Poudel, Hassan Mahmoud Diab, Basu Dev Pandey, Eddie S. Solo, Norikazu Isoda, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Chie Nakajima
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 63 13 - 20 2017年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) poses a major public health problem in Nepal. Although it has been reported as one of the dominant genotypes of MTB in Nepal, little information on the Central Asian Strain (CAS) family is available, especially isolates related to multidrug resistance (MDR) cases. This study aimed to elucidate the genetic and epidemiological characteristics of MDR CAS isolates in Nepal. Methods: A total of 145 MDR CAS isolates collected in Nepal from 2008 to 2013 were characterized by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis, and drug resistance-associated gene sequencing. Results: Spoligotyping analysis showed CAS1_Delhi SIT26 as predominant (60/145, 41.4%). However, by combining spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing, it was possible to successfully discriminate all 145 isolates into 116 different types including 18 clusters with 47 isolates (clustering rate 32.4%). About a half of these clustered isolates shared the same genetic and geographical characteristics with other isolates in each cluster, and some of them shared rare point mutations in rpoB that are thought to be associated with rifampicin resistance. Conclusions: Although the data obtained show little evidence that large outbreaks of MDR-TB caused by the CAS family have occurred in Nepal, they strongly suggest several MDR-MTB transmission cases. (C) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.
  • Nesta Bortey-Sam, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Osei Akoto, Shouta M M Nakayama, Kwadwo A Asante, Elvis Baidoo, Christian Obirikorang, Aksorn Saengtienchai, Norikazu Isoda, Collins Nimako, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
    Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) 228 311 - 320 2017年09月 
    Studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its metabolites in PM10, soils, rat livers and cattle urine in Kumasi, Ghana, revealed high concentrations and cancer potency. In addition, WHO and IARC have reported an increase in cancer incidence and respiratory diseases in Ghana. Human urine were therefore collected from urban and control sites to: assess the health effects associated with PAHs exposure using malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); identify any association between OH-PAHs, MDA, 8-OHdG with age and sex; and determine the relationship between PAHs exposure and occurrence of respiratory diseases. From the results, urinary concentrations of the sum of OH-PAHs (∑OHPAHs) were significantly higher from urban sites compared to the control site. Geometric mean concentrations adjusted by specific gravity, GMSG, indicated 2-OHNaphthalene (2-OHNap) (6.01 ± 4.21 ng/mL) as the most abundant OH-PAH, and exposure could be through the use of naphthalene-containing-mothballs in drinking water purification, insect repellent, freshener in clothes and/or "treatment of various ailments". The study revealed that exposure to naphthalene significantly increases the occurrence of persistent cough (OR = 2.68, CI: 1.43-5.05), persistent headache (OR = 1.82, CI: 1.02-3.26), tachycardia (OR = 3.36, CI: 1.39-8.10) and dyspnea (OR = 3.07, CI: 1.27-7.43) in Kumasi residents. Highest level of urinary 2-OHNap (224 ng/mL) was detected in a female, who reported symptoms of persistent cough, headache, tachycardia, nasal congestion and inflammation, all of which are symptoms of naphthalene exposure according to USEPA. The ∑OHPAHs, 2-OHNap, 2-3-OHFluorenes, and -OHPhenanthrenes showed a significantly positive correlation with MDA and 4-OHPhenanthrene with 8-OHdG, indicating possible lipid peroxidation/cell damage or degenerative disease in some participants. MDA and 8-OHdG were highest in age group 21-60. The present study showed a significant sex difference with higher levels of urinary OH-PAHs in females than males.
  • Satoshi Sekiguchi, Patrick Presi, Ryosuke Omori, Katharina Stärk, Manon Schuppers, Norikazu Isoda, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, Takashi Umemura, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Yoshinori Fujii, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65 1 135 - 144 2017年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Norikazu Isoda, Akihiro Asano, Michiru Ichijo, Shiho Wakamori, Hiroshi Ohno, Kazuhiko Sato, Hirokazu Okamoto, Shigeru Nakao, Hajime Kato, Kazuma Saito, Naoki Ito, Akira Usui, Hiroaki Takayama, Yoshihiro Sakoda
    JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICAL SCIENCE 79 7 1172 - 1181 2017年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    A scenario tree model was developed to propose efficient bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) control measures. The model used field data in eastern Hokkaido where the risk of BVDV infection in cattle has been reduced by an eradication program including mass vaccination, individual tests prior to communal pasture grazing, herd screening tests using bulk milk, and outbreak investigations of newly infected herds. These four activities were then used as hypothesized control measures in the simulation. In each simulation, the numbers of cattle infected persistently and transiently with BVDV detected by clinical manifestations and diagnosis tests and of missed by all of the diagnosis tests were calculated, and the numbers were used as indicators to be compared for the efficacy of the control measures. The model outputs indicated that the adoption of mass vaccination decreased the number of missed BVD cattle, although it did not increase the number of detected BVD cattle. Under implementation of mass vaccination, the efficacy of individual tests on selected 20% of the young and adult cattle was equal to that of the herd screening test performed in all the herds. When the virus prevalence or the number of sensitive animals becomes low, the efficacy of herd screening test was superior to one of individual tests. Considering the model outputs together, the scenario tree model developed in the present study was useful to compare the efficacy of the control measures for BVD.
  • Masanori Kobayashi, Makoto Kodama, Takeshi Noshi, Ryu Yoshida, Takushi Kanazu, Naoki Nomura, Kosuke Soda, Norikazu Isoda, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Yoshinori Yamano, Akihiko Sato, Hiroshi Kida
    ANTIVIRAL RESEARCH 139 41 - 48 2017年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    High morbidity and mortality associated with human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, including H5N1 influenza virus, have been reported. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antiviral effects of peramivir against HPAI viruses. In neuraminidase (NA) inhibition and virus replication inhibition assays, peramivir showed strong inhibitory activity against H5N1, H7N1 and H7N7 HPAI viruses with sub-nanomolar activity in enzyme assays. In H5N1 viruses containing the NA H275Y mutation, the antiviral activity of peramivir against the variant was lower than that against the wild-type. Evaluation of the in vivo antiviral activity showed that a single intravenous treatment of peramivir (10 mg/kg) prevented lethality in mice infected with wild-type H5N1 virus and also following infection with H5N1 virus with the H275Y mutation after a 5 day administration of peramivir (30 mg/kg). Furthermore, mice injected with peramivir showed low viral titers and low levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs. These results suggest that peramivir has therapeutic activity against HPAI viruses even if the virus harbors the NA H275Y mutation. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Marvin A. Villanueva, Claro N. Mingala, Michelle M. Balbin, Chie Nakajima, Norikazu Isoda, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Nobuo Koizumi
    JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICAL SCIENCE 78 11 1649 - 1655 2016年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The extent of Leptospira infection in large ruminants resulting to economic problems in livestock industry in a leptospirosis-endemic country like the Philippines has not been extensively explored. Therefore, we determined the prevalence and carrier status of leptospirosis in large ruminants using molecular techniques and assessed the risk factors of acquiring leptospirosis in these animals. Water buffalo and cattle urine samples (n=831) collected from 21 farms during 2013-2015 were subjected to flaB-nested PCR to detect pathogenic Leptospira spp. Leptospiral flaB was detected in both species with a detection rate of 16.1%. Leptospiral DNA was detected only in samples from animals managed in communal farms. Sequence analysis of Leptospira flaB in large ruminants revealed the formation of three major clusters with L. borgpetersenii or L. kirschneri. One farm contained Leptospira flaB sequences from all clusters identified in this study, suggesting this farm was the main source of leptospires for other farms. This study suggested that these large ruminants are infected with various pathogenic Leptospira species causing possible major economic loss in the livestock industry as well as potential Leptospira reservoirs that can transmit infection to humans and other animals in the Philippines.
  • Marvin A. Villanueva, Claro N. Mingala, Nina G. Gloriani, Yasutake Yanagihara, Norikazu Isoda, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Nobuo Koizumi
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 64 1 15 - 24 2016年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (<1 year-old) was lower than that of older seropositive ones. Furthermore, sera from younger water buffaloes were reactive with single serotypes with low MAT titers, but older animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.
  • Osamu Noyori, Keita Matsuno, Masahiro Kajihara, Eri Nakayama, Manabu Igarashi, Makoto Kuroda, Norikazu Isoda, Reiko Yoshida, Ayato Takada
    VIROLOGY 446 1-2 152 - 161 2013年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) is thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of filovirus infection. It is known that GP expressed on the cell surface forms a steric shield over host proteins such as major histocompatibility complex class I and integrin pi, which may result in the disorder of cell-to-cell contacts and/or inhibition of the immune response. However, it is not clarified whether this phenomenon contributes to the pathogenicity of filoviruses. In this study, we found that the steric shielding efficiency differed among filovirus strains and was correlated with the difference in their relative pathogenicities. While the highly glycosylated mucin-like region of GP was indispensable, the differential shielding efficiency did not necessarily depend on the primary structure of the mucin-like region, suggesting the importance of the overall properties (e.g., flexibility and stability) of the GP molecule for efficient shielding of host proteins. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Saya Kuribayashi, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Takeshi Kawasaki, Tomohisa Tanaka, Naoki Yamamoto, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Norikazu Isoda, Yoshimi Tsuda, Yuji Sunden, Takashi Umemura, Noriko Nakajima, Hideki Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kida
    PLOS ONE 8 7 e68375  2013年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) cause lethal infection in chickens. Severe cases of HPAIV infections have been also reported in mammals, including humans. In both mammals and birds, the relationship between host cytokine response to the infection with HPAIVs and lethal outcome has not been well understood. In the present study, the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A/turkey/Italy/4580/1999 (H7N1) (Ty/Italy) and A/chicken/Netherlands/2586/2003 (H7N7) (Ck/NL) and the low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/Ibaraki) were intranasally inoculated into chickens. Ty/Italy replicated more extensively than Ck/NL in systemic tissues of the chickens, especially in the brain, and induced excessive mRNA expression of inflammatory and antiviral cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IFN-alpha) in proportion to its proliferation. Using in situ hybridization, IL-6 mRNA was detected mainly in microglial nodules in the brain of the chickens infected with Ty/Italy. Capillary leakage assessed by Evans blue staining was observed in multiple organs, especially in the brains of the chickens infected with Ty/Italy, and was not observed in those infected with Ck/NL. In contrast, LPAIV caused only local infection in the chickens, with neither apparent cytokine expression nor capillary leakage in any tissue of the chickens. The present results indicate that an excessive cytokine response is induced by rapid and extensive proliferation of HPAIV and causes fatal multiple organ failure in chickens.
  • Norikazu Isoda, Yoshimi Tsuda, Shingo Asakura, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida
    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 157 12 2257 - 2264 2012年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Avian influenza viruses A/duck/Mongolia/47/2001 (H7N1) (47/01) and A/duck/Mongolia/867/2002 (H7N1) (867/02) were defined as low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) using an intravenous pathogenicity test in chickens. On the other hand, the intracerebral pathogenicity indices of 47/01 and 867/02 were 1.30 and 0.00, respectively. A series of reassortant viruses were generated between 47/01 and 867/02, and their intracerebral pathogenicity was compared in one-day-old chicks to identify the protein(s) responsible for the intracerebral pathogenicity of 47/01. The results indicate that the amino acids at positions 50 and 98 of the nucleoprotein are related to the pathogenicity of 47/01 in chicks by intracerebral inoculation. A significant association was found between mortality of the chicks inoculated intracerebrally with 47/01 and virus replication in the lungs and/or brain. These results indicate that the NP of avian influenza viruses may be responsible for intracerebral pathogenicity in the host.
  • Yoshihiro Sakoda, Michiko Naito, Mutsumi Ito, Yuki Ito, Norikazu Isoda, Tomohisa Tanaka, Takashi Umemura, Hiroshi Kida
    JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICAL SCIENCE 74 7 955 - 958 2012年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae strain UP-MMC was inoculated into miniature pigs to assess its pathogenicity. Leptospires were recovered from the whole blood, kidneys, and livers in the acute phase without showing any clinical signs. Under immunosuppressive conditions by dexamethasone, leptospires were recovered from the kidneys and their genes were detected from the urine in the chronic phase. These results indicate that leptospires persisted in the kidneys until the chronic phase, and excretion of leptospires in the urine was enhanced under immunosuppressive conditions, resulting in horizontal transmission among pigs on farms.
  • Yoshihiro Sakoda, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Norikazu Isoda, Naoki Yamamoto, Koichi Ozaki, Yasuto Umeda, Shigeyuki Aoyama, Hiroshi Kida
    MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 56 7 490 - 495 2012年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Affinity chromatography using sulfated, spherical cellulose beads (Cellufine Sulfate) was assessed for purification of influenza A and influenza B viruses. Recovery rates of viruses eluted from the beads were high for all tested virus strains. This method was also useful for removing chicken egg-derived impurities from allantoic fluids containing influenza viruses; the hemagglutination activity per amount of protein in the eluted sample was significantly higher than that in the applied sample. These results suggest that use of Cellufine Sulfate is a practical method for primary purification of influenza viruses in the process of influenza vaccine production.
  • Norikazu Isoda, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Hiroshi Kida
    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 156 4 557 - 563 2011年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The avian influenza vaccine strain A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) (Vac-1) was found to be pathogenic in chicken embryos (CEs). In order to decrease the pathogenicity of Vac-1 in CEs, a series of reassortant viruses was generated between Vac-1 and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8), and their pathogenicity and growth potential were compared in CEs. The results indicated that either the PB1 or PA protein was responsible for the pathogenicity of Vac-1 in CEs. The HA titers of the allantoic fluids of CEs inoculated with the recombinant H5N1 viruses, of which pathogenicity was lower than that of the recombinant Vac-1 prepared by reverse genetics in CEs, were equivalent to those of CEs inoculated with the recombinant Vac-1. One of the reassortant viruses, rg-PR8-PA/Vac-1 (H5N1), in which the PA gene was replaced with the corresponding gene of PR8, yielded allantoic fluids with the same HA titer as that of Vac-1, indicating that this reassortant should be a good candidate as an improved vaccine strain.
  • Natsumi Takeyama, Kenji Minari, Masahiro Kajihara, Norikazu Isoda, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Takashi Sasaki, Norihide Kokumai, Noriyasu Takikawa, Rikiya Shiraishi, Masaji Mase, Junko Hagiwara, Toshiaki Kodama, Takashi Imamura, Masashi Sakaguchi, Toshiaki Ohgitani, Akira Sawata, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Masatake Muramatsu, Kenji Tsukamoto, Zhifeng Lin, Kotaro Tuchiya, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida
    VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY 147 3-4 283 - 291 2011年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) represent a major global concern in poultries and human health. Avian influenza (AI) vaccines are available but not preferred for field applications, primarily because vaccination interferes with sero-surveillances of AIV infection. To overcome the problem, ELISA systems using nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of AIV as antigens (NS1-ELISA) have been developed to measure anti-NS1 antibodies that are raised in AIV-infected but not in vaccinated chickens. However, some AI-vaccinated chickens having a weak anti-virus immune response may subsequently be infected with AIV and spread the virus. This raises a concern for the validity of NS1-ELISA to detect AIV infection in previously vaccinated chickens. In this study, we developed NS1-ELISA and assessed its feasibility to detect HPAIV infection in chickens previously immunized with H5 or H7 AI vaccines. The results indicated that the NS1-ELISA could identify HPAIV infection in both unvaccinated and vaccinated chickens at 1 week after infection in correlation with results from time-consuming virus isolation tests. Taken together, the NS1-ELISA system would be valuable tool to define HPAIV infection when AI vaccine program is in place. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Masatoshi Okamatsu, Tomohisa Tanaka, Naoki Yamamoto, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Takashi Sasaki, Yoshimi Tsuda, Norikazu Isoda, Norihide Kokumai, Ayato Takada, Takashi Umemura, Hiroshi Kida
    VIRUS GENES 41 3 351 - 357 2010年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    In April and May 2008, whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) were found dead in Hokkaido in Japan. In this study, an adult whooper swan found dead beside Lake Saroma was pathologically examined and the identified H5N1 influenza virus isolates were genetically and antigenically analyzed. Pathological findings indicate that the swan died of severe congestive edema in the lungs. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the isolates revealed that they are the progeny viruses of isolates from poultry and wild birds in China, Russia, Korea, and Hong Kong. Antigenic analyses indicated that the viruses are distinguished from the H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds and poultry before 2007. The chickens vaccinated with A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) survived for 14 days after challenge with A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008 (H5N1), although a small amount of the challenge virus was recovered from the tissues of the birds. These findings indicate that H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are circulating in wild birds in addition to domestic poultry in Asia and exhibit antigenic variation that may be due to vaccination.
  • Yoshihiro Sakoda, Sengee Sugar, Damdinjav Batchluun, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Norikazu Isoda, Kosuke Soda, Hiroki Takakuwa, Yoshimi Tsuda, Naoki Yamamoto, Noriko Kishida, Keita Matsuno, Eri Nakayama, Masahiro Kajihara, Ayaka Yokoyama, Ayato Takada, Ruuragchaa Sodnomdarjaa, Hiroshi Kida
    VIROLOGY 406 1 88 - 94 2010年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses were isolated from dead wild waterfowl at Khunt, Erkhel, Doityn Tsagaan, Doroo, and Ganga Lakes in Mongolia in July 2005, May 2006, May 2009, July 2009, and May 2010, respectively. The isolates in 2005 and 2006 were classified into genetic clade 2.2, and those in 2009 and 2010 into clade 2.3.2. A/whooper swan/Mongolia/6/2009 (H5N1) experimentally infected ducks and replicated systemically with higher mortality than that of the isolates in 2005 and 2006. Intensive surveillance of avian influenza in migratory waterfowl flying from their nesting lakes in Siberia to Mongolia in every autumn indicate that HPAI viruses have not perpetuated at their nesting lakes until 2009. The present results demonstrate that wild waterfowl were sporadically infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses prevailing in domestic poultry in the southern Asia and died in Mongolia on the way back to their northern territory in spring. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Fei Feng, Nobuaki Miura, Norikazu Isoda, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Hiroshi Kida, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura
    BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS 20 12 3772 - 3776 2010年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We designed and synthesized novel trivalent anti-influenza reagents. Sialyllactose was located at the terminal of each valence which aimed to block each receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin (HA) trimer on the surface of the virus. Structural analyses were carried out with a model which was constructed with a computer simulation. A previously reported cyclic glycopeptide blocker [Ohta, T.; Miura, N.; Fujitani, N.; Nakajima, F.; Niikura, K.; Sadamoto, R.; Guo, C.-T.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Monde, K.; Nishimura, S.-I. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2003, 42, 5186] bound to the HA in the model. The analyses suggest that the glutamine residue in the cyclic peptide bearing Neu5A alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,4Glc trisaccharide via a linker interacts with the Gln189 in HA through hydrogen bonding. The present anti-influenza reagents likely interact with a glutamine residue included in the vicinity of Gln189. A plague reduction assay of the influenza virus, A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1),was performed in MDCK cells to evaluate for the synthesized compounds to inhibit viral replication. One of the compounds showed approximately 85% inhibition at the concentration of 400 mu M at 4 degrees C. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Yasushi Itoh, Hiroichi Ozaki, Hirohito Ishigaki, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Tomoya Nagata, Kosuke Soda, Norikazu Isoda, Taichiro Miyake, Hideaki Ishida, Kiyoko Okamoto, Misako Nakayama, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Ryuzo Torii, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara
    VACCINE 28 3 780 - 789 2010年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Development of H7N7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) vaccines is an urgent issue since human cases of infection with this subtype virus have been reported and most humans have no immunity against H7N7 viruses. We made an H7N7 vaccine combining components from an influenza virus library of non-pathogenic type A influenza viruses Antibody and T cell recall responses specific against the vaccine strain were elicited by subcutaneous inoculation with the whole virus particle vaccine with or without alum as an adjuvant in cynomolgus macaques. No significant difference was observed in magnitude of antibody responses between vaccination with alum and vaccination without alum, though vaccination with alum induced longer recall responses of CD8(+) T cells than did vaccination without alum. After challenge with a subtype of H7N7 HPAIV, the virus was detected in nasal swabs of unvaccinated macaques for 8 days but only for I day in the animals vaccinated either with or without alum, although the macaques vaccinated with alum showed elevated body temperature more briefly after infection. These findings demonstrated that this H7N7 HPAIV strain is pathogenic to macaques and that the vaccine conferred protective immunity to macaques against H7N7 HPAIV infection. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Manuela Ocana-Macchi, Michael Bel, Laurence Guzylack-Piriou, Nicolas Ruggli, Matthias Liniger, Kenneth C. McCullough, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Norikazu Isoda, Mikhail Matrosovich, Artur Summerfield
    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 83 24 12947 - 12955 2009年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Although current H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) are inefficiently transmitted to humans, infected individuals can suffer from severe disease, often progressing rapidly to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. This is in contrast with the situation with human influenza viruses, which in immunocompetent individuals usually cause only a respiratory disease which is less aggressive than that observed with avian H5N1 viruses. While the biological basis of inefficient transmission is well documented, the mechanisms by which the H5N1 viruses cause fatal disease remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (hPMEC) had a clearly higher susceptibility to infection by H5N1 HPAIV than to infection by human influenza viruses. This was measurable by de novo intracellular nucleoprotein production and virus replication. It was also related to a relatively higher binding capacity to cellular receptors. After infection of hPMEC, cell activation markers E-selectin and P-selectin were upregulated, and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and beta interferon were secreted. H5N1 virus infection was also associated with an elevated rate of cell death. Reverse genetics analyses demonstrated a major role for the viral hemagglutinin in this cell tropism. Overall, avian H5N1 viruses have a particular receptor specificity targeting endothelial cells that is different from human influenza viruses, and this H5N1 receptor specificity could contribute to disease pathogenesis.
  • Kanako Moritoh, Hideto Yamauchi, Atsushi Asano, Kentaro Yoshii, Hiroaki Kariwa, Ikuo Takashima, Norikazu Isoda, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Nobuya Sasaki, Takashi Agui
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 57 2 89 - 99 2009年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Mx1 (Myxovirus resistance protein) and Oas1b (Oligoadenylate synthetase-1), induced by type 1 interferon (IFN), play a role in early antiviral innate immunity by inhibiting the replication of viruses. In mice, Mx1 and Oas1b confer resistance to the infection of orthomyxoviruses including influenza viruses and flaviviruses including West Nile viruses, respectively. Laboratory mice have been used to study the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these virus infections; however, it is possible that they are not a suitable model system to study these viruses, since most of the inbred laboratory mouse strains lack both genes. It has been reported that feral mouse-derived inbred strains show resistance to the infection of these viruses due to the presence of intact both genes. In this study, we generated congenic strains in which the Mx or Oas locus of the MSM/Ms (MSAI) mouce was introduced to the most widely used mouse strain, C57BL/6J (136). B6.MSM-Mx mice showed resistance to the infection of influenza virus but not of West Nile virus. On the other hand, B6.MSM-Oas mice showed resistance to the infection of West Nile virus but not of influenza virus. Our results indicate that Mx1 and Oas1b show highly antiviral specificity in mice possessing the same genetic background. Therefore, these congenic mice are useful for not only infection study but also investigation of host defense mechanism to these viruses.
  • Yoshimi Tsuda, Norikazu Isoda, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida
    VIRUS RESEARCH 140 1-2 194 - 198 2009年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Many influenza A viruses form plaques on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in the presence of trypsin. A/duck/Siberia/272/1998 (H13N6) (Sib272), however, does not form plaque on MDCK cells. After three blind passages of the strain on MDCK cells, plaque-forming variant was obtained and designated as A/duck/Siberia/272PF/1998 (H13N6) (Sib272PF). Genetic and functional analyses of Sib272 and Sib272PF revealed that amino acid substitutions, F3L of the HA2 subunit and T379K of the PB1, were responsible for plaque formation of Sib272PF by enhancing fusion and polymerase activities, respectively. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Takashi Sasaki, Norikazu Isoda, Kosuke Soda, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Kazue Saijo, Junko Hagiwara, Norihide Kokumai, Toshiaki Ohgitani, Takashi Imamura, Akira Sawata, Zhifeng Lin, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 56 4 189 - 198 2009年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Test vaccines comprised of inactivated water-in-oil emulsions containing various antigen levels were prepared using a non-pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (AI) virus, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/04 (H5N1). The potencies of these test vaccines were evaluated by two experiments. In the first experiment, the triangular relationship among the antigen levels of test vaccines, the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody response, and the protective effect against challenge with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1), was confirmed. Then lasting immunity of chickens after a single-shot vaccination was confirmed in the second experiment. As a result, complete protection after the challenge was observed in chickens immunized by test vaccines with an antigen level of 160 HA units/dose or higher. Thus, it was ascertained that the minimum antigen level in the AI vaccine was 160 RA units/dose, and the minimum HI antibody titer that could protect chickens from HPAI virus infection-related death was considered to be 1:16. Dose-dependent III antibody responses were observed in chickens after the vaccination. Thus, 640 RA units/dose was thought to be similar to the optimal antigen level. Alternatively, the HI antibody titers of chickens, injected with the vaccine containing 640 HA units/dose, were maintained at 1:181 or higher for 100 weeks after the single-shot vaccination.
  • Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Noriko Kishida, Norikazu Isoda, Hiroshi Kida
    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 153 12 2189 - 2195 2008年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The hemagglutinins (HAs) of H9 influenza viruses isolated from birds and mammals of different species were antigenically and genetically analyzed. Antigenic variants were selected from A/swine/Hong Kong/10/98 (H9N2) and A/duck/Hokkaido/13/00 (H9N2) in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Based on the reactivity patterns of these mutants with a panel of MAbs, at least five non-overlapping antigenic sites were defined using eight MAbs which recognized seven distinct epitopes on the H9 HA molecule. Based on the reactivity patterns with the panel of monoclonal antibodies, 21 H9N2 virus strains isolated from birds and mammals were divided into 7 antigenically distinct groups. The present findings indicate that it is important to monitor the antigenic variation in H9 influenza viruses. The panel of MAbs in the present study, thus, should be useful for detailed antigenic analysis of the H9 HAs for epidemiological studies, the selection of vaccine strains, and diagnosis.
  • Kosuke Soda, Hiroichi Ozaki, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Norikazu Isoda, Yoshinari Haraguchi, Saori Sakabe, Noritaka Kuboki, Noriko Kishida, Ayato Takada, Hiroshi Kida
    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 153 11 2041 - 2048 2008年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    In order to prepare H5N1 influenza virus vaccine, the hemagglutinins (HAs) of 14 H5 virus isolates from water birds in Asia were antigenically and genetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5 HA genes revealed that 13 isolates belong to Eurasian and the other one to North American lineages. Each of the deduced amino acid sequences of the HAs indicated a non-pathogenic profile. Antigenic analysis using a panel of monoclonal antibodies recognizing six different epitopes on the HA of A/duck/Pennsylvania/10218/1984 (H5N2) and chicken antiserum to an H5N1 reassortant strain generated between A/duck/Mongolia/54/2001 (H5N2) and A/duck/Mongolia/47/2001 (H7N1), [R(Dk/Mong-Dk/Mong) (H5N1)] showed that the HAs of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses currently circulating in Asia were antigenically closely related to those of the present isolates from water birds. Mice subcutaneously injected with formalin-inactivated R(Dk/Mong-Dk/Mong) were protected from challenge with 100 mouse lethal dose of A/Viet Nam/1194/2004 (H5N1). The present results support the notion that the H5 isolates and the reassortant H5N1 strain should be useful for vaccine preparation.
  • Rashid Manzoor, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Aaron Mweene, Yoshimi Tsuda, Noriko Kishida, Gui-Rong Bai, Ken-Ichiro Kameyama, Norikazu Isoda, Kosuke Soda, Michiko Naito, Hiroshi Kida
    VIRUS GENES 37 2 144 - 152 2008年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    During 2000-2007, 218 influenza viruses of 28 different combinations of HA (H1-H13) and NA (N1-N9) subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of free-flying water birds at two distant lakes in Hokkaido, Japan. Phylogenic analysis of the matrix (M) genes of 67 strains, selected on the basis of their subtype combinations, revealed that A/duck/Hokkaido/W95/2006 (H10N8) was a reassortant whose M gene belonged to North American non-gull-avian and the other seven genes to Eurasian non-gull-avian lineages. The M genes of other 65 strains belonged to Eurasian non-gull-avian and the one to Eurasian-gull lineages. The M genes of 65 strains were grouped into three different sublineages, indicating that influenza viruses circulating in different populations of free-flying water birds have evolved independently in nature.
  • Rashid Manzoor, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Aaron Mweene, Yoshimi Tsuda, Noriko Kishida, Gui-Rong Bai, Ken-Ichiro Kameyama, Norikazu Isoda, Kosuke Soda, Michiko Naito, Hiroshi Kida
    Virus Genes 37 2 153  2008年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Norikazu Isoda, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Noriko Kishida, Kosuke Soda, Saori Sakabe, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Takashi Imamura, Masashi Sakaguchi, Takashi Sasaki, Norihide Kokumai, Toshiaki Ohgitani, Kazue Saijo, Akira Sawata, Junko Hagiwara, Zhifeng Lin, Hiroshi Kida
    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 153 9 1685 - 1692 2008年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    A reassortant influenza virus, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) (Dk/Vac-1/04), was generated between non-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from migratory ducks in Asia. Dk/Vac-1/04 (H5N1) virus particles propagated in embryonated chicken eggs were inactivated with formalin and adjuvanted with mineral oil to form a water-in-oil emulsion. The resulting vaccine was injected intramuscularly into chickens. The chickens were challenged with either of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004 (H5N1) or A/swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1) at 21 days post-vaccination (p. v.), when the geometric mean serum HI titers of the birds was 64 with the challenge virus strains. The vaccinated chickens were protected from manifestation of disease signs upon challenge with either of the highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. However, challenge virus was recovered at low titers from the birds at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (p.c.). All 3 chickens challenged at 6 days p.v. died, whereas 3 chickens challenged at 8 days p.v. survived. These results indicate that the present vaccine confers clinical protection and reduction of virus shedding against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge and should be useful as an optional tool in emergency cases.
  • Noriko Kishida, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Mai Shiromoto, Gui-Rong Bai, Norikazu Isoda, Ayato Takada, Graeme Laver, Hiroshi Kida
    VIRUS GENES 37 1 16 - 21 2008年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    To investigate the prevalence of influenza viruses in feral water birds in the Southern Hemisphere, fecal samples of terns were collected on Heron Island, Australia, in December 2004. Six H2N5 influenza viruses were isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of the H2 subtype from shore birds in Australia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M gene belonged to the American lineage of avian influenza viruses and the other genes belonged to the Eurasian lineages, indicating that genetic reassortment occurs between viruses of Eurasian and American lineages in free flying birds in nature.
  • Toshihiro Sawai, Yasushi Itoh, Hiroichi Ozaki, Norikazu Isoda, Kiyoko Okamoto, Yoshitaka Kashima, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Yoshihiro Takeuchi, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara
    IMMUNOLOGY 124 2 155 - 165 2008年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We investigated whether a vaccine derived from an apathogenic reassortant type A H5N1 influenza strain could induce immune responses in vivo that mediated protection from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in mice. After two subcutaneous immunizations with formalin-inactivated H5N1 whole virus particles (whole particle vaccine), significant killing specific for cells presenting a nucleoprotein peptide from the vaccine strain of the virus was observed. Similar vaccination with viruses treated with ether and formalin, which are commonly used for humans as ether-split vaccines, induced little or no cytotoxic T-cell response. Furthermore, whole particle vaccines of the apathogenic H5N1 strain were more effective than ether-split vaccines at inducing antibody production able to neutralize a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain. Finally, whole particle vaccines of H5N1 protected mice against infection by an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus more effectively than did ether-split vaccines. These results suggest that formalin-inactivated virus particles of apathogenic strains are effective for induction of both cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and antibody responses against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in vivo, resulting in protection from infection by a highly pathogenic H5N1 virus.
  • Saori Sakabe, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Yoshinari Haraguchi, Norikazu Isoda, Kosuke Soda, Hiroki Takakuwa, Kazue Saijo, Akira Sawata, Katsumi Kume, Junko Hagiwara, Kotaro Tuchiya, Zhifeng Lin, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Takashi Imamura, Takashi Sasaki, Norihide Kokumai, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Hiroshi Kida
    VACCINE 26 17 2127 - 2134 2008年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    During 2001-2004, 41 H7 influenza viruses (2 H7N1 and 39 H7N7 strains) were isolated from fecal samples of migratory ducks that flew from Siberia in the autumn of each year to Japan and Mongolia. A phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the nine representative isolates revealed that they belonged to the Eurasian Lineage and the deduced amino acid sequence at the cleavage site of the HAs represented apathogenic profiles. One of the H7 isolates A/duck/Mongolia/736/02 (H7N7) was chosen from these H7 isolates for the preparation of the test vaccine. To improve the growth potential of A/duck/Mongolia/ 736/02 (H7N7) in chicken embryos, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-2/04 (H7N7) was generated by genetic reassortment between A/duck/Mongolia/736/02 (H7N7) as the donor of the PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NA, and NS genes and A/duck/Hokkaido/49/98 (H9N2) as that of NP and M genes. The test vaccine was prepared as follows; A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-2/04 (H7N7) was propagated in chicken embryos and the virus in the allantoic fluid was inactivated and adjuvanted to form an oil-in-water emulsion. The test vaccine conferred immunity to chickens, completely protecting the manifestation of clinical signs against the challenge with lethal dose of H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. These results indicate that influenza viruses isolated from natural reservoirs are useful for vaccine strains. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kosuke Soda, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Norikazu Isoda, Masahiro Kajihara, Yoshinari Haraguchi, Hitomi Shibuya, Hiromi Yoshida, Takashi Sasaki, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Kazue Saijo, Junko Hagiwara, Hiroshi Kida
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 55 2-3 93 - 98 2008年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    To establish vaccine strains of H5 and H7 influenza viruses, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/04 (H5N1) [Vac-1/04 (H5N1)], A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/07 (H5N1) [Vac-3/07 (H5N1)], and A/duck/Hokkaido/ Vac-2/04 (H7N7) [Vac-2/04 (H7N7)] were generated from non-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from migratory ducks. Vac-1/04 (H5N1) and Vac-3/07 (H5N1) were generated by genetic reassortment between H5N2 or H5N3 virus as an HA gene provider and H7N1 or H6N1 viruses as an NA gene provider. Vac-2/04 (H7N7) was a genetic reassortant obtained using H7N7 and H9 N2 viruses to give high growth character of the H9N2 virus in chicken embryonated eggs. The results of sequence analyses and experimental infections revealed that these H5N1 and H7N7 reassortant viruses were non-pathogenic in chickens and embryos, and had good growth potential in embryonated eggs. These viruses should be useful to develop vaccines against H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

講演・口頭発表等

  • 日本および世界で今冬報告された鳥インフルエンザウイルス  [通常講演]
    磯田典和
    第57回獣医疫学会 2021年03月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 時空間解析を用いた日本における野生イノシシ群での豚コレラ感染拡大評価  [通常講演]
    磯田典和, 馬場開陸, 伊藤聡, 伊藤貢, 迫田義博, 蒔田浩平
    第56回獣医疫学会 2020年09月 口頭発表(一般)
  • 日本における牛ウイルス性下痢症に対する着地検査およびバルク乳検査の費用対効果  [通常講演]
    磯田典和, 浅野明弘, 一條満, 大野浩, 佐藤一彦, 岡本浩一, 中尾茂, 加藤肇, 斉藤一真, 伊藤直樹, 臼井章, 高山裕章, 迫田義博
    平成30年度北海道獣医師会地区学会 2018年08月 口頭発表(一般)
  • Assessment of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in pigs for development of comprehensive management system  [招待講演]
    Norikazu Isoda
    Philippine Society of Animal science 口頭発表(招待・特別)

その他活動・業績

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • 動物の移動およびワクチン接種が牛ウイルス性下痢症の導入リスクに与える影響
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)
    研究期間 : 2019年04月 -2022年03月 
    代表者 : 磯田 典和
     
    2019年度に実施を予定していた、移動履歴有無によるPI牛のコホート調査(実験1)および耳片組織材料を用いた診断感度の確認(実験2)について、未だ実施できていない。これは、当初調査を予定していた地方行政機関との協力が難しくなったことに起因しており、事態が変化した背景として、2018年より本邦にて発生している豚熱の流行が挙げられる。 それを受けて、2019年度はこれら野外フィールドでの疫学調査に協力いただける機関を、今までの研究で得られたネットワークを生かして探していたところ、2020年3月現在で、研究協力を前向きに検討していただける協力機関を見つけることができた。現在は先方での内部調整の結果を待ってはいるが、2020年8月から2021年3月までの期間にて、1)ならびに2)の実験を実施する予定でいる。 当初2019年度に予定していた疫学調査の実施であったが、上記の理由で実施できなかった。しかしながら、2019年度の終わりに研究の協力が可能な機関が見つかったため、2020年度の疫学調査実施のための診断試薬の購入や材料採取道具の用意を進めた。また研究協力機関に出張し、当方の研究計画の紹介および牛ウイルス性下痢症の現状や対策について意見交換も行った。 野外フィールド調査の実施調整だけではなく、2019年度は、当初協力予定期間から分与頂いた血清中の抗体データを用い、ワクチン接種された牛群における牛ウイルス性下痢症のリスクについて評価を行った。当初の予定にはなかったが、これらデータから得られる知見も当初の目的を遂行するために有用であるため、これらデータ解析をまとめ報告する予定である。

教育活動情報

主要な担当授業

  • 獣医科学基礎科目A 人獣共通感染症制御学特論
    開講年度 : 2020年
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 獣医学研究科
  • 国際保健衛生演習
    開講年度 : 2020年
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 国際感染症学院
  • リスク分析学特論
    開講年度 : 2020年
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 国際感染症学院


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