研究者データベース

梶原 将大(カジハラ マサヒロ)
人獣共通感染症国際共同研究所 国際疫学部門
助教

基本情報

所属

  • 人獣共通感染症国際共同研究所 国際疫学部門

職名

  • 助教

学位

  • 博士(獣医学)(北海道大学)

ホームページURL

J-Global ID

研究キーワード

  • マールブルグウイルス   表面糖蛋白質   抗体   エボラウイルス   マールブルグ熱   出芽   フィロウイルス   エボラ出血熱   

研究分野

  • ライフサイエンス / 獣医学
  • ライフサイエンス / 獣医学
  • ライフサイエンス / 獣医学

職歴

  • 2013年 - 2015年 北海道大学 研究員

研究活動情報

論文

  • Takanari Hattori, Takeshi Saito, Kosuke Okuya, Yuji Takahashi, Hiroko Miyamoto, Masahiro Kajihara, Manabu Igarashi, Ayato Takada
    Microbiology Spectrum 2022年07月11日 
    SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are known to cause severe pneumonia in humans. The S protein of these CoVs binds to the ACE2 molecule on the plasma membrane and mediates virus entry into cells.
  • Yongjin Qiu, Martin Simuunza, Masahiro Kajihara, Joseph Ndebe, Ngonda Saasa, Penjani Kapila, Hayato Furumoto, Alice C C Lau, Ryo Nakao, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 11 5 2022年05月10日 
    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs), including emerging and re-emerging zoonoses, are of public health importance worldwide; however, TBDs tend to be overlooked, especially in countries with fewer resources, such as Zambia and Angola. Here, we investigated Rickettsia, Anaplasmataceae, and Apicomplexan pathogens in 59 and 96 adult ticks collected from dogs and cattle, respectively, in Shangombo, a town at the Zambia-Angola border. We detected Richkettsia africae and Rickettsia aeschilimannii in 15.6% of Amblyomma variegatum and 41.7% of Hyalomma truncatum ticks, respectively. Ehrlichia minasensis was detected in 18.8% of H. truncatum, and Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii was determined in Hyalomma marginatum. We also detected Babesia caballi and Theileria velifera in A. variegatum ticks with a 4.4% and 6.7% prevalence, respectively. In addition, Hepatozoon canis was detected in 6.5% of Rhipicephalus lunulatus and 4.3% of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Coinfection of R. aeshilimannii and E. minasensis were observed in 4.2% of H. truncatum. This is the first report of Ca. M. mitochondrii and E. minasensis, and the second report of B. caballi, in the country. Rickettsia africae and R. aeschlimannii are pathogenic to humans, and E. minasensis, B. caballi, T. velifera, and H. canis are pathogenic to animals. Therefore, individuals, clinicians, veterinarians, and pet owners should be aware of the distribution of these pathogens in the area.
  • T. Seikai, A. Takada, A. Hasebe, M. Kajihara, K. Okuya, T. Sekiguchi (Yamada), W. Kakuguchi, S. Konno, Y. Ohiro
    Journal of Hospital Infection 123 179 - 181 2022年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Kosuke Soda, Yukiko Tomioka, Tatsufumi Usui, Yukiko Uno, Yasuko Nagai, Hiroshi Ito, Takahiro Hiono, Tomokazu Tamura, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Masahiro Kajihara, Naganori Nao, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Ayato Takada, Toshihiro Ito
    Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A 51 2 146 - 153 2022年04月 
    The pathogenicity of the H5 subtype high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in Ardeidae bird species has not been investigated yet, despite the increasing infections reported. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the susceptibility of the Ardeidae species, which had already been reported to be susceptible to HPAIVs, to a clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 HPAIV. Juvenile herons (four grey herons, one intermediate egret, two little egrets, and three black-crowned night herons) were intranasally inoculated with 106 50% egg infectious dose of the virus and observed for 10 days. Two of the four grey herons showed lethargy and conjunctivitis; among them, one died at 6 days post-inoculation (dpi). The viruses were transmitted to the other two cohoused naïve grey herons. Some little egrets and black-crowned night herons showing neurological disorders died at 4-5 dpi; these birds mainly shed the virus via the oral route. The viruses predominantly replicated in the brains of birds that died of infection. Seroconversion was observed in most surviving birds, except some black-crowned night herons. These results demonstrate that most Ardeidae species are susceptible to H5 HPAIVs, sometimes with lethal effects. Herons are mostly colonial and often share habitats with Anseriformes, natural hosts of influenza A viruses; therefore, the risks of cluster infection and contribution to viral dissemination should be continuously evaluated. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSClade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 HPAIV causes lethal infections in Ardeidae sp.Viruses are transmitted among grey herons.Some herons with HPAIV showed conjunctivitis or neurological symptoms.HPAIV systemically replicated in herons tissues.
  • Boniface Pongombo Lombe, Takeshi Saito, Hiroko Miyamoto, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Masahiro Kajihara, Masayuki Saijo, Justin Masumu, Takanari Hattori, Manabu Igarashi, Ayato Takada
    Viruses 14 3 2022年03月06日 
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a nairovirus, is a tick-borne zoonotic virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. The CCHFV nucleoprotein (NP) is the antigen most used for serological screening of CCHFV infection in animals and humans. To gain insights into antibody epitopes on the NP molecule, we produced recombinant chimeric NPs between CCHFV and Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV), which is another nairovirus, and tested rabbit and mouse antisera/immune ascites, anti-NP monoclonal antibodies, and CCHFV-infected animal/human sera for their reactivities to the NP antigens. We found that the amino acids at positions 161-320 might include dominant epitopes recognized by anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies, whereas cross-reactivity between anti-CCHFV and anti-NSDV antibodies was limited. Their binding capacities were further tested using a series of synthetic peptides whose sequences were derived from CCHFV NP. IgG antibodies in CCHFV-infected monkeys and patients were reactive to some of the synthetic peptide antigens (e.g., amino acid residues at positions 131-150 and 211-230). Only a few peptides were recognized by IgG antibodies in the anti-NSDV serum. These results provide useful information to improve NP-based antibody detection assays as well as antigen detection tests relying on anti-NP monoclonal antibodies.
  • Takeshi Saito, Takanari Hattori, Kosuke Okuya, Rashid Manzoor, Hiroko Miyamoto, Masahiro Kajihara, Ayato Takada
    mBio e0306021  2022年02月15日 
    Like other human-pathogenic arenaviruses, Lujo virus (LUJV) is a causative agent of viral hemorrhagic fever in humans. LUJV infects humans with high mortality rates, but the susceptibilities of other animal species and the molecular determinants of its host specificity remain unknown. We found that mouse- and hamster-derived cell lines (NIH 3T3 and BHK, respectively) were less susceptible to a replication-incompetent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana) pseudotyped with the LUJV glycoprotein (GP) (VSVΔG*-LUJV/GP) than were human-derived cell lines (HEK293T and Huh7). To determine the cellular factors involved in the differential susceptibilities between the human and mouse cell lines, we focused on the CD63 molecule, which is required for pH-activated GP-mediated membrane fusion during LUJV entry into host cells. The exogenous introduction of human CD63, but not mouse or hamster CD63, into BHK cells significantly increased susceptibility to VSVΔG*-LUJV/GP. Using chimeric human-mouse CD63 proteins, we found that the amino acid residues at positions 141 to 150 in the large extracellular loop (LEL) region of CD63 were important for the cellular entry of VSVΔG*-LUJV/GP. By site-directed mutagenesis, we further determined that a phenylalanine at position 143 in human CD63 was the key residue for efficient membrane fusion and VSVΔG*-LUJV/GP infection. Our data suggest that the interaction of LUJV GP with the LEL region of CD63 is essential for cell susceptibility to LUJV, thus providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular entry of LUJV and the host range restriction of this virus. IMPORTANCE Lujo virus (LUJV) infects humans with high mortality rates, but the host range of LUJV remains unknown. We found that rodent-derived cell lines were less susceptible to LUJV infection than were human-derived cell lines, and the differential susceptibilities were determined by the difference of CD63, the intercellular receptor of LUJV. We further identified an amino acid residue on human CD63 important for efficient LUJV infection. These results suggest that the interaction between LUJV glycoprotein and CD63 is one of the important factors determining the host range of LUJV. Our findings on the CD63-regulated susceptibilities of the cell lines to LUJV infection provide important information for the development of anti-LUJV drugs as well as the identification of natural hosts of LUJV. Importantly, our data support a concept explaining the molecular mechanism underlying viral tropisms controlled by endosomal receptors.
  • Benjamin Mubemba, Monicah M Mburu, Katendi Changula, Walter Muleya, Lavel C Moonga, Herman M Chambaro, Masahiro Kajihara, Yongjin Qiu, Yasuko Orba, Kyoko Hayashida, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Douglas E Norris, Philip E Thuma, Phillimon Ndubani, Simbarashe Chitanga, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, Edgar Simulundu
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases 16 2 e0010193  2022年02月 
    BACKGROUND: Although vector-borne zoonotic diseases are a major public health threat globally, they are usually neglected, especially among resource-constrained countries, including those in sub-Saharan Africa. This scoping review examined the current knowledge and identified research gaps of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens in Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Major scientific databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, CABI, Scientific Information Database (SID)) were searched for articles describing vector-borne (mosquitoes, ticks, fleas and tsetse flies) zoonotic pathogens in Zambia. Several mosquito-borne arboviruses have been reported including Yellow fever, Ntaya, Mayaro, Dengue, Zika, West Nile, Chikungunya, Sindbis, and Rift Valley fever viruses. Flea-borne zoonotic pathogens reported include Yersinia pestis and Rickettsia felis. Trypanosoma sp. was the only tsetse fly-borne pathogen identified. Further, tick-borne zoonotic pathogens reported included Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever virus, Rickettsia sp., Anaplasma sp., Ehrlichia sp., Borrelia sp., and Coxiella burnetii. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the presence of many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens circulating in vectors and animals in Zambia. Though reports of human clinical cases were limited, several serological studies provided considerable evidence of zoonotic transmission of vector-borne pathogens in humans. However, the disease burden in humans attributable to vector-borne zoonotic infections could not be ascertained from the available reports and this precludes the formulation of national policies that could help in the control and mitigation of the impact of these diseases in Zambia. Therefore, there is an urgent need to scale-up "One Health" research in emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases to enable the country to prepare for future epidemics, including pandemics.
  • Marvin Collen Phonera, Martin Chitolongo Simuunza, Henson Kainga, Joseph Ndebe, Mwelwa Chembensofu, Elisha Chatanga, Setiala Kanyanda, Katendi Changula, Walter Muleya, Benjamin Mubemba, Simbarashe Chitanga, Masahiro Kajihara, Hirofumi Sawa, Gilson Njunga, Ayato Takada, Edgar Simulundu
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 10 12 2021年12月10日 
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is endemic in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe where it circulates among animals and ticks causing sporadic outbreaks in humans. Although CCHF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological information is lacking in many countries, including Malawi. To assess the risk of CCHF in Malawi, we conducted an epidemiological study in cattle reared by smallholder livestock farmers in central Malawi. A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2020 involving seven districts, four from Kasungu and three from Lilongwe Agriculture Development Divisions. A structured questionnaire was administered to farmers to obtain demographic, animal management, and ecological risk factors data. Sera were collected from randomly selected cattle and screened for CCHF virus (CCHFV) specific antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Ticks were collected from cattle and classified morphologically to species level. An overall CCHFV seropositivity rate of 46.9% (n = 416; 95% CI: 42.0-51.8%) was observed. The seropositivity was significantly associated with the age of cattle (p < 0.001), sex (p < 0.001), presence of ticks in herds (p = 0.01), district (p = 0.025), and type of grazing lands (p = 0.013). Five species of ticks were identified, including Hyalomma truncatum, a known vector of CCHFV. Ticks of the species Hyalomma truncatum were not detected in two districts with the highest seroprevalence for CCHF and vector competency must be further explored in the study area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of serologic evidence of the presence of CCHV among smallholder cattle in central Malawi. This study emphasizes the need for continued monitoring of CCHFV infection among livestock, ticks, and humans for the development of data-based risk mitigation strategies.
  • Yurie Kida, Kosuke Okuya, Takeshi Saito, Junya Yamagishi, Aiko Ohnuma, Takanari Hattori, Hiroko Miyamoto, Rashid Manzoor, Reiko Yoshida, Naganori Nao, Masahiro Kajihara, Tokiko Watanabe, Ayato Takada
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 10 12 2021年12月09日 
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes are derived from their low pathogenic counterparts following the acquisition of multiple basic amino acids in their HA cleavage site. It has been suggested that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure in the viral RNA region that encodes the cleavage site are essential for the acquisition of the polybasic cleavage site. By using a reporter assay to detect non-templated nucleotide insertions, we found that insertions more frequently occurred in the RNA region (29 nucleotide-length) encoding the cleavage site of an H5 HA gene that was predicted to have a stem-loop structure containing consecutive adenines than in a mutated corresponding RNA region that had a disrupted loop structure with fewer adenines. In virus particles generated by using reverse genetics, nucleotide insertions that created additional codons for basic amino acids were found in the RNA region encoding the cleavage site of an H5 HA gene but not in the mutated RNA region. We confirmed the presence of virus clones with the ability to replicate without trypsin in a plaque assay and to cause lethal infection in chicks. These results demonstrate that the stem-loop structure containing consecutive adenines in HA genes is a key molecular determinant for the emergence of H5 HPAIVs.
  • Annie Kalonda, Marvin Phonera, Ngonda Saasa, Masahiro Kajihara, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, Edgar Simulundu
    Viruses 13 12 2021年12月02日 
    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prevalence and current knowledge of influenza A virus (IAV) and influenza D virus (IDV) in non-human mammalian hosts in Africa. PubMed, Google Scholar, Wiley Online Library and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE-WAHIS) were searched for studies on IAV and IDV from 2000 to 2020. Pooled prevalence and seroprevalences were estimated using the quality effects meta-analysis model. The estimated pooled prevalence and seroprevalence of IAV in pigs in Africa was 1.6% (95% CI: 0-5%) and 14.9% (95% CI: 5-28%), respectively. The seroprevalence of IDV was 87.2% (95% CI: 24-100%) in camels, 9.3% (95% CI: 0-24%) in cattle, 2.2% (95% CI: 0-4%) in small ruminants and 0.0% (95% CI: 0-2%) in pigs. In pigs, H1N1 and H1N1pdm09 IAVs were commonly detected. Notably, the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus was also detected in pigs. Other subtypes detected serologically and/or virologically included H3N8 and H7N7 in equids, H1N1, and H3N8 and H5N1 in dogs and cats. Furthermore, various wildlife animals were exposed to different IAV subtypes. For prudent mitigation of influenza epizootics and possible human infections, influenza surveillance efforts in Africa should not neglect non-human mammalian hosts. The impact of IAV and IDV in non-human mammalian hosts in Africa deserves further investigation.
  • Herman M Chambaro, Michihito Sasaki, Walter Muleya, Masahiro Kajihara, Misheck Shawa, Kabemba E Mwape, Hayato Harima, Yongjin Qiu, William W Hall, Paul Fandamu, David Squarre, Edgar Simulundu, Hirofumi Sawa, Yasuko Orba
    Emerging microbes & infections 10 1 2169 - 2172 2021年12月 
    While evidence suggests presence of HEV infection in humans in Zambia, currently, there is no information on its occurrence in domestic pigs. Here, we investigated the presence of HEV antibodies and genome in domestic pigs in Zambia. Sera (n = 484) from domestic pigs were screened for antibodies against HEV by ELISA while genome detection in fecal (n = 25) and liver (n = 100) samples from slaughter pigs was conducted using nested RT-PCR assay. Overall, seroprevalence was 47.7% (231/484) while zoonotic genotype 3 HEV RNA was detected in 16.0% (20/125) of slaughtered pigs. This is the first report to highlight occurrence of HEV infection in domestic pigs in Zambia. This finding suggests possible contamination of the pork supply chain. Moreover, there is a potential risk of zoonotic transmission of HEV to abattoir workers, pig farmers and handlers.
  • Nodoka Kasajima, Keita Matsuno, Hiroko Miyamoto, Masahiro Kajihara, Manabu Igarashi, Ayato Takada
    Viruses 13 11 2021年11月20日 
    Viral protein 35 (VP35) of Ebola virus (EBOV) is a multifunctional protein that mainly acts as a viral polymerase cofactor and an interferon antagonist. VP35 interacts with the viral nucleoprotein (NP) and double-stranded RNA for viral RNA transcription/replication and inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) production, respectively. The C-terminal portion of VP35, which is termed the IFN-inhibitory domain (IID), is important for both functions. To further identify critical regions in this domain, we analyzed the physical properties of the surface of VP35 IID, focusing on hydrophobic patches, which are expected to be functional sites that are involved in interactions with other molecules. Based on the known structural information of VP35 IID, three hydrophobic patches were identified on its surface and their biological importance was investigated using minigenome and IFN-β promoter-reporter assays. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that some of the amino acid substitutions that were predicted to disrupt the hydrophobicity of the patches significantly decreased the efficiency of viral genome replication/transcription due to reduced interaction with NP, suggesting that the hydrophobic patches might be critical for the formation of a replication complex through the interaction with NP. It was also found that the hydrophobic patches were involved in the IFN-inhibitory function of VP35. These results highlight the importance of hydrophobic patches on the surface of EBOV VP35 IID and also indicate that patch analysis is useful for the identification of amino acid residues that directly contribute to protein functions.
  • Hayato Harima, Kosuke Okuya, Masahiro Kajihara, Hirohito Ogawa, Edgar Simulundu, Eugene Bwalya, Yongjin Qiu, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Musso Munyeme, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Takehiko Saito, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Hirofumi Sawa, Aaron S Mweene, Ayato Takada
    Transboundary and emerging diseases 69 4 e931-e943  2021年11月01日 
    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause highly contagious respiratory diseases in humans and animals. In 2009, a swine-origin pandemic H1N1 IAV, designated A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, spread worldwide, and has since frequently been introduced into pig populations. Since novel reassortant IAVs with pandemic potential may emerge in pigs, surveillance for IAV in pigs is therefore necessary not only for the pig industry but also for public health. However, epidemiological information on IAV infection of pigs in Africa remains sparse. In this study, we collected 246 serum and 605 nasal swab samples from pigs in Zambia during the years 2011-2018. Serological analyses revealed that 49% and 32% of the sera collected in 2011 were positive for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, respectively, whereas less than 5.3% of sera collected during the following period (2012-2018) were positive in both serological tests. The positive rate and the neutralization titres to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were higher than those to classical swine H1N1 and H1N2 IAVs. On the other hand, the positive rate for swine H3N2 IAV was very low in the pig population in Zambia in 2011-2018 (5.3% and 0% in HI and neutralization tests, respectively). From nasal swab samples, we isolated one H3N2 and eight H1N1 IAV strains with an isolation rate of 1.5%. Phylogenetic analyses of all eight gene segments revealed that the isolated IAVs were closely related to human IAV strains belonging to A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal H3N2 lineages. Our findings indicate that reverse zoonotic transmission from humans to pigs occurred during the study period in Zambia and highlight the need for continued surveillance to monitor the status of IAVs circulating in swine populations in Africa.
  • Hayato Harima, Michihito Sasaki, Yasuko Orba, Kosuke Okuya, Yongjin Qiu, Christida E Wastika, Katendi Changula, Masahiro Kajihara, Edgar Simulundu, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Yoshiki Eto, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Akihiko Sato, Satoshi Taniguchi, Ayato Takada, Masayuki Saijo, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Hirofumi Sawa
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases 15 9 e0009768  2021年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    BACKGROUND: Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emerging bat-borne zoonotic virus that causes severe respiratory illness in humans. Although PRVs have been identified in fruit bats and humans in Australia and Asia, little is known about the prevalence of PRV infection in Africa. Therefore, this study performed an PRV surveillance in fruit bats in Zambia. METHODS: Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus, n = 47) and straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum, n = 33) captured in Zambia in 2017-2018 were screened for PRV infection using RT-PCR and serum neutralization tests. The complete genome sequence of an isolated PRV strain was determined by next generation sequencing and subjected to BLAST and phylogenetic analyses. Replication capacity and pathogenicity of the strain were investigated using Vero E6 cell cultures and BALB/c mice, respectively. RESULTS: An PRV strain, tentatively named Nachunsulwe-57, was isolated from one Egyptian fruit bat. Serological assays demonstrated that 98% of sera (69/70) collected from Egyptian fruit bats (n = 37) and straw-colored fruit bats (n = 33) had neutralizing antibodies against PRV. Genetic analyses revealed that all 10 genome segments of Nachunsulwe-57 were closely related to a bat-derived Kasama strain found in Uganda. Nachunsulwe-57 showed less efficiency in viral growth and lower pathogenicity in mice than another PRV strain, Miyazaki-Bali/2007, isolated from a patient. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats were found to be seropositive to PRV in Zambia. Importantly, a new PRV strain (Nachunsulwe-57) was isolated from an Egyptian fruit bat in Zambia, which had relatively weak pathogenicity in mice. Taken together, our findings provide new epidemiological insights about PRV infection in bats and indicate the first isolation of an PRV strain that may have low pathogenicity to humans.
  • Rachel Milomba Velu, Geoffrey Kwenda, Liyali Libonda, Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga, Bumbangi Nsoni Flavien, Obvious Nchimunya Chilyabanyama, Michelo Simunyandi, Samuel Bosomprah, Nicholus Chintu Sande, Katendi Changula, Walter Muleya, Monicah Mirai Mburu, Benjamin Mubemba, Simbarashe Chitanga, John Tembo, Matthew Bates, Nathan Kapata, Yasuko Orba, Masahiro Kajihara, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa, Roma Chilengi, Edgar Simulundu
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 10 8 2021年08月10日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viral diseases are a threat to global health. This systematic review aimed to investigate the available evidence of mosquito-borne viral pathogens reported in Zambia. A search of literature was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published from 1 January 1930 to 30 June 2020 using a combination of keywords. Eight mosquito-borne viruses belonging to three families, Togaviridae, Flaviviridae and Phenuiviridae were reported. Three viruses (Chikungunya virus, Mayaro virus, Mwinilunga virus) were reported among the togaviruses whilst four (dengue virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus) were among the flavivirus and only one virus, Rift Valley fever virus, was reported in the Phenuiviridae family. The majority of these mosquito-borne viruses were reported in Western and North-Western provinces. Aedes and Culex species were the main mosquito-borne viral vectors reported. Farming, fishing, movement of people and rain patterns were among factors associated with mosquito-borne viral infection in Zambia. Better diagnostic methods, such as the use of molecular tools, to detect the viruses in potential vectors, humans, and animals, including the recognition of arboviral risk zones and how the viruses circulate, are important for improved surveillance and design of effective prevention and control measures.
  • Yongjin Qiu, Martin Simuunza, Masahiro Kajihara, Herman Chambaro, Hayato Harima, Yoshiki Eto, Edgar Simulundu, David Squarre, Shiho Torii, Ayato Takada, Bernard Mudenda Hang'ombe, Hirofumi Sawa, Chihiro Sugimoto, Ryo Nakao
    Ticks and tick-borne diseases 12 4 101720 - 101720 2021年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Ticks (Ixodidae and Argasidae) are important arthropod vectors of various pathogens that cause human and animal infectious diseases. Many previously published studies on tick-borne pathogens focused on those transmitted by ixodid ticks. Although there are increasing reports of viral pathogens associated with argasid ticks, information on bacterial pathogens they transmit is scarce. The aim of this molecular study was to detect and characterize Rickettsia and Anaplasmataceae in three different argasid tick species, Ornithodoros faini, Ornithodoros moubata, and Argas walkerae collected in Zambia. Rickettsia hoogstraalii and Rickettsia lusitaniae were detected in 77 % (77/100) of Ar. walkerae and 10 % (5/50) of O. faini, respectively. All O. moubata pool samples (n = 124) were negative for rickettsial infections. Anaplasmataceae were detected in 63 % (63/100) of Ar. walkerae and in 82.2 % (102/124) of O. moubata pools, but not in O. faini. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of 16S rRNA and groEL genes revealed that Anaplasma spp. detected in the present study were distinct from previously validated Anaplasma species, indicating that the current knowledge on the diversity and vector range of Anaplasma spp. is incomplete. Our findings highlight new geographical records of R. lusitaniae and R. hoogstraalii and confirm that the wide geographic distribution of these species includes the African continent. The data presented here increase our knowledge on argasid tick-borne bacteria and contribute toward understanding their epidemiology.
  • Toshiya Kobayashi, Elisha Chatanga, Yongjin Qiu, Martin Simuunza, Masahiro Kajihara, Bernard Mudenda Hang'ombe, Yoshiki Eto, Ngonda Saasa, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Edgar Simulundu, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa, Ken Katakura, Nariaki Nonaka, Ryo Nakao
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 10 6 2021年06月21日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Ticks are obligate ectoparasites as they require to feed on their host blood during some or all stages of their life cycle. In addition to the pathogens that ticks harbor and transmit to vertebrate hosts, they also harbor other seemingly nonpathogenic microorganisms including nutritional mutualistic symbionts. Tick nutritional mutualistic symbionts play important roles in the physiology of the host ticks as they are involved in tick reproduction and growth through the supply of B vitamins as well as in pathogen maintenance and propagation. Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLEs) are the most widespread endosymbionts exclusively reported in ticks. Although CLEs have been investigated in ticks in other parts of the world, there is no report of their investigation in ticks in Zambia. To investigate the occurrence of CLEs, their maintenance, and association with host ticks in Zambia, 175 ticks belonging to six genera, namely Amblyomma, Argas, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ornithodoros, and Rhipicephalus, were screened for CLEs, followed by characterization of CLEs by multi-locus sequence typing of the five Coxiella housekeeping genes (dnaK, groEL, rpoB, 16S rRNA, and 23S rRNA). The results showed that 45.7% (n = 80) were positive for CLEs. The comparison of the tick 16S rDNA phylogenetic tree with that of the CLEs concatenated sequences showed that there was a strong correlation between the topology of the trees. The results suggest that most of the CLEs have evolved within tick species, supporting the vertical transmission phenomenon. However, the negative results for CLE in some ticks warrants further investigations of other endosymbionts that the ticks in Zambia may also harbor.
  • Chiho Kaneko, Michihito Sasaki, Ryosuke Omori, Ryo Nakao, Chikako Kataoka-Nakamura, Ladslav Moonga, Joseph Ndebe, Walter Muleya, Edgar Simulundu, Bernard M Hang'ombe, George Dautu, Masahiro Kajihara, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Yongjin Qiu, Naoto Ito, Herman M Chambaro, Chihiro Sugimoto, Hideaki Higashi, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa, Aaron S Mweene, Norikazu Isoda
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 10 6 2021年06月11日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Rabies remains endemic in Zambia. Despite conducting canine vaccinations in Lusaka district, the vaccination coverage and actual seropositivity in the dog population in Lusaka district are rarely evaluated. This study estimated the seropositivity-based immunization coverage in the owned dog population in Lusaka district using the expanded program on immunization cluster survey method. The time-series trend of neutralizing antibodies against rabies in vaccinated dogs was also evaluated. Of 366 dogs in 200 dog-owning households in Lusaka district, blood samples were collected successfully from 251 dogs. In the sampled dogs, 42.2% (106/251) had an antibody titer ≥0.5 IU/mL. When the 115 dogs whose blood was not collected were assumed to be seronegative, the minimum immunization coverage in Lusaka district's owned dog population was estimated at 29.0% (95% confidence interval: 22.4-35.5). It was also found that a single vaccination with certified vaccines is capable of inducing protective levels of antibodies. In contrast, higher antibody titers were observed in multiple-vaccinated dogs than in single-vaccinated dogs, coupled with the observation of a decline in antibody titer over time. These results suggest the importance of continuous booster immunization to maintain herd immunity and provide useful information to plan mass vaccination against rabies in Zambia.
  • Masahiro Kajihara, Martin Simuunza, Ngonda Saasa, George Dautu, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Yongjin Qiu, Ryo Nakao, Yoshiki Eto, Hayato Furumoto, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa, Edgar Simulundu, Shuetsu Fukushi, Shigeru Morikawa, Masayuki Saijo, Jiro Arikawa, Swithine Kabilika, Mwaka Monze, Victor Mukonka, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada, Kumiko Yoshimatsu
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases 15 6 e0009452  2021年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonosis with a high case fatality rate in humans. Although the disease is widely found in Africa, Europe, and Asia, the distribution and genetic diversity of CCHF virus (CCHFV) are poorly understood in African countries. To assess the risks of CCHF in Zambia, where CCHF has never been reported, epidemiologic studies in cattle and ticks were conducted. Through an indirect immunofluorescence assay, CCHFV nucleoprotein-specific serum IgG was detected in 8.4% (88/1,047) of cattle. Among 290 Hyalomma ticks, the principal vector of CCHFV, the viral genome was detected in 11 ticks. Phylogenetic analyses of the CCHFV S and M genome segments revealed that one of the detected viruses was a genetic reassortant between African and Asian strains. This study provides compelling evidence for the presence of CCHFV in Zambia and its transmission to vertebrate hosts.
  • Chiho Kaneko, Ryosuke Omori, Michihito Sasaki, Chikako Kataoka-Nakamura, Edgar Simulundu, Walter Muleya, Ladslav Moonga, Joseph Ndebe, Bernard M Hang'ombe, George Dautu, Yongjin Qiu, Ryo Nakao, Masahiro Kajihara, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Herman M Chambaro, Hideaki Higashi, Chihiro Sugimoto, Hirofumi Sawa, Aaron S Mweene, Ayato Takada, Norikazu Isoda
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases 15 4 e0009222  2021年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    BACKGROUND: An estimated 75% or more of the human rabies cases in Africa occur in rural settings, which underscores the importance of rabies control in these areas. Understanding dog demographics can help design strategies for rabies control and plan and conduct canine mass vaccination campaigns effectively in African countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate domestic dog demographics in Kalambabakali, in the rural Mazabuka District of Zambia. The population of ownerless dogs and the total achievable vaccination coverage among the total dog population was estimated using the capture-recapture-based Bayesian model by conducting a canine mass vaccination campaign. This study revealed that 29% of the domestic dog population was under one year old, and 57.7% of those were under three months old and thus were not eligible for the canine rabies vaccination in Zambia. The population growth was estimated at 15% per annum based on the cross-sectional household survey. The population of ownerless dogs was estimated to be small, with an ownerless-to-owned-dog ratio of 0.01-0.06 in the target zones. The achieved overall vaccination coverage from the first mass vaccination was estimated 19.8-51.6%. This low coverage was principally attributed to the owners' lack of information, unavailability, and dog-handling difficulties. The follow-up mass vaccination campaign achieved an overall coverage of 54.8-76.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This paper indicates the potential for controlling canine rabies through mass vaccination in rural Zambia. Rabies education and responsible dog ownership are required to achieve high and sustainable vaccination coverage. Our findings also propose including puppies below three months old in the target population for rabies vaccination and emphasize that securing an annual enforcement of canine mass vaccination that reaches 70% coverage in the dog population is necessary to maintain protective herd immunity.
  • Edgar Simulundu, Saidon Mbambara, Herman M Chambaro, Karen Sichibalo, Masahiro Kajihara, King S Nalubamba, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, Katendi Changula, Simbarashe Chitanga
    Archives of virology 166 3 915 - 919 2021年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Tick-borne pathogens are an emerging public health threat worldwide. However, information on tick-borne viruses is scanty in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, by RT-PCR, 363 ticks (Amblyomma, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus) in the Namwala and Livingstone districts of Zambia were screened for tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs). TBPVs (L gene) were detected in 19 (5.2%) Rhipicephalus ticks in Namwala. All the detected TBPVs were Shibuyunji viruses. Phylogenetically, they were closely related to American dog tick phlebovirus. This study highlights the possible role of Rhipicephalus ticks as the main host of Shibuyunji virus and suggests that these viruses may be present outside the area where they were initially discovered.
  • Hayato Harima, Yasuko Orba, Shiho Torii, Yongjin Qiu, Masahiro Kajihara, Yoshiki Eto, Naoya Matsuta, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Yuki Eshita, Kentaro Uemura, Keita Matsuno, Michihito Sasaki, Kentaro Yoshii, Ryo Nakao, William W Hall, Ayato Takada, Takashi Abe, Michael T Wolfinger, Martin Simuunza, Hirofumi Sawa
    Scientific reports 11 1 4883 - 4883 2021年03月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) infect mammalian hosts through tick bites and can cause various serious illnesses, such as encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers, both in humans and animals. Despite their importance to public health, there is limited epidemiological information on TBFV infection in Africa. Herein, we report that a novel flavivirus, Mpulungu flavivirus (MPFV), was discovered in a Rhipicephalus muhsamae tick in Zambia. MPFV was found to be genetically related to Ngoye virus detected in ticks in Senegal, and these viruses formed a unique lineage in the genus Flavivirus. Analyses of dinucleotide contents of flaviviruses indicated that MPFV was similar to those of other TBFVs with a typical vertebrate genome signature, suggesting that MPFV may infect vertebrate hosts. Bioinformatic analyses of the secondary structures in the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) revealed that MPFV exhibited unique exoribonuclease-resistant RNA (xrRNA) structures. Utilizing biochemical approaches, we clarified that two xrRNA structures of MPFV in the 3'-UTR could prevent exoribonuclease activity. In summary, our findings provide new information regarding the geographical distribution of TBFV and xrRNA structures in the 3'-UTR of flaviviruses.
  • Mulenga Mwenda, Ngonda Saasa, Nyambe Sinyange, George Busby, Peter J Chipimo, Jason Hendry, Otridah Kapona, Samuel Yingst, Jonas Z Hines, Peter Minchella, Edgar Simulundu, Katendi Changula, King Shimumbo Nalubamba, Hirofumi Sawa, Masahiro Kajihara, Junya Yamagishi, Muzala Kapin'a, Nathan Kapata, Sombo Fwoloshi, Paul Zulu, Lloyd B Mulenga, Simon Agolory, Victor Mukonka, Daniel J Bridges
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 70 8 280 - 282 2021年02月26日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The first laboratory-confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, in Zambia were detected in March 2020 (1). Beginning in July, the number of confirmed cases began to increase rapidly, first peaking during July-August, and then declining in September and October (Figure). After 3 months of relatively low case counts, COVID-19 cases began rapidly rising throughout the country in mid-December. On December 18, 2020, South Africa published the genome of a SARS-CoV-2 variant strain with several mutations that affect the spike protein (2). The variant included a mutation (N501Y) associated with increased transmissibility.†,§ SARS-CoV-2 lineages with this mutation have rapidly expanded geographically.¶,** The variant strain (PANGO [Phylogenetic Assignment of Named Global Outbreak] lineage B.1.351††) was first detected in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from specimens collected in early August, spread within South Africa, and appears to have displaced the majority of other SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in that country (2). As of January 10, 2021, eight countries had reported cases with the B.1.351 variant. In Zambia, the average number of daily confirmed COVID-19 cases increased 16-fold, from 44 cases during December 1-10 to 700 during January 1-10, after detection of the B.1.351 variant in specimens collected during December 16-23. Zambia is a southern African country that shares substantial commerce and tourism linkages with South Africa, which might have contributed to the transmission of the B.1.351 variant between the two countries.
  • Boniface Pongombo Lombe, Hiroko Miyamoto, Takeshi Saito, Reiko Yoshida, Rashid Manzoor, Masahiro Kajihara, Masayuki Shimojima, Shuetsu Fukushi, Shigeru Morikawa, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Takeshi Kurosu, Masayuki Saijo, Qing Tang, Justin Masumu, David Hawman, Heinz Feldmann, Ayato Takada
    Scientific reports 11 1 2324 - 2324 2021年01月27日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes a zoonotic disease, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Southeastern Europe. However, the prevalence of CCHF is not monitored in most of the endemic countries due to limited availability of diagnostic assays and biosafety regulations required for handling infectious CCHFV. In this study, we established a protocol to purify the recombinant CCHFV nucleoprotein (NP), which is antigenically highly conserved among multiple lineages/clades of CCHFVs and investigated its utility in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect CCHFV-specific antibodies. The NP gene was cloned into the pCAGGS mammalian expression plasmid and human embryonic kidney 293 T cells were transfected with the plasmid. The expressed NP molecule was purified from the cell lysate using cesium-chloride gradient centrifugation. Purified NP was used as the antigen for the ELISA to detect anti-CCHFV IgG. Using the CCHFV NP-based ELISA, we efficiently detected CCHFV-specific IgG in anti-NP rabbit antiserum and CCHFV-infected monkey serum. When compared to the commercially available Blackbox CCHFV IgG ELISA kit, our assay showed equivalent performance in detecting CCHFV-specific IgG in human sera. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our CCHFV NP-based ELISA for seroepidemiological studies.
  • Edgar Simulundu, Francis Mupeta, Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Ngonda Saasa, Katendi Changula, Walter Muleya, Simbarashe Chitanga, Miniva Mwanza, Paul Simusika, Herman Chambaro, Benjamin Mubemba, Masahiro Kajihara, Duncan Chanda, Lloyd Mulenga, Sombo Fwoloshi, Aaron Lunda Shibemba, Fred Kapaya, Paul Zulu, Kunda Musonda, Mwaka Monze, Nyambe Sinyange, Mazyanga L Mazaba, Muzala Kapin'a, Peter J Chipimo, Raymond Hamoonga, Davie Simwaba, William Ngosa, Albertina N Morales, Nkomba Kayeyi, John Tembo, Mathew Bates, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, King S Nalubamba, Kennedy Malama, Victor Mukonka, Alimuddin Zumla, Nathan Kapata
    International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 102 455 - 459 2021年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Since its first discovery in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has spread rapidly worldwide. While African countries were relatively spared initially, the initial low incidence of COVID-19 cases was not sustained for long due to continuing travel links between China, Europe and Africa. In preparation, Zambia had applied a multisectoral national epidemic disease surveillance and response system resulting in the identification of the first case within 48 h of the individual entering the country by air travel from a trip to France. Contact tracing showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection was contained within the patient's household, with no further spread to attending health care workers or community members. Phylogenomic analysis of the patient's SARS-CoV-2 strain showed that it belonged to lineage B.1.1., sharing the last common ancestor with SARS-CoV-2 strains recovered from South Africa. At the African continental level, our analysis showed that B.1 and B.1.1 lineages appear to be predominant in Africa. Whole genome sequence analysis should be part of all surveillance and case detection activities in order to monitor the origin and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 lineages across Africa.
  • Mao Isono, Wakako Furuyama, Makoto Kuroda, Tatsunari Kondoh, Manabu Igarashi, Masahiro Kajihara, Reiko Yoshida, Rashid Manzoor, Kosuke Okuya, Hiroko Miyamoto, Heinz Feldmann, Andrea Marzi, Masahiro Sakaitani, Asuka Nanbo, Ayato Takada
    Antiviral research 183 104932 - 104932 2020年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses, members of the family Filoviridae, are known to cause fatal diseases often associated with hemorrhagic fever. Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in West African countries and the Democratic Republic of the Congo have made clear the urgent need for the development of therapeutics and vaccines against filoviruses. Using replication-incompetent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped with the Ebola virus (EBOV) envelope glycoprotein (GP), we screened a chemical compound library to obtain new drug candidates that inhibit filoviral entry into target cells. We discovered a biaryl sulfonamide derivative that suppressed in vitro infection mediated by GPs derived from all known human-pathogenic filoviruses. To determine the inhibitory mechanism of the compound, we monitored each entry step (attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion) using lipophilic tracer-labeled ebolavirus-like particles and found that the compound efficiently blocked fusion between the viral envelope and the endosomal membrane during cellular entry. However, the compound did not block the interaction of GP with the Niemann-Pick C1 protein, which is believed to be the receptor of filoviruses. Using replication-competent VSVs pseudotyped with EBOV GP, we selected escape mutants and identified two EBOV GP amino acid residues (positions 47 and 66) important for the interaction with this compound. Interestingly, these amino acid residues were located at the base region of the GP trimer, suggesting that the compound might interfere with the GP conformational change required for membrane fusion. These results suggest that this biaryl sulfonamide derivative is a novel fusion inhibitor and a possible drug candidate for the development of a pan-filovirus therapeutic.
  • Yoshihiro Takadate, Rashid Manzoor, Takeshi Saito, Yurie Kida, Junki Maruyama, Tatsunari Kondoh, Hiroko Miyamoto, Hirohito Ogawa, Masahiro Kajihara, Manabu Igarashi, Ayato Takada
    Microorganisms 8 10 2020年10月05日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Lloviu virus (LLOV), a bat-derived filovirus that is phylogenetically distinct from human pathogenic filoviruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), was discovered in Europe. However, since infectious LLOV has never been isolated, the biological properties of this virus remain poorly understood. We found that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped with the glycoprotein (GP) of LLOV (VSV-LLOV) showed higher infectivity in one bat (Miniopterus sp.)-derived cell line than in the other bat-derived cell lines tested, which was distinct from the tropism of VSV pseudotyped with EBOV (VSV-EBOV) and MARV GPs. We then focused on the interaction between GP and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein, one of the cellular receptors of filoviruses. We introduced the Miniopterus bat and human NPC1 genes into NPC1-knockout Vero E6 cells and their susceptibilities to the viruses were compared. The cell line expressing the bat NPC1 showed higher susceptibility to VSV-LLOV than that expressing human NPC1, whereas the opposite preference was seen for VSV-EBOV. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, amino acid residues involved in the differential tropism were identified in the NPC1 and GP molecules. Our results suggest that the interaction between GP and NPC1 is an important factor in the tropism of LLOV to a particular bat species.
  • Annie Kalonda, Ngonda Saasa, Panji Nkhoma, Masahiro Kajihara, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, Edgar Simulundu
    Viruses 12 9 2020年09月07日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    In the recent past, sub-Saharan Africa has not escaped the devastating effects of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry and wild birds. This systematic review describes the prevalence, spatiotemporal distribution, and virus subtypes detected in domestic and wild birds for the past two decades (2000-2019). We collected data from three electronic databases, PubMed, SpringerLink electronic journals and African Journals Online, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol. A total of 1656 articles were reviewed, from which 68 were selected. An overall prevalence of 3.0% AIV in birds was observed. The prevalence varied between regions and ranged from 1.1% to 7.1%. The Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test showed no significant difference in the prevalence of AIV across regions, χ2(3) = 5.237, p = 0.1553 and seasons, T = 820, z = -1.244, p = 0.2136. Nineteen hemagglutinin/neuraminidase subtype combinations were detected during the reviewed period, with southern Africa recording more diverse AIV subtypes than other regions. The most detected subtype was H5N1, followed by H9N2, H5N2, H5N8 and H6N2. Whilst these predominant subtypes were mostly detected in domestic poultry, H1N6, H3N6, H4N6, H4N8, H9N1 and H11N9 were exclusively detected in wild birds. Meanwhile, H5N1, H5N2 and H5N8 were detected in both wild and domestic birds suggesting circulation of these subtypes among wild and domestic birds. Our findings provide critical information on the eco-epidemiology of AIVs that can be used to improve surveillance strategies for the prevention and control of avian influenza in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Hayato Harima, Michihito Sasaki, Masahiro Kajihara, Gabriel Gonzalez, Edgar Simulundu, Eugene C Bwalya, Yongjin Qiu, Kosuke Okuya, Mao Isono, Yasuko Orba, Ayato Takada, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Aaron S Mweene, Hirofumi Sawa
    The Journal of general virology 101 10 1027 - 1036 2020年07月24日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) has been identified in humans, livestock and wild animals; this wide host range allows individual MRV to transmit into multiple species. Although several interspecies transmission and genetic reassortment events of MRVs among humans, livestock and wildlife have been reported, the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of MRVs in Africa are poorly understood. In this study, we report the first isolation and characterization of MRVs circulating in a pig population in Zambia. In our screening, MRV genomes were detected in 19.7 % (29/147) of faecal samples collected from pigs by reverse transcription PCR. Three infectious MRV strains (MRV-85, MRV-96 and MRV-117) were successfully isolated, and their complete genomes were sequenced. Recombination analyses based on the complete genome sequences of the isolated MRVs demonstrated that MRV-96 shared the S3 segment with a different MRV isolated from bats, and that the L1 and M3 segments of MRV-117 originated from bat and human MRVs, respectively. Our results suggest that the isolated MRVs emerged through genetic reassortment events with interspecies transmission. Given the lack of information regarding MRVs in Africa, further surveillance of MRVs circulating among humans, domestic animals and wildlife is required to assess potential risk for humans and animals.
  • Kosuke Okuya, Nao Eguchi, Rashid Manzoor, Reiko Yoshida, Shinji Saito, Tadaki Suzuki, Michihito Sasaki, Takeshi Saito, Yurie Kida, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Hiroko Miyamoto, Osamu Ichii, Masahiro Kajihara, Hideaki Higashi, Ayato Takada
    Viruses 12 7 2020年07月20日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The influenza A virus (IAV) matrix-2 (M2) protein is an antigenically conserved viral envelope protein that plays an important role in virus budding together with another envelope protein, hemagglutinin (HA). An M2-specific mouse monoclonal IgG antibody, rM2ss23, which binds to the ectodomain of the M2 protein, has been shown to be a non-neutralizing antibody, but inhibits plaque formation of IAV strains. In this study, we generated chimeric rM2ss23 (ch-rM2ss23) IgG and IgA antibodies with the same variable region and compared their antiviral activities. Using gel chromatography, ch-rM2ss23 IgA were divided into three antibody subsets: monomeric IgA (m-IgA), dimeric IgA (d-IgA), and trimeric and tetrameric IgA (t/q-IgA). We found that t/q-IgA had a significantly higher capacity to reduce the plaque size of IAVs than IgG and m-IgA, most likely due to the decreased number of progeny virus particles produced from infected cells. Interestingly, HA-M2 colocalization was remarkably reduced on the infected cell surface in the presence of ch-rM2ss23 antibodies. These results indicate that anti-M2 polymeric IgA restricts IAV budding more efficiently than IgG and suggest a role of anti-M2 IgA in cross-protective immunity to IAVs.
  • Charles M. Mubita, Bwalya J. Muma, King Nalubamba, Girja Shanker Pandey, Kenny Samui, Musso Munyeme, Kajihara Masahiro, Yongjin Qiu, Ngonda Saasa, Bernard M. Hang'ombe
    Scientific African 8 e00345 - e00345 2020年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Yongjin Qiu, Masahiro Kajihara, Ryo Nakao, Evans Mulenga, Hayato Harima, Bernard Mudenda Hang'ombe, Yoshiki Eto, Katendi Changula, Daniel Mwizabi, Hirofumi Sawa, Hideaki Higashi, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada, Martin Simuunza, Chihiro Sugimoto
    Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 9 6 2020年06月13日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bat-associated bartonellae, including Bartonella mayotimonensis and Candidatus Bartonella rousetti, were recently identified as emerging and potential zoonotic agents, respectively. However, there is no report of bat-associated bartonellae in Zambia. Thus, we aimed to isolate and characterize Bartonella spp. from bats and bat flies captured in Zambia by culturing and PCR. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from six out of 36 bats (16.7%), while Bartonella DNA was detected in nine out of 19 bat flies (47.3%). Subsequent characterization using a sequence of five different genes revealed that three isolates obtained from Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) were Ca. B. rousetti. The isolates obtained from insectivorous bats (Macronycteris vittatus) were divided into two previously unclassified bat-associated bartonellae. A phylogenetic analysis of the six genotypes of Bartonella gltA sequences from nine pathogen-positive bat flies revealed that three genotypes belonged to the same clades as bat-associated bartonellae, including Ca. B. rousetti. The other three genotypes represented arthropod-associated bartonellae, which have previously been isolated only from ectoparasites. We demonstrated that Ca. B. rousetti is maintained between bats (R. aegyptiacus) and bat flies in Zambia. Continuous surveillance of Bartonella spp. in bats and serological surveys in humans in Africa are warranted to evaluate the public health importance of bat-associated bartonellae.
  • Herman M Chambaro, Michihito Sasaki, Yona Sinkala, Gabriel Gonzalez, David Squarre, Paul Fandamu, Caesar Lubaba, Liywalii Mataa, Misheck Shawa, Kabemba E Mwape, Sarah Gabriël, Mwelwa Chembensofu, Michael J Carr, William W Hall, Yongjin Qiu, Masahiro Kajihara, Ayato Takada, Yasuko Orba, Edgar Simulundu, Hirofumi Sawa
    Transboundary and emerging diseases 67 6 2741 - 2752 2020年05月20日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    African swine fever (ASF) causes persistent outbreaks in endemic and non-endemic regions in Zambia. However, the epidemiology of the disease is poorly understood, particularly during the inter-epidemic periods. We conducted surveillance for ASF in asymptomatic domestic pigs and soft ticks in selected Zambian provinces. Whilst serum samples (n=1,134) were collected from crossbred pigs from all study sites between 2014 and 2017, whole blood (n=300) was collected from both crossbred and indigenous pigs in Eastern Province (EP) in 2017. Soft ticks were collected from Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park in Southern Province (SP) in 2019. Sera were screened for antibodies against ASF by ELISA while genome detection in whole blood and soft ticks was conducted by PCR. Ticks were identified morphologically and by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Seroprevalence was highest in EP (50.9%, 95% CI [47.0 - 54.9]) compared to significantly lower rates in SP (2.9%, 95% CI [1.6 - 5.1]). No antibodies to ASFV were detected in Lusaka Province. In EP, the prevalence of ASFV genome was 11.7% (35/300), significantly higher (OR = 6.2, 95% CI [2.4 - 16.6]) in indigenous pigs compared to crossbred pigs. The pooled prevalence of ASFV genome in ticks was 11.0%, 95% CI [8.5-13.9]. Free-range husbandry system was the only factor that was significantly associated with seropositive (p < 0.0001, OR = 39.3) and PCR positive results (p < 0.001, OR = 5.7). Phylogenetically, based on the p72 gene, ASFV from Ornithodoros moubata ticks detected in this study belonged to genotype I, but they separated into two distinct clusters. Besides confirming ASF endemicity in EP and the presence of ASFV-infected ticks in SP, these results provide evidence for exposure of domestic pigs to ASFV in non-endemic regions during the inter-epidemic period.
  • Kosuke Okuya, Reiko Yoshida, Rashid Manzoor, Shinji Saito, Tadaki Suzuki, Michihito Sasaki, Takeshi Saito, Yurie Kida, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Tatsunari Kondoh, Masahiro Sato, Masahiro Kajihara, Hiroko Miyamoto, Osamu Ichii, Hideaki Higashi, Ayato Takada
    Journal of virology 94 12 2020年04月08日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    IgA antibodies on mucosal surfaces are known to play an important role in protection from influenza A virus (IAV) infection and are believed to be more potent than IgG for cross-protective immunity against IAVs of multiple hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. However, in general, neutralizing antibodies specific to HA are principally HA subtype-specific. Here we focus on non-neutralizing but broadly cross-reactive HA-specific IgA antibodies. Recombinant IgG, monomeric IgA (mIgA), and polymeric secretory IgA (pSIgA) antibodies were generated based on the sequence of a mouse anti-HA monoclonal antibody (MAb) 5A5 that had no neutralizing activity but showed broad binding capacity to multiple HA subtypes. While confirming that there was no neutralizing activity of the recombinant MAbs against IAV strains A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1), A/Adachi/2/1957 (H2N2), A/Hong Kong/483/1997 (H5N1), A/shearwater/South Australia/1/1972 (H6N5), A/duck/England/1/1956 (H11N6), and A/duck/Alberta/60/1976 (H12N5), we found that pSIgA, but not mIgA and IgG, significantly reduced budding and release of most of the viruses from infected cells. Electron microscopy demonstrated that pSIgA deposited newly produced virus particles on the surfaces of infected cells, most likely due to tethering of virus particles. Furthermore, we found that pSIgA showed significantly higher activity to reduce plaque sizes of the viruses than IgG and mIgA. These results suggest that non-neutralizing pSIgA reactive to multiple HA subtypes may play a role in inter-subtype cross-protective immunity against IAVs.Importance Mucosal immunity represented by pSIgA plays important roles in protection from IAV infection. Furthermore, IAV HA-specific pSIgA antibodies are thought to contribute to cross-protective immunity against multiple IAV subtypes. However, the mechanisms by which pSIgA exerts such versatile antiviral activity are not fully understood. In this study, we generated broadly cross-reactive recombinant IgG and pSIgA having the same antigen-recognition site and compared their antiviral activities in vitro These recombinant antibodies did not show "classical" neutralizing activity, whereas pSIgA, but not IgG, significantly inhibited the production of progeny virus particles from infected cells. Plaque formation was also significantly reduced by pSIgA, but not IgG. These effects were seen in infection with IAVs of several different HA subtypes. Based on our findings, we propose an antibody-mediated host defense mechanism by which mucosal immunity may contribute to broad cross-protection from IAVs of multiple HA subtypes, including viruses with pandemic potential.
  • Edgar Simulundu, Kunda Ndashe, Herman M Chambaro, David Squarre, Paul Michael Reilly, Simbarashe Chitanga, Katendi Changula, Andrew N Mukubesa, Joseph Ndebe, John Tembo, Nathan Kapata, Matthew Bates, Yona Sinkala, Bernard M Hang'ombe, King S Nalubamba, Masahiro Kajihara, Michihito Sasaki, Yasuko Orba, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa
    Emerging infectious diseases 26 4 811 - 814 2020年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We detected West Nile virus (WNV) nucleic acid in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zambia. Phylogenetically, the virus belonged to lineage 1a, which is predominant in the Northern Hemisphere. These data provide evidence that WNV is circulating in crocodiles in Africa and increases the risk for animal and human transmission.
  • Hayato Harima, Masahiro Kajihara, Edgar Simulundu, Eugene Bwalya, Yongjin Qiu, Mao Isono, Kosuke Okuya, Gabriel Gonzalez, Junya Yamagishi, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Hirofumi Sawa, Aaron S Mweene, Ayato Takada
    Viruses 12 2 2020年02月05日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) has been detected worldwide in pig populations. Although PSV causes various symptoms such as encephalomyelitis, diarrhea, and pneumonia in pigs, the economic impact of PSV infection remains to be determined. However, information on the distribution and genetic diversity of PSV is quite limited, particularly in Africa. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of PSV infection in Zambia and characterized the isolated PSVs genetically and biologically. We screened 147 fecal samples collected in 2018 and found that the prevalences of PSV infection in suckling pigs and fattening pigs were high (36.2% and 94.0%, respectively). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Zambian PSVs were divided into three different lineages (Lineages 1-3) in the clade consisting of Chinese strains. The Zambian PSVs belonging to Lineages 2 and 3 replicated more efficiently than those belonging to Lineage 1 in Vero E6 and BHK cells. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that genetic recombination events had occurred and the recombination breakpoints were located in the L and 2A genes. Our results indicated that at least two biologically distinct PSVs could be circulating in the Zambian pig population and that genetic recombination played a role in the evolution of PSVs.
  • Hayato Harima, Michihito Sasaki, Masahiro Kajihara, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Katendi Changula, Yasuko Orba, Hirohito Ogawa, Martin Simuunza, Reiko Yoshida, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa
    The Journal of veterinary medical science 82 2 162 - 167 2020年02月04日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Orthoreoviruses have been indentified in several mammals, however, there is no information about orthoreoviruses in shrews. In this study, we screened wild animals in Zambia, including shrews, rodents, and bats for the detection of orthoreoviruses. Two orthoreovirus RNA genomes were detected from a shrew intestinal-contents (1/24) and a bat colon (1/96) sample by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of orthoreoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that each of the identified orthoreoviruses formed a distinct branch among members of the Orthoreovirus genus. This is the first report that shrews are susceptible to orthoreovirus infection. Our results suggest the existence of undiscovered orthoreoviruses in shrews and provide important information about the genetic diversity of orthoreoviruses.
  • Yoshihiro Takadate, Tatsunari Kondoh, Manabu Igarashi, Junki Maruyama, Rashid Manzoor, Hirohito Ogawa, Masahiro Kajihara, Wakako Furuyama, Masahiro Sato, Hiroko Miyamoto, Reiko Yoshida, Terence E Hill, Alexander N Freiberg, Heinz Feldmann, Andrea Marzi, Ayato Takada
    Cell reports 30 2 308 - 319 2020年01月14日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Fruit bats are suspected to be natural hosts of filoviruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV). Interestingly, however, previous studies suggest that these viruses have different tropisms depending on the bat species. Here, we show a molecular basis underlying the host-range restriction of filoviruses. We find that bat-derived cell lines FBKT1 and ZFBK13-76E show preferential susceptibility to EBOV and MARV, respectively, whereas the other bat cell lines tested are similarly infected with both viruses. In FBKT1 and ZFBK13-76E, unique amino acid (aa) sequences are found in the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein, one of the cellular receptors interacting with the filovirus glycoprotein (GP). These aa residues, as well as a few aa differences between EBOV and MARV GPs, are crucial for the differential susceptibility to filoviruses. Taken together, our findings indicate that the heterogeneity of bat NPC1 orthologs is an important factor controlling filovirus species-specific host tropism.
  • Abdel-Amir Dib Halawi, Ngonda Saasa, Boniface Lombe Pongombo, Masahiro Kajihara, Herman Moses Chambaro, Mutambel Hity, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, Aaron S Mweene, Luamba Lua Nsembo, Edgar Simulundu
    Tropical animal health and production 51 8 2619 - 2627 2019年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne disease caused by RVF virus (RVFV) that causes abortions and high mortalities in livestock and is also associated with acute and fatal disease in humans. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), information on the epidemiology of RVF is limited, particularly among cattle reared by smallholder farmers. This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of RVF in cattle raised by smallholder farmers in Kwilu Province of DRC, which has not yet reported an RVF epidemic. A total of 677 cattle sera were collected from four territories and tested for anti-RVFV antibodies using immunofluorescent assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overall seroprevalence of anti-RVFV IgG was 6.5% (44/677) (95% CI 4.81-8.7). There was a statistically significant difference in the seroprevalence among the territories (χ2 = 28.79, p < 0.001). Territory seroprevalences were as follows: Idiofa 14.08% (95% CI 9.78-19.76), Bulungu 4.14% (95% CI 1.83-8.68), Gungu 3.21% (95% CI 1.41-6.78), and Masi-Manimba 1.19% (95% CI 0.06-7.37). Seroprevalence differed significantly among age categories (p = 0.0017) and ecosystem (p < 0.001). The seroprevalence of animals aged between 1 and 2 years was 20.0% (95% CI 8.4-39.13) and was higher than group aged <1 year, between 2 and 3 years, and > 3 years. Forest area (18.92% (95% CI 12.35-27.7)) had higher seropositivity than savannah area (4.06% (95% CI 2.65-6.12)). Sex difference was not significant (χ2 = 0.14, p = 0.704). These findings indicate that cattle in Kwilu Province had been exposed to RVFV, which represents a significant risk for both livestock and human health.
  • Mundia M Phiri, Evans Kaimoyo, Katendi Changula, Isaac Silwamba, Herman M Chambaro, Penjaninge Kapila, Masahiro Kajihara, Martin Simuunza, John Bwalya Muma, Girja S Pandey, Ayato Takada, Aaron S Mweene, Simbarashe Chitanga, Edgar Simulundu
    Archives of virology 164 10 2531 - 2536 2019年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Whilst bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide, information on its molecular epidemiology and economic impact in beef cattle is limited. Here, blood from 880 animals from Zambia's major cattle-rearing provinces was screened for BLV by nested PCR. Positive pools were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The estimated pooled prevalence was 2.1%. All strains belonged to genotype 1 and formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster. The study suggests circulation of genotype 1 BLV in beef cattle in these regions. This is the first report on molecular detection and characterization of BLV from beef cattle in Africa.
  • Muleya W, Chambaro HM, Sasaki M, Gwenhure LF, Mwenechanya R, Kajihara M, Saasa N, Mupila Z, Mori-Kajihara A, Qiu Y, Kangwa E, Mweene A, Namangala B, Takada A, Sawa H
    Virus genes 55 5 713 - 719 2019年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Rabies is endemic in Zambia and Zimbabwe. The previously investigated strains of rabies virus in central Zambia belong to the Africa 1b lineage, with similar circulating virus strains found in the various tested hosts and regions. However, prior work assessed only limited regions and host species. Thus, this study aimed to more comprehensively determine the genetic diversity of rabies virus across regions of Zambia and Zimbabwe. RNA (n = 76) was extracted from positive direct fluorescent antibody test brain tissues from dog, cow, goat, cat, pig, human, and jackal collected from Zambia and Zimbabwe. The amplicons of the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes were obtained from all examined samples by nested RT-PCR and subsequently sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis of the N gene confirmed that all the endemic strains of rabies virus in Zambia and Zimbabwe belong to the Africa 1b lineage. The obtained viral gene sequences were phylogenetically divided into two clusters. Cluster II comprised only Zambian strains. In contrast, cluster I comprised both Zambia and Zimbabwe strains, with strains from Zimbabwe forming a distinct lineage from Zambian strains, implying viral genetic divergence due to geographical barriers. However, no evidence of clustering based on host or region was observed, implying the circulation of similar virus strains occurs in different hosts and regions of Zambia and Zimbabwe. The clustering of rabies virus strains from jackals with those from domestic animals provides evidence of similar virus strains circulating in both wildlife and domestic animals, and that the jackal might be one of the potential reservoirs of rabies virus infection. In this study, no strains circulating in Zimbabwe were detected in Zambia.
  • マダニ中のフレボウイルスの遺伝子系統解析に基づく性状推定
    松野 啓太, 中尾 亮, 梶原 将大, 下田 宙, 海老原 秀喜, 高田 礼人, 前田 健, 岡松 正敏, 迫田 義博
    日本獣医学会学術集会講演要旨集 162回 400 - 400 (公社)日本獣医学会 2019年08月
  • Kajihara M, Hang'ombe BM, Changula K, Harima H, Isono M, Okuya K, Yoshida R, Mori-Kajihara A, Eto Y, Orba Y, Ogawa H, Qiu Y, Sawa H, Simulundu E, Mwizabi D, Munyeme M, Squarre D, Mukonka V, Mweene A, Takada A
    Emerging infectious diseases 25 8 1577 - 1580 2019年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We detected Marburg virus genome in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) captured in Zambia in September 2018. The virus was closely related phylogenetically to the viruses that previously caused Marburg outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This finding demonstrates that Zambia is at risk for Marburg virus disease.
  • Sheila Makiala, Daniel Mukadi, Anja De Weggheleire, Shino Muramatsu, Daisuke Kato, Koichi Inano, Fumio Gondaira, Masahiro Kajihara, Reiko Yoshida, Katendi Changula, Aaron Mweene, Placide Mbala-Kingebeni, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Justin Masumu, Steve Ahuka, Ayato Takada
    Viruses 11 7 2019年06月28日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The recent large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have highlighted the need for rapid diagnostic tests to control this disease. In this study, we clinically evaluated a previously developed immunochromatography-based kit, QuickNaviTM-Ebola. During the 2018 outbreaks in DRC, 928 blood samples from EVD-suspected cases were tested with QuickNaviTM-Ebola and the WHO-approved GeneXpert. The sensitivity and specificity of QuickNaviTM-Ebola, estimated by comparing it to GeneXpert-confirmed cases, were 85% (68/80) and 99.8% (846/848), respectively. These results indicate the practical reliability of QuickNaviTM-Ebola for point-of-care diagnosis of EVD.
  • Yongjin Qiu, Ryo Nakao, Bernard Mudenda Hang'ombe, Kozue Sato, Masahiro Kajihara, Sharon Kanchela, Katendi Changula, Yoshiki Eto, Joseph Ndebe, Michihito Sasaki, May June Thu, Ayato Takada, Hirohumi Sawa, Chihiro Sugimoto, Hiroki Kawabata
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 69 1 107 - 112 2019年06月18日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    BACKGROUND: Relapsing fever is an infectious disease previously neglected in Africa, which imposes a large public health burden in the country. We aimed to investigate and report on a case of relapsing fever borreliosis in Zambia. METHODS: A previously unknown Borrelia species was isolated from the blood of a febrile patient. Investigations of the presumptive vector ticks and natural hosts for the Borrelia species were conducted by culture isolation and/or DNA detection by Borrelia-specific polymerase chain reaction. Using culture isolates from the patient and bat specimens, genetic characterization was performed by multilocus sequence analysis based on the draft genome sequences. RESULTS: The febrile patient was diagnosed with relapsing fever. The isolated Borrelia species was frequently detected in Ornithodoros faini (n = 20/50 [40%]) and bats (n = 64/237 [27%]). Multilocus sequence analysis based on a draft genome sequence revealed that the Borrelia species isolates from the patient and presumptive reservoir host (bats) formed a monophyletic lineage that clustered with relapsing fever borreliae found in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: A febrile illness caused by a Borrelia species that was treatable with erythromycin was identified in Zambia. This is the first study to report on relapsing fever Borrelia in Zambia and suggesting the likely natural reservoir hosts of the isolated Borrelia species. Interestingly, the isolated Borrelia species was more closely related to New World relapsing fever borreliae, despite being detected in the Afrotropic ecozone.
  • Qiu Y, Simuunza M, Mwizabi D, Changula K, Harima H, Takada A, Kajihara M, Takadate Y, Nakao R, Kawabata H, Sugimoto C, Mweene A, Sawa H, Eto Y, Mudenda Hang’ombe B, Hayashida K, Yoshida R, Mori-Kajihara A, Ndebe J
    International Journal for Parasitology 9 234 - 238 2019年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bat trypanosomes consist of more than 30 trypanosome species from over 70 species of bats. Recent studies suggest that bats play a role in disseminating trypanosomes from African continent to the terrestrial mammals both in the Afrotropic-Palearctic Ecozones and Nearctic Ecozone. However, the diversity, distribution, and evolution of bat trypanosomes are still unclear. To better understand their evolution, more genetic data of bat trypanosomes from a variety of locations are required. During a survey of Borrelia spp. of bats inhabiting a cave in Zambia, we observed flagellate parasites from 5 of 43 hemocultures. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gGAPDH; 572 bp) and the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA gene; 1,079-1,091 bp) revealed that all were Trypanosoma spp. belonged to the Trypanosoma cruzi clade. Three and two of them exhibited the similarity with T. conorhini and T. dionisii, respectively. The present study provides the first genetic data on Trypanosoma spp. of bats inhabiting Zambia.
  • Thu MJ, Qiu Y, Matsuno K, Kajihara M, Mori-Kajihara A, Omori R, Monma N, Chiba K, Seto J, Gokuden M, Andoh M, Oosako H, Katakura K, Takada A, Sugimoto C, Isoda N, Nakao R
    Scientific reports 9 1 1500 - 1500 2019年02月06日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria mainly associated with ticks. In Japan, several hundred cases of Japanese spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia japonica, are reported annually. Other Rickettsia species are also known to exist in ixodid ticks; however, their phylogenetic position and pathogenic potential are poorly understood. We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey on questing ticks to understand the overall diversity of SFG rickettsiae in Japan. Out of 2,189 individuals (19 tick species in 4 genera), 373 (17.0%) samples were positive for Rickettsia spp. as ascertained by real-time PCR amplification of the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Conventional PCR and sequencing analyses of gltA indicated the presence of 15 different genotypes of SFG rickettsiae. Based on the analysis of five additional genes, we characterised five Rickettsia species; R. asiatica, R. helvetica, R. monacensis (formerly reported as Rickettsia sp. In56 in Japan), R. tamurae, and Candidatus R. tarasevichiae and several unclassified SFG rickettsiae. We also found a strong association between rickettsial genotypes and their host tick species, while there was little association between rickettsial genotypes and their geographical origins. These observations suggested that most of the SFG rickettsiae have a limited host range and are maintained in certain tick species in the natural environment.
  • Sato M, Maruyama J, Kondoh T, Nao N, Miyamoto H, Takadate Y, Furuyama W, Kajihara M, Ogawa H, Manzoor R, Yoshida R, Igarashi M, Takada A
    Scientific reports 9 1 1158 - 1158 2019年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Two novel influenza A virus-like genomes were detected in fruit bats in Central and South America. However, the biological properties of these bat-derived influenza viruses (BatIVs) are still largely unknown since infectious viral particles have never been isolated from the infected host species. In this study, a reverse genetics approach was used to generate infectious BatIV particles entirely from plasmids encoding full-length sequences in eight gene segments. We inoculated BatIV particles into various cell cultures including bat-derived cell lines and found that BatIVs infected particular bat-derived cells efficiently but not the other cell lines tested. Reassortant viruses between the two BatIVs were also successfully generated and their replication in the susceptible bat cell lines was confirmed. These findings suggest a limited host range and reassortment potential of BatIVs in nature, providing fundamental information for understanding of the ecology of BatIVs.
  • Shiho Torii, Keita Matsuno, Yongjin Qiu, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Masahiro Kajihara, Ryo Nakao, Naganori Nao, Katsunori Okazaki, Mariko Sashika, Takahiro Hiono, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hideki Ebihara, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa
    Ticks and tick-borne diseases 10 2 328 - 335 2019年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Recent discoveries of tick-borne pathogens have raised public health concerns on tick-borne infectious diseases and emphasize the need to assess potential risks of unrecognized tick-borne pathogens. First, to determine the existence of tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs), genetic surveillance of phleboviruses in ticks was conducted mainly in Hokkaido, the northernmost island in Japan from 2013 to 2015. Genes of two TBPVs, previously reported as Mukawa virus (MKWV) and a newly identified relative of MKWV, Kuriyama virus (KURV), were detected and the viruses were isolated from Ixodes persulcatus collected in Hokkaido, but not in I. persulcatus collected from other areas of Japan. These viruses were phylogenetically and antigenically similar to each other. Next, to investigate the infection of MKWV in mammals, serum samples from wildlife captured in Hokkaido from 2007 to 2011 were used for serological screening. Neutralizing antibodies against MKWV were detected in both Yezo-deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) (2/50) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) (16/64). However, no infectious MKWV was recovered from laboratory mice in experimental infections, though viral RNAs were detected in their tissues. Thus, MKWV and KURV may maintain tick-mammalian life cycles in Hokkaido, suggesting their potential as causative agents of tick-borne diseases in mammals.
  • Katendi Changula, Masahiro Kajihara, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Yoshiki Eto, Hiroko Miyamoto, Reiko Yoshida, Asako Shigeno, Bernard Hang'ombe, Yongjin Qiu, Daniel Mwizabi, David Squarre, Joseph Ndebe, Hirohito Ogawa, Hayato Harima, Edgar Simulundu, Ladslav Moonga, Penjaninge Kapila, Wakako Furuyama, Tatsunari Kondoh, Masahiro Sato, Yoshihiro Takadate, Chiho Kaneko, Ryo Nakao, Victor Mukonka, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada
    The Journal of infectious diseases 218 suppl_5 S312-S317  2018年11月22日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bats are suspected to play important roles in the ecology of filoviruses, including ebolaviruses and marburgviruses. A cave-dwelling fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, has been shown to be a reservoir of marburgviruses. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the viral glycoprotein antigen, we detected immunoglobulin G antibodies specific to multiple filoviruses in 158 of 290 serum samples of R aegyptiacus bats captured in Zambia during the years 2014-2017. In particular, 43.8% of the bats were seropositive to marburgvirus, supporting the notion that this bat species continuously maintains marburgviruses as a reservoir. Of note, distinct peaks of seropositive rates were repeatedly observed at the beginning of rainy seasons, suggesting seasonality of the presence of newly infected individuals in this bat population. These data highlight the need for continued monitoring of filovirus infection in this bat species even in countries where filovirus diseases have not been reported.
  • Michihito Sasaki, Masahiro Kajihara, Katendi Changula, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Hirohito Ogawa, Bernard M. Hang'ombe, Aaron S. Mweene, Martin Simuunza, Reiko Yoshida, Michael Carr, Yasuko Orba, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa
    Infection, Genetics and Evolution 63 104 - 109 2018年09月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is a major cause of diarrhea in children worldwide. Although RVA infects many animals, little is known about RVA in bats. The present study investigated the genetic diversity of RVA in Zambian bats. We identified RVA from two straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) and an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus), and analyzed the genome sequences of these strains. Genome segments of the RVA strains from Zambian E. helvum showed 97%–99% nucleotide sequence identity with those of other RVA strains from E. helvum in Cameroon, which is 2800 km from the sampling locations. These findings suggest that migratory straw-colored fruit bat species, distributed across sub-Saharan Africa, have the potential to disseminate RVA across long distances. By contrast, the RVA strain from Zambian R. aegyptiacus carried highly divergent NSP2 and NSP4 genes, leading us to propose novel genotypes N21 and E27, respectively. Notably, this RVA strain also shared the same genotype for VP6 and NSP3 with the RVA strains from Zambian E. helvum, suggesting interspecies transmission and genetic reassortment may have occurred between these two bat species in the past. Our study has important implications for RVA dispersal in bat populations, and expands our knowledge of the ecology, diversity and evolutionary relationships of RVA.
  • Orba Y, Hang'ombe BM, Mweene AS, Wada Y, Anindita PD, Phongphaew W, Qiu Y, Kajihara M, Mori-Kajihara A, Eto Y, Sasaki M, Hall WW, Eshita Y, Sawa H
    Transboundary and emerging diseases 65 4 933 - 938 2018年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Keita Matsuno, Masahiro Kajihara, Ryo Nakao, Naganori Nao, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Mieko Muramatsu, Yongjin Qiu, Shiho Torii, Manabu Igarashi, Nodoka Kasajima, Keita Mizuma, Kentaro Yoshii, Hirofumi Sawa, Chihiro Sugimoto, Ayato Takada, Hideki Ebihara
    mSphere 3 3 2018年06月27日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The recent emergence of novel tick-borne RNA viruses has complicated the epidemiological landscape of tick-borne infectious diseases, posing a significant challenge to public health systems that seek to counteract tick-borne diseases. The identification of two novel tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs), severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and Heartland virus (HRTV), as causative agents of severe illness in humans has accelerated the investigation and discoveries of novel TBPVs. In the present study, we isolated a novel TBPV designated Mukawa virus (MKWV) from host-questing Ixodes persulcatus females captured in Japan. Genetic characterization revealed that MKWV is a member of the genus Phlebovirus in the family Phenuiviridae Interestingly, MKWV is genetically distinct from other known TBPVs and shares a most recent common ancestor with mosquito/sandfly-borne (insect-borne) phleboviruses. Despite its genetic similarity to insect-borne phleboviruses, the molecular footprints of its viral proteins and its biological characteristics define MKWV as a tick-borne virus that can be transmitted to mammals. A phylogenetic ancestral-state reconstruction for arthropod vectors of phleboviruses including MKWV based on viral L segment sequences indicated that ticks likely harbored ancestral phleboviruses that evolved into both the tick-borne and MKWV/insect-borne phlebovirus lineages. Overall, our findings suggest that most of the phlebovirus evolution has occurred in hard ticks to generate divergent viruses, which may provide a seminal foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying the evolution and emergence of pathogenic phleboviruses, such as Rift Valley fever virus and SFTSV/HRTV.IMPORTANCE The emergence of novel tick-borne RNA viruses causing severe illness in humans has complicated the epidemiological landscape of tick-borne diseases, requiring further investigation to safeguard public health. In the present study, we discovered a novel tick-borne phlebovirus from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Japan. While its viral RNA genome sequences were similar to those of mosquito/sandfly-borne viruses, molecular and biological footprints confirmed that this is a tick-borne virus. The unique evolutionary position of the virus allowed us to estimate the ancestral phlebovirus vector, which was likely a hard tick. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the evolution and emergence of phleboviruses associated with emerging infectious diseases, such as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland virus disease.
  • Marzi A, Haddock E, Kajihara M, Feldmann H, Takada A
    The Journal of infectious diseases 218 suppl_5 S662-S665  2018年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Marburg virus (MARV), family Filoviridae, causes Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) in humans and nonhuman primates with case fatality rates of up to 90%. There is no approved therapeutic for MHF, yet several experimental approaches have been evaluated in preclinical studies including small interfering RNA and monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment. In this study we attempted to improve the therapeutic efficacy of the neutralizing mAb M4 by combining treatment with 1 or 2 of blocking but nonneutralizing mAbs 126-15 and 127-8. We found that single-dose treatment early after infection with the neutralizing mAb M4 or any of the mAb combinations resulted in similar protection in the MARV hamster model. However, a single-dose treatment with the cocktail of all 3 mAbs provided the best protection in delayed treatment, with 67%-100% of the animals surviving a lethal challenge depending on the time of treatment. This study identified a new promising mAb cocktail as a therapeutic option for MHF.
  • Shiho Torii, Yasuko Orba, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Aaron S Mweene, Yuji Wada, Paulina D Anindita, Wallaya Phongphaew, Yongjin Qiu, Masahiro Kajihara, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Yoshiki Eto, Hayato Harima, Michihito Sasaki, Michael Carr, William W Hall, Yuki Eshita, Takashi Abe, Hirofumi Sawa
    Virus research 250 31 - 36 2018年05月02日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Mosquito-borne alphaviruses are disseminated globally and cause febrile illness in humans and animals. Since the prevalence and diversity of alphaviruses has not been previously investigated in Zambia, reverse transcription PCR was employed as a broad-spectrum approach for the detection of alphaviruses in mosquitoes. From 552 mosquito pools, a novel alphavirus, tentatively named Mwinilunga alphavirus (MWAV), was discovered from a single Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito pool. The full genome of MWAV was subsequently determined, and pairwise comparisons demonstrated that MWAV represented a new alphavirus species. Phylogenetic analyses and a linear discriminant analysis based on the dinucleotide ratios in various virus sequences indicated that MWAV is related to a mosquito-specific alphavirus distinct from other known mosquito-borne alphaviruses due to its inability to replicate in vertebrate cell lines. Further analyses of these novel alphaviruses will help to facilitate a greater understanding of the molecular determinants of host range restriction and the evolutionary relationships of alphaviruses.
  • Yongjin Qiu, Chiho Kaneko, Masahiro Kajihara, Saasa Ngonda, Edgar Simulundu, Walter Muleya, May June Thu, Mudenda Bernard Hang'ombe, Ken Katakura, Ayato Takada, Hirofumi Sawa, Martin Simuunza, Ryo Nakao
    Ticks and tick-borne diseases 9 4 988 - 995 2018年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs), including emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, are important threats to human and animal health worldwide. Indeed, the number of reported human and animal infectious cases of novel TBD agents has increased in recent decades. However, TBDs tend to be neglected, especially in resource-limited countries that often have limited diagnostic capacity. The aim of this molecular survey was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens (Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon parasites and Anaplasmataceae bacteria) in domestic dogs in Zambia. In total, 247 canine peripheral blood samples were collected in Lusaka, Mazabuka, Monze, and Shangombo. Conventional PCR to detect the selected pathogens was performed using DNA extracted from canine blood. One hundred eleven samples were positive for protozoa and 5 were positive for Anaplasmataceae. Sequencing of thirty-five randomly selected protozoa-positive samples revealed the presence of Babesia rossi, Babesia vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis 18S rDNA. Based on these sequences, a multiplex PCR system was developed to yield PCR products with different amplicons, the size of which depended on the parasite species; thus, each species could be identified without the need for sequence analysis. Approximately 40% of dogs were positive for H. canis. In particular, the positive rate (75.2%) of H. canis infection was significantly higher in Shangombo than in other sampling sites. Multiplex PCR assay detected B. rossi and B. vogeli infections in five and seven dogs, respectively, indicating that this approach is useful for detecting parasites with low prevalence. Sequencing analysis of gltA and groEL genes of Anaplasmataceae revealed that two and one dogs in Lusaka were infected with Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, respectively. The data indicated that Zambian dogs were infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens such as H. canis, B. rossi, B. vogeli, A. platys, E. canis and uncharacterized Ehrlichia sp. Since some of these parasites are zoonotic, concerted efforts are needed to raise awareness of, and control, these tick-borne pathogens.
  • Ngonda Saasa, Masahiro Kajihara, George Dautu, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Shuetsu Fukushi, Yona Sinkala, Shigeru Morikawa, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa
    Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 18 5 273 - 277 2018年05月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The open reading frame of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) strain MP12 was cloned and expressed in Vero E6 cells. The recombinant NP (rNP)-expressing cells were used as antigens for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The rNP-based IFA and RVFV-infected Vero E6 cell (authentic antigen)-based IFA showed similar IFA profiles with immune rabbit serum, which was prepared by immunization with rNP expressed using a baculovirus vector. A total of 942 traditional cattle sera obtained in five districts in Central, Southern, and Western provinces of Zambia were screened for anti-RVFV antibodies by the authentic antigen-based and rNP-based IFAs. Significant agreement was obtained between the two IFAs. The findings show that the rNP-based IFA is a safe and useful diagnostic tool as an alternative to the authentic antigen-based IFA. The antibody titers given by the rNP-based IFA were higher than those by the authentic antigen-based IFA. Therefore, the rNP-based IFA might be useful for serosurveillance of RVFV infection among cattle. Antibody prevalence rates in the five districts were 1.3% to 13.5% in the authentic antigen-based IFA and 6.0% to 21.4% in the rNP-based IFA. The results indicated that despite no reports of active cases of RVF in these provinces of Zambia, the virus is circulating among cattle herds.
  • Simulundu E, Chambaro HM, Sinkala Y, Kajihara M, Ogawa H, Mori A, Ndebe J, Dautu G, Mataa L, Lubaba CH, Simuntala C, Fandamu P, Simuunza M, Pandey GS, Samui KL, Misinzo G, Takada A, Mweene AS
    Transboundary and emerging diseases 65 1 114 - 122 2018年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Simbarashe Chitanga, Edgar Simulundu, Martin C Simuunza, Katendi Changula, Yongjin Qiu, Masahiro Kajihara, Ryo Nakao, Michelo Syakalima, Ayato Takada, Aaron S Mweene, Samson Mukaratirwa, Bernard M Hang'ombe
    Parasites & vectors 11 1 40 - 40 2018年01月17日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with sylvatic or domestic transmission cycles, with rodents being suspected to link the two transmission cycles. Infection and subsequent disease in humans has historically been associated with contact with infected livestock, especially sheep. However, recently there have been reports of Q fever outbreaks associated with contact with infected rodents and dogs. Studies exploring the potential role of these animal hosts in the epidemiology of Q fever in many developing countries in Africa are very limited. This study aimed to determine the potential role of rodents and dogs in the epidemiological cycle of C. burnetti in Zambia. Using pathogen-specific polymerase chain reaction assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene, C. burnetii was detected for the first time in 45% of rodents (9/20), in one shrew and in 10% of domestic dogs (15/150) screened in Zambia. Phylogenetic characterization of six samples based on the isocitrate synthase gene revealed that the strains were similar to a group of isolates from chronic human Q fever patients, goats and rodents reported in multiple continents. Considering the close proximity of domestic dogs and rodents to humans, especially in resource-limited communities, the presence of C. burnetii in these animals could be of significant public health importance. It is thus important to determine the burden of Q fever in humans in such resource-limited communities where there is close contact between humans, rodents and dogs.
  • Pipina A. Vlahakis, Simbarashe Chitanga, Martin C. Simuunza, Edgar Simulundu, Yongjin Qiu, Katendi Changula, Herman M. Chambaro, Masahiro Kajihara, Ryo Nakao, Ayato Takada, Aaron S. Mweene
    TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES 9 1 39 - 43 2018年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Although tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma platys and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are recognized as zoonotic agents associated with appreciable morbidity and mortality in dogs and humans worldwide, there is limited information on these infections in many African countries, including Zambia. The purpose of this study was to detect, identify and phylogenetically characterize Anaplasma species from dogs in Chilanga District in Lusaka Province, Zambia. A total of 301 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy and semi-confined dogs. Initial screening by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma species revealed that 9% (27/301) of our samples were positive. Subsequent sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a longer fragment of the 16S rRNA and citrate synthase (gltA) genes of four positive samples showed the presence of A. platys and an Anaplasma species, which was closely related to those detected in dogs in South Africa. This is the first report on molecular identification and characterization of canine-associated zoonotic Anaplasma species in Zambia.
  • Hirohito Ogawa, Masahiro Kajihara, Naganori Nao, Asako Shigeno, Daisuke Fujikura, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Aaron S Mweene, Alisheke Mutemwa, David Squarre, Masao Yamada, Hideaki Higashi, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada
    Viruses 9 12 2017年12月04日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bats are important reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses. For extensive surveys of potential pathogens in straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Zambia, a total of 107 spleen samples of E. helvum in 2006 were inoculated onto Vero E6 cells. The cell culture inoculated with one of the samples (ZFB06-106) exhibited remarkable cytopathic changes. Based on the ultrastructural property in negative staining and cross-reactivity in immunofluorescence assays, the virus was suspected to be an adenovirus, and tentatively named E. helvum adenovirus 06-106 (EhAdV 06-106). Analysis of the full-length genome of 30,134 bp, determined by next-generation sequencing, showed the presence of 28 open reading frames. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that EhAdV 06-106 represented a novel bat adenovirus species in the genus Mastadenovirus. The virus shared similar characteristics of low G + C contents with recently isolated members of species Bat mastadenoviruses E, F and G, from which EhAdV 06-106 diverged by more than 15% based on the distance matrix analysis of DNA polymerase amino acid sequences. According to the taxonomic criteria, we propose the tentative new species name "Bat mastadenovirus H". Because EhAdV 06-106 exhibited a wide in vitro cell tropism, the virus might have a potential risk as an emerging virus through cross-species transmission.
  • Tatsunari Kondoh, Rashid Manzoor, Naganori Nao, Junki Maruyama, Wakako Furuyama, Hiroko Miyamoto, Asako Shigeno, Makoto Kuroda, Keita Matsuno, Daisuke Fujikura, Masahiro Kajihara, Reiko Yoshida, Manabu Igarashi, Ayato Takada
    PLOS ONE 12 10 e0186450  2017年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    It has been proposed that some non-retroviral RNA virus genes are integrated into vertebrate genomes. Endogenous filovirus-like elements (EFLs) have been discovered in some mammalian genomes. However, their potential roles in ebolavirus infection are unclear. A filovirus VP35-like element (mlEFL35) is found in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) genome. Putative mlEFL35-derived protein (mlEFL35p) contains nearly full-length amino acid sequences corresponding to ebolavirus VP35. Ebola virus VP35 has been shown to bind double-stranded RNA, leading to inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) production, and is also known as a viral polymerase cofactor that is essential for viral RNA transcription/replication. In this study, we transiently expressed mlEFL35p in human kidney cells and investigated its biological functions. We first found that mlEFL35p was coimmunoprecipitated with itself and ebolavirus VP35s but not with the viral nucleoprotein. Then the biological functions of mlEFL35p were analyzed by comparing it to ebolavirus VP35s. We found that the expression of mlEFL35p significantly inhibited human IFN-beta promoter activity as well as VP35s. By contrast, expression of mlEFL35p did not support viral RNA transcription/replication and indeed slightly decrease the reporter gene expression in a minigenome assay. These results suggest that mlEFL35p potentially acts as an IFN antagonist but not a polymerase cofactor.
  • Edgar Simulundu, Caesar H. Lubaba, Juanita van Heerden, Masahiro Kajihara, Liywalii Mataa, Herman Moses Chambaro, Yona Sinkala, Samuel Munalula Munjita, Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu, King Shimumbo Nalubamba, Kenny Samui, Girja Shanker Pandey, Ayato Takada, Aaron S. Mweene
    VIRUSES-BASEL 9 9 2017年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic disease of swine. In Zambia, ASF was first reported in 1912 in Eastern Province and is currently believed to be endemic in that province only. Strict quarantine measures implemented at the Luangwa River Bridge, the only surface outlet from Eastern Province, appeared to be successful in restricting the disease. However, in 1989, an outbreak occurred for the first time outside the endemic province. Sporadic outbreaks have since occurred almost throughout the country. These events have brought into acute focus our limited understanding of the epidemiology of ASF in Zambia. Here, we review the epidemiology of the disease in areas considered nonendemic from 1989 to 2015. Comprehensive sequence analysis conducted on genetic data of ASF viruses (ASFVs) detected in domestic pigs revealed that p72 genotypes I, II, VIII and XIV have been involved in causing ASF outbreaks in swine during the study period. With the exception of the 1989 outbreak, we found no concrete evidence of dissemination of ASFVs from Eastern Province to other parts of the country. Our analyses revealed a complex epidemiology of the disease with a possibility of sylvatic cycle involvement. Trade and/ or movement of pigs and their products, both within and across international borders, appear to have been the major factor in ASFV dissemination. Since ASFVs with the potential to cause countrywide and possibly regional outbreaks, could emerge from "nonendemic regions", the current ASF control policy in Zambia requires a dramatic shift to ensure a more sustainable pig industry.
  • Edgar Simulundu, Nandi Mtine, Thoko F. Kapalamula, Masahiro Kajihara, Yongjin Qiu, James Ngoma, Victor Zulu, Geoffrey Kwenda, Chrispin Chisanga, Isaac K. Phiri, Ayato Takada, Aaron S. Mweene
    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 162 8 2363 - 2367 2017年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Orf or contagious ecthyma is a neglected and economically important zoonotic disease caused by a dermatotropic parapoxvirus that commonly affects domestic small ruminants. Although orf is globally distributed, there is a paucity of information on the disease in many African countries. Here, a suspected severe outbreak of orf in goats at a farm in Lusaka was investigated. Orf virus (ORFV) infection was confirmed by PCR amplification of viral DNA (RNA polymerase, B2L and virus interferon-resistance genes) in clinical samples. Some detected genes were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This is the first report on molecular characterization of ORFV in goats in Zambia.
  • Girja S. Pandey, Edgar Simulundu, Danstan Mwiinga, Kenny L. Samui, Aaron S. Mweene, Masahiro Kajihara, Alfred Mangani, Racheal Mwenda, Joseph Ndebe, Satoru Konnai, Ayato Takada
    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 162 4 1051 - 1056 2017年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and is responsible for substantial economic losses in cattle globally. However, information in Africa on the disease is limited. Here, based on clinical, hematological, pathological and molecular analyses, two clinical cases of EBL were confirmed in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia. In contrast, proviral DNA was detected by PCR in five apparently healthy cows from the same herd, suggesting subclinical BLV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene showed that the identified BLV clustered with Eurasian genotype 4 strains. This is the first report of confirmed EBL in Zambia.
  • Ryo Nakao, Keita Matsuno, Yongjin Qiu, Junki Marilyama, Nao Eguchi, Naganori Nao, Masahiro Kajihara, Kentaro Yoshii, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, Chihiro Sugimoto
    TICKS AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES 8 1 103 - 111 2017年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Ticks harbour various microorganisms, some of which act as pathogens of humans and animals. The recent advancement of genome sequencing technologies revealed that a wide range of previously unrecognised microorganisms exist in ticks. Continuous cell lines established from ticks could play a key role in the isolation of such microorganisms; however, tick cells themselves have been known to harbour symbiotic microorganisms. The present study aimed to characterise putative RNA viral sequences detected in the culture supernatant of one of the most frequently used tick cell lines, ISE6, which was derived from embryos of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis. Viral particles purified from the culture supernatant were used for RNA extraction, followed by Illumina sequencing. The reads were de novo assembled and the resulting contigs were annotated by tBLASTx search. The results suggested that there were at least five putative viral sequences of four phylogenetically distinct lineages in ISE6 cells. The predominant viral sequence found in ISE6 cells, designated L scapularis iflavirus, was a member of the family Iflaviridae, which is an arthropod-infecting virus group. We also identified L and M segments of the family Bunyaviridae, which could not be classified into any of the five known genera, and a potential capsid protein related to Drosophila A virus. In addition to these previously unrecognised viruses, ISE6 was revealed to harbour a putative genome sequence of L scapularis-associated virus-1, which was reported in a recent metagenomic study of L scapularis itself. All the five putative viral sequences were detected by RT-PCR in both ISE6 cells and the culture supernatant. Electron microscopic analysis showed the existence of spherical virions with a varying diameter of 50-70 nm in the culture supernatant of ISE6 cells. Further studies are required to investigate the potential roles of ISE6-associated viruses in ticks. (C) 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • Naganori Nao, Junya Yamagishi, Hiroko Miyamoto, Manabu Igarashi, Rashid Manzoor, Aiko Ohnuma, Yoshimi Tsuda, Wakako Furuyama, Asako Shigeno, Masahiro Kajihara, Noriko Kishida, Reiko Yoshida, Ayato Takada
    MBIO 8 1 2017年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes evolve from low-pathogenic precursors through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been observed to occur naturally only in these HA subtypes, little is known about the genetic basis for the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site. Here we show that consecutive adenine residues and a stem-loop structure, which are frequently found in the viral RNA region encoding amino acids around the cleavage site of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses isolated from waterfowl reservoirs, are important for nucleotide insertions into this RNA region. A reporter assay to detect nontemplated nucleotide insertions and deep-sequencing analysis of viral RNAs revealed that an increased number of adenine residues and enlarged stem-loop structure in the RNA region accelerated the multiple adenine and/or guanine insertions required to create codons for basic amino acids. Interestingly, nucleotide insertions associated with the HA cleavage site motif were not observed principally in the viral RNA of other subtypes tested (H1, H2, H3, and H4). Our findings suggest that the RNA editing-like activity is the key mechanism for nucleotide insertions, providing a clue as to why the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site is restricted to the particular HA subtypes. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on the antigenicity of the viral surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase. Of the 16 HA subtypes (H1 to -16) maintained in waterfowl reservoirs of influenza A viruses, H5 and H7 viruses often become highly pathogenic through the acquisition of multiple basic amino acid residues at the HA cleavage site. Although this mechanism has been known since the 1980s, the genetic basis for nucleotide insertions has remained unclear. This study shows the potential role of the viral RNA secondary structure for nucleotide insertions and demonstrates a key mechanism explaining why the acquisition of the polybasic HA cleavage site is restricted to particular HA subtypes in nature. Our findings will contribute to better understanding of the ecology of influenza A viruses and will also be useful for the development of genetically modified vaccines against H5 and H7 influenza A viruses with increased stability.
  • Reiko Yoshida, Shino Muramatsu, Hiroshi Akita, Yuji Saito, Miwa Kuwahara, Daisuke Kato, Katendi Changula, Hiroko Miyamoto, Masahiro Kajihara, Rashid Manzoor, Wakako Furuyama, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann, Aaron Mweene, Justin Masumu, Jimmy Kapeteshi, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Ayato Takada
    JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 214 suppl 3 S185 - S191 2016年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The latest outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has highlighted the urgent need for the development of rapid and reliable diagnostic assays. We used monoclonal antibodies specific to the ebolavirus nucleoprotein to develop an immunochromatography (IC) assay (QuickNavi-Ebola) for rapid diagnosis of EVD. The IC assay was first evaluated with tissue culture supernatants of infected Vero E6 cells and found to be capable of detecting 10(3)-10(4) focus-forming units/mL of ebolaviruses. Using serum samples from experimentally infected nonhuman primates, we confirmed that the assay could detect the viral antigen shortly after disease onset. It was also noted that multiple species of ebolaviruses could be detected by the IC assay. Owing to the simplicity of the assay procedure and absence of requirements for special equipment and training, QuickNavi-Ebola is expected to be a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of EVD.
  • Hirohito Ogawa, Hiroko Miyamoto, Eri Nakayama, Reiko Yoshida, Ichiro Nakamura, Hirofumi Sawa, Akihiro Ishii, Yuka Thomas, Emiko Nakagawa, Keita Matsuno, Masahiro Kajihara, Junki Maruyama, Naganori Nao, Mieko Muramatsu, Makoto Kuroda, Edgar Simulundu, Katendi Changula, Bernard Hang'ombe, Boniface Namangala, Andrew Nambota, Jackson Katampi, Manabu Igarashi, Kimihito Ito, Heinz Feldmann, Chihiro Sugimoto, Ladslav Moonga, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada
    JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 212 S101 - S108 2015年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Fruit bats are suspected to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the viral glycoprotein antigens, we detected filovirus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in 71 of 748 serum samples collected from migratory fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Zambia during 2006-2013. Although antibodies to African filoviruses (eg, Zaire ebolavirus) were most prevalent, some serum samples showed distinct specificity for Reston ebolavirus, which that has thus far been found only in Asia. Interestingly, the transition of filovirus species causing outbreaks in Central and West Africa during 2005-2014 seemed to be synchronized with the change of the serologically dominant virus species in these bats. These data suggest the introduction of multiple species of filoviruses in the migratory bat population and point to the need for continued surveillance of filovirus infection of wild animals in sub-Saharan Africa, including hitherto nonendemic countries.
  • Naganori Nao, Masahiro Kajihara, Rashid Manzoor, Junki Maruyama, Reiko Yoshida, Mieko Muramatsu, Hiroko Miyamoto, Manabu Igarashi, Nao Eguchi, Masahiro Sato, Tatsunari Kondoh, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Ayato Takada
    PLOS ONE 10 9 e0137989  2015年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Two highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains, A/duck/Hokkaido/WZ83/2010 ( H5N1) (WZ83) and A/duck/Hokkaido/WZ101/2010 (H5N1) (WZ101), which were isolated from wild ducks in Japan, were found to be genetically similar, with only two amino acid differences in their M1 and PB1 proteins at positions 43 and 317, respectively. We found that both WZ83 and WZ101 caused lethal infection in chickens but WZ101 killed them more rapidly than WZ83. Interestingly, ducks experimentally infected with WZ83 showed no or only mild clinical symptoms, whereas WZ101 was highly lethal. We then generated reassortants between these viruses and found that exchange of the M gene segment completely switched the pathogenic phenotype in both chickens and ducks, indicating that the difference in the pathogenicity for these avian species between WZ83 and WZ101 was determined by only a single amino acid in the M1 protein. It was also found that WZ101 showed higher pathogenicity than WZ83 in mice and that WZ83, whose M gene was replaced with that of WZ101, showed higher pathogenicity than wild-type WZ83, although this reassortant virus was not fully pathogenic compared to wild-type WZ101. These results suggest that the amino acid at position 43 of the M1 protein is one of the factors contributing to the pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in both avian and mammalian hosts.
  • Makoto Kuroda, Daisuke Fujikura, Asuka Nanbo, Andrea Marzi, Osamu Noyori, Masahiro Kajihara, Junki Maruyama, Keita Matsuno, Hiroko Miyamoto, Reiko Yoshida, Heinz Feldmann, Ayato Takada
    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 89 12 6481 - 6493 2015年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Multiple host molecules are known to be involved in the cellular entry of filoviruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV); T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been identified as attachment and fusion receptors, respectively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the entry process have not been fully understood. We found that TIM-1 and NPC1 colocalized and interacted in the intracellular vesicles where EBOV glycoprotein (GP)-mediated membrane fusion occurred. Interestingly, a TIM-1-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), M224/1, prevented GP-mediated membrane fusion and also interfered with the binding of TIM-1 to NPC1, suggesting that the interaction between TIM-1 and NPC1 is important for filovirus membrane fusion. Moreover, MAb M224/1 efficiently inhibited the cellular entry of viruses from all known filovirus species. These data suggest a novel mechanism underlying filovirus membrane fusion and provide a potential cellular target for antiviral compounds that can be universally used against filovirus infections.
  • John Yabe, Pharaoh Hamambulu, Edgar Simulundu, Hirohito Ogawa, Masahiro Kajihara, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Katendi Changula-Chitanga, Max Mwase, Mutinta Mweemba-Muwowo, Herman Moses Chambaro, Liywalii Mataa, Bernard Hang'ombe, Bonniface Namangala, Paul Fandamu, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, Hideaki Higashi, Aaron Simanyengwe Mweene
    TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION 47 2 459 - 463 2015年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic viral disease of domestic pigs. The disease is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and has repeatedly been introduced into other continents. The current study describes the diagnostic investigations of a hemorrhagic disease that was reported in pigs in Lusaka (October 2013), Zambia. Necropsy, histopathology, and molecular diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis confirmed the disease to be ASF. The sequences obtained showed high similarity to previously isolated ASF viruses. Consistent surveillance and rapid diagnosis of the disease is recommended to prevent future outbreaks and economic losses as there is currently no vaccine against the disease.
  • Keita Matsuno, Carla Weisend, Masahiro Kajihara, Colette Matysiak, Brandi N. Williamson, Martin Simuunza, Aaron S. Mweene, Ayato Takada, Robert B. Tesh, Hideki Ebihara
    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 89 1 594 - 604 2015年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Until the recent emergence of two human-pathogenic tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs) (severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus [SFTSV] and Heartland virus), TBPVs have been neglected as causative agents of human disease. In particular, no studies have addressed the global distribution of TBPVs, and consequently, our understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying their evolution and emergence remains poor. In order to provide a useful tool for the ecological and epidemiological study of TBPVs, we have established a simple system that can detect all known TBPVs, based on conventional reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with degenerate primer sets targeting conserved regions of the viral L genome segment. Using this system, we have determined that several viruses that had been isolated from ticks decades ago but had not been taxonomically identified are novel TBPVs. Full-genome sequencing of these viruses revealed a novel fourth TBPV cluster distinct from the three known TBPV clusters (i.e., the SETS, Bhanja, and Uukuniemi groups) and from the mosquito/sandfly-borne phleboviruses. Furthermore, by using tick samples collected in Zambia, we confirmed that our system had enough sensitivity to detect a new TBPV in a single tick homogenate. This virus, tentatively designated Shibuyunji virus after the region of tick collection, grouped into a novel fourth TBPV cluster. These results indicate that our system can be used as a first-line screening approach for TBPVs and that this kind of work will undoubtedly lead to the discovery of additional novel tick viruses and will expand our knowledge of the evolution and epidemiology of TBPVs. IMPORTANCE Tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs) have been largely neglected until the recent emergence of two virulent viruses, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and Heartland virus. Little is known about the global distribution of TBPVs or how these viruses evolved and emerged. A major hurdle to study the distribution of TBPVs is the lack of tools to detect these genetically divergent phleboviruses. In order to address this issue, we have developed a simple, rapid, and cheap RT-PCR system that can detect all known TBPVs and which led to the identification of several novel phleboviruses from previously uncharacterized tick-associated virus isolates. Our system can detect virus in a single tick sample and novel TBPVs that are genetically distinct from any of the known TBPVs. These results indicate that our system will be a useful tool for the surveillance of TBPVs and will facilitate understanding of the ecology of TBPVs.
  • Host Cell Factors Involved in Filovirus Infection
    Masahiro Kajihara, Ayato Takada
    Current Tropical Medicine Reports 2 1 30 - 40 2015年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Makoto Kuroda, Daisuke Fujikura, Osamu Noyori, Masahiro Kajihara, Junki Maruyama, Hiroko Miyamoto, Reiko Yoshida, Ayato Takada
    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 455 3-4 223 - 228 2014年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses, cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates with mortality rates of up to 90%. Human T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-I) is one of the host proteins that have been shown to promote filovirus entry into cells. In this study, we cloned TIM-1 genes from three different African green monkey kidney cell lines (Vero E6, COS-I, and BSC-1) and found that TIM-1 of Vero E6 had a 23-amino acid deletion and 6 amino acid substitutions compared with those of COS-1 and BSC-1. Interestingly, Vero E6 TIM-I had a greater ability to promote the infectivity of vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with filovirus glycoproteins than COS-1-derived TIM-I. We further found that the increased ability of Vero E6 TIM-1 to promote virus infectivity was most likely due to a single amino acid difference between these TIM-1s. These results suggest that a polymorphism of the TIM-I molecules is one of the factors that influence cell susceptibility to filovirus infection, providing a new insight into the molecular basis for the filovirus host range. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Edgar Simulundu, Naganori Nao, John Yabe, Nilton A. Muto, Thami Sithebe, Hirofumi Sawa, Rashid Manzoor, Masahiro Kajihara, Mieko Muramatsu, Akihiro Ishii, Hirohito Ogawa, Aaron S. Mweene, Ayato Takada
    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 159 10 2633 - 2640 2014年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections.
  • Katendi Changula, Masahiro Kajihara, Aaron S. Mweene, Ayato Takada
    MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 58 9 483 - 491 2014年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Filoviral hemorrhagic fever (FHF) is caused by ebolaviruses and marburgviruses, which both belong to the family Filoviridae. Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) are the most likely natural reservoir for marburgviruses and entry into caves and mines that they stay in has often been associated with outbreaks of MVD. On the other hand, the natural reservoir for ebola viruses remains elusive; however, handling of wild animal carcasses has been associated with some outbreaks of EVD. In the last two decades, there has been an increase in the incidence of FHF outbreaks in Africa, some being caused by a newly found virus and some occurring in previously unaffected areas such as Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, in which the most recent EVD outbreak occurred in 2014. Indeed, the predicted geographic distribution of filoviruses and their potential reservoirs in Africa includes many countries in which FHF has not been reported. To minimize the risk of virus dissemination in previously unaffected areas, there is a need for increased investment in health infrastructure in African countries, policies to facilitate collaboration between health authorities from different countries, implementation of outbreak control measures by relevant multi-disciplinary teams and education of the populations at risk.
  • Rashid Manzoor, Kazumichi Kuroda, Reiko Yoshida, Yoshimi Tsuda, Daisuke Fujikura, Hiroko Miyamoto, Masahiro Kajihara, Hiroshi Kida, Ayato Takada
    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 289 11 7599 - 7614 2014年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Background: It has been shown that heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays a role in influenza A virus replication. Results: A correlation between viral replication/transcription activities and nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Hsp70 was observed. Conclusion: Hsp70 modulates the influenza A virus polymerase activity. Significance: This study, for the first time, suggests that Hsp70 may actually assist in influenza A virus replication. The role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in virus replication has been discussed for many viruses. The known suppressive role of Hsp70 in influenza virus replication is based on studies conducted in cells with various Hsp70 expression levels. In this study, we determined the role of Hsp70 in influenza virus replication in HeLa and HEK293T cells, which express Hsp70 constitutively. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies revealed that Hsp70 interacted with PB2 or PB1 monomers and PB2/PB1 heterodimer but not with the PB1/PA heterodimer or PB2/PB1/PA heterotrimer and translocated into the nucleus with PB2 monomers or PB2/PB1 heterodimers. Knocking down Hsp70 resulted in reduced virus transcription and replication activities. Reporter gene assay, immunofluorescence assay, and Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions from infected cells demonstrated that the increase in viral polymerase activity during the heat shock phase was accompanied with an increase in Hsp70 and viral polymerases levels in the nuclei, where influenza virus replication takes place, whereas a reduction in viral polymerase activity was accompanied with an increase in cytoplasmic relocation of Hsp70 along with viral polymerases. Moreover, significantly higher levels of viral genomic RNA (vRNA) were observed during the heat shock phase than during the recovery phase. Overall, for the first time, these findings suggest that Hsp70 may act as a chaperone for influenza virus polymerase, and the modulatory effect of Hsp70 appears to be a sequel of shuttling of Hsp70 between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments.
  • Junki Maruyama, Hiroko Miyamoto, Masahiro Kajihara, Hirohito Ogawa, Ken Maeda, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Reiko Yoshida, Ayato Takada
    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 88 1 99 - 109 2014年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Lloviu virus (LLOV), a novel filovirus detected in bats, is phylogenetically distinct from viruses in the genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus in the family Filoviridae. While filoviruses are known to cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and/or nonhuman primates, LLOV is biologically uncharacterized, since infectious LLOV has never been isolated. To examine the properties of LLOV, we characterized its envelope glycoprotein (GP), which likely plays a key role in viral tropism and pathogenicity. We first found that LLOV GP principally has the same primary structure as the other filovirus GPs. Similar to the other filoviruses, virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by transient expression of LLOV GP, matrix protein, and nucleoprotein in 293T cells had densely arrayed GP spikes on a filamentous particle. Mouse antiserum to LLOV VLP was barely cross-reactive to viruses of the other genera, indicating that LLOV is serologically distinct from the other known filoviruses. For functional study of LLOV GP, we utilized a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype system and found that LLOV GP requires low endosomal pH and cathepsin L, and that human C-type lectins act as attachment factors for LLOV entry into cells. Interestingly, LLOV GP-pseudotyped VSV infected particular bat cell lines more efficiently than viruses bearing other filovirus GPs. These results suggest that LLOV GP mediates cellular entry in a manner similar to that of the other filoviruses while showing preferential tropism for some bat cells.
  • Mieko Muramatsu, Reiko Yoshida, Ayaka Yokoyama, Hiroko Miyamoto, Masahiro Kajihara, Junki Maruyama, Naganori Nao, Rashid Manzoor, Ayato Takada
    PLOS ONE 9 1 e85582  2014年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Both IgA and IgG antibodies are known to play important roles in protection against influenza virus infection. While IgG is the major isotype induced systemically, IgA is predominant in mucosal tissues, including the upper respiratory tract. Although IgA antibodies are believed to have unique advantages in mucosal immunity, information on direct comparisons of the in vitro antiviral activities of IgA and IgG antibodies recognizing the same epitope is limited. In this study, we demonstrate differences in antiviral activities between these isotypes using monoclonal IgA and IgG antibodies obtained from hybridomas of the same origin. Polymeric IgA-producing hybridoma cells were successfully subcloned from those originally producing monoclonal antibody S139/1, a hemaggulutinin (HA)-specific IgG that was generated against an influenza A virus strain of the H3 subtype but had cross-neutralizing activities against the H1, H2, H13, and H16 subtypes. These monoclonal S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies were assumed to recognize the same epitope and thus used to compare their antiviral activities. We found that both S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies strongly bound to the homologous H3 virus in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and there were no significant differences in their hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing activities against the H3 virus. In contrast, S139/1 IgA showed remarkably higher cross-binding to and antiviral activities against H1, H2, and H13 viruses than S139/1 IgG. It was also noted that S139/1 IgA, but not IgG, drastically suppressed the extracellular release of the viruses from infected cells. Electron microscopy revealed that S139/1 IgA deposited newly produced viral particles on the cell surface, most likely by tethering the particles. These results suggest that anti-HA IgA has greater potential to prevent influenza A virus infection than IgG antibodies, likely due to increased avidity conferred by its multivalency, and that this advantage may be particularly important for heterosubtypic immunity.
  • Osamu Noyori, Keita Matsuno, Masahiro Kajihara, Eri Nakayama, Manabu Igarashi, Makoto Kuroda, Norikazu Isoda, Reiko Yoshida, Ayato Takada
    VIROLOGY 446 1-2 152 - 161 2013年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) is thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of filovirus infection. It is known that GP expressed on the cell surface forms a steric shield over host proteins such as major histocompatibility complex class I and integrin pi, which may result in the disorder of cell-to-cell contacts and/or inhibition of the immune response. However, it is not clarified whether this phenomenon contributes to the pathogenicity of filoviruses. In this study, we found that the steric shielding efficiency differed among filovirus strains and was correlated with the difference in their relative pathogenicities. While the highly glycosylated mucin-like region of GP was indispensable, the differential shielding efficiency did not necessarily depend on the primary structure of the mucin-like region, suggesting the importance of the overall properties (e.g., flexibility and stability) of the GP molecule for efficient shielding of host proteins. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Katendi Changula, Reiko Yoshida, Osamu Noyori, Andrea Marzi, Hiroko Miyamoto, Mari Ishijima, Ayaka Yokoyama, Masahiro Kajihara, Heinz Feldmann, Aaron S. Mweene, Ayato Takada
    Virus Research 176 1-2 83 - 90 2013年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Filoviruses (viruses in the genus Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus in the family Filoviridae) cause severe haemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable filovirus-specific assays are required for diagnostics and outbreak control. Characterisation of antigenic sites in viral proteins can aid in the development of viral antigen detection assays such immunochromatography-based rapid diagnosis. We generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the nucleoprotein (NP) of Ebola virus belonging to the species Zaire ebolavirus. The mAbs were divided into seven groups based on the profiles of their specificity and cross-reactivity to other species in the Ebolavirus genus. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to the Ebola virus NP sequence, the mAb binding sites were mapped to seven antigenic regions in the C-terminal half of the NP, including two highly conserved regions among all five Ebolavirus species currently known. Furthermore, we successfully produced species-specific rabbit antisera to synthetic peptides predicted to represent unique filovirus B-cell epitopes. Our data provide useful information for the development of Ebola virus antigen detection assays. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
  • Mieko Muramatsu, Reiko Yoshida, Hiroko Miyamoto, Daisuke Tomabechi, Masahiro Kajihara, Junki Maruyama, Takashi Kimura, Rashid Manzoor, Kimihito Ito, Ayato Takada
    PLOS ONE 8 8 e71534  2013年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Influenza A virus subtypes are classified on the basis of the antigenicity of their envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA; H1-H17) and neuraminidase. Since HA-specific neutralizing antibodies are predominantly specific for a single HA subtype, the contribution of antibodies to the heterosubtypic immunity is not fully understood. In this study, mice were immunized intranasally or subcutaneously with viruses having the H1, H3, H5, H7, H9, or H13 HA subtype, and cross-reactivities of induced IgG and IgA antibodies to recombinant HAs of the H1-H16 subtypes were analyzed. We found that both subcutaneous and intranasal immunizations induced antibody responses to multiple HAs of different subtypes, whereas IgA was not detected remarkably in mice immunized subcutaneously. Using serum, nasal wash, and trachea-lung wash samples of H9 virus-immunized mice, neutralizing activities of cross-reactive antibodies were then evaluated by plaque-reduction assays. As expected, no heterosubtypic neutralizing activity was detected by a standard neutralization test in which viruses were mixed with antibodies prior to inoculation into cultured cells. Interestingly, however, a remarkable reduction of plaque formation and extracellular release of the H12 virus, which was bound by the H9-induced cross-reactive antibodies, was observed when infected cells were subsequently cultured with the samples containing HA-specific cross-reactive IgA. This heterosubtypic plaque reduction was interfered when the samples were pretreated with anti-mouse IgA polyclonal serum. These results suggest that the majority of HA-specific cross-reactive IgG and IgA antibodies produced by immunization do not block cellular entry of viruses, but cross-reactive IgA may have the potential to inhibit viral egress from infected cells and thus to play a role in heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A viruses.
  • Masahiro Kajihara, Eri Nakayama, Andrea Marzi, Manabu Igarashi, Heinz Feldmann, Ayato Takada
    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY 94 Pt 4 876 - 883 2013年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus, members of the family Filoviridae, cause lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Although the outbreaks are concentrated mainly in Central Africa, these viruses are potential agents of imported infectious diseases and bioterrorism in non-African countries. Recent studies demonstrated that non-human primates passively immunized with virus-specific antibodies were successfully protected against fatal filovirus infection, highlighting the important role of antibodies in protective immunity for this disease. However, the mechanisms underlying potential evasion from antibody mediated immune pressure are not well understood. To analyse possible mutations involved in immune evasion in the MARV envelope glycoprotein (GP) which is the major target of protective antibodies, we selected escape mutants of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing MARV GP (rVSV Delta G/MARVGP) by using two GP-specific mAbs, AGP127-8 and MGP72-17, which have been previously shown to inhibit MARV budding. Interestingly, several rVSV Delta G/MARVGP variants escaping from the mAb pressure-acquired amino acid substitutions in the furin-cleavage site rather than in the mAb-specific epitopes, suggesting that these epitopes are recessed, not exposed on the uncleaved GP molecule, and therefore inaccessible to the mAbs. More surprisingly, some variants escaping mAb MGP72-17 lacked a large proportion of the mucin-like region of GP, indicating that these mutants efficiently escaped the selective pressure by deleting the mucin-like region including the mAb-specific epitope. Our data demonstrate that MARV GP possesses the potential to evade antibody mediated immune pressure due to extraordinary structural flexibility and variability.
  • Masahiro Kajihara, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Kosuke Soda, Kenji Minari, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Ayato Takada, Hiroshi Kida
    VIROLOGY JOURNAL 10 45 - 45 2013年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Background: Wild ducks are the natural hosts of influenza A viruses. Duck influenza, therefore, has been believed inapparent infection with influenza A viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in chickens. In fact, ducks experimentally infected with an HPAIV strain, A/Hong Kong/483/1997 (H5N1) (HK483), did not show any clinical signs. Another HPAIV strain, A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1) (MON3) isolated from a dead swan, however, caused neurological dysfunction and death in ducks. Method: To understand the mechanism whereby MON3 shows high pathogenicity in ducks, HK483, MON3, and twenty-four reassortants generated between these two H5N1 viruses were compared for their pathogenicity in domestic ducks. Results: None of the ducks infected with MON3-based single-gene reassortants bearing the PB2, NP, or NS gene segment of HK483 died, and HK483-based single-gene reassortants bearing PB2, NP, or NS genes of MON3 were not pathogenic in ducks, suggesting that multiple gene segments contribute to the pathogenicity of MON3 in ducks. All the ducks infected with the reassortant bearing PB2, PA, HA, NP, and NS gene segments of MON3 died within five days post-inoculation, as did those infected with MON3. Each of the viruses was assessed for replication in ducks three days post-inoculation. MON3 and multi-gene reassortants pathogenic in ducks were recovered from all of the tissues examined and replicated with high titers in the brains and lungs. Conclusion: The present results indicate that multigenic factors are responsible for efficient replication of MON3 in ducks. In particular, virus growth in the brain might correlate with neurological dysfunction and the disease severity.
  • Masahiro Kajihara, Andrea Marzi, Eri Nakayama, Takeshi Noda, Makoto Kuroda, Rashid Manzoor, Keita Matsuno, Heinz Feldmann, Reiko Yoshida, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Ayato Takada
    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 86 24 13467 - 13474 2012年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The envelope glycoprotein (GP) of Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) is responsible for virus entry into host cells and is known as the only target of neutralizing antibodies. While knowledge about EBOV-neutralizing antibodies and the mechanism for the neutralization of infectivity is being accumulated gradually, little is known about antibodies that can efficiently regulate MARV infectivity. Here we show that MARV GP-specific monoclonal antibodies AGP127-8 (IgG1) and MGP72-17 (IgM), which do not inhibit the GP-mediated entry of MARV into host cells, drastically reduced the budding and release of progeny viruses from infected cells. These antibodies similarly inhibited the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of GP, the viral matrix protein, and nucleoprotein, whereas the Fab fragment of AGP127-8 showed no inhibitory effect. Morphological analyses revealed that filamentous VLPs were bunched on the surface of VLP-producing cells cultured in the presence of the antibodies. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism of the antibody-mediated inhibition of MARV budding, in which antibodies arrest unformed virus particles on the cell surface. Our data lead to the idea that such antibodies, like classical neutralizing antibodies, contribute to protective immunity against MARV and that the "classical" neutralizing activity is not the only indicator of a protective antibody that may be available for prophylactic and therapeutic use.
  • Masahiro Kajihara, Keita Matsuno, Edgar Simulundu, Mieko Muramatsu, Osamu Noyori, Rashid Manzoor, Eri Nakayama, Manabu Igarashi, Daisuke Tomabechi, Reiko Yoshida, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Kimihito Ito, Hiroshi Kida, Ayato Takada
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 59 2-3 89 - 100 2011年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    In 2010, an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was isolated from feces of apparently healthy ducks migrating southward in Hokkaido, the northernmost prefecture of Japan. The H5N1 HPAIVs were subsequently detected in domestic and wild birds at multiple sites corresponding to the flyway of the waterfowl having stopovers in the Japanese archipelago. The Hokkaido isolate was genetically nearly identical to H5N1 HPAIVs isolated from swans in the spring of 2009 and 2010 in Mongolia, but less pathogenic in experimentally infected ducks than the 2009 Mongolian isolate. These findings suggest that H5N1 HPAIVs with relatively mild pathogenicity might be selected and harbored in the waterfowl population during the 2009-2010 migration seasons. Our data provide "early warning" signals for preparedness against the unprecedented situation in which the waterfowl reservoirs serve as perpetual sources and disseminators of HPAIVs.
  • Rozanah Asmah Abdul Samad, Naoki Nomura, Yoshimi Tsuda, Rashid Manzoor, Masahiro Kajihara, Daisuke Tomabechi, Takashi Sasaki, Norihide Kokumai, Toshiaki Ohgitani, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Ayato Takada, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 59 1 23 - 29 2011年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Inactivated influenza virus vaccine prepared from a non-pathogenic influenza virus strain A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) from the virus library conferred protective immunity to chickens against the challenge of antigenically drifted highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008 (H5N1). The efficacy of the vaccine was comparable to that prepared from genetically modified HPAIV strain Delta RRRRK rg-A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1), which is more antigenically related to the challenge virus strain, in chickens.
  • Natsumi Takeyama, Kenji Minari, Masahiro Kajihara, Norikazu Isoda, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Takashi Sasaki, Norihide Kokumai, Noriyasu Takikawa, Rikiya Shiraishi, Masaji Mase, Junko Hagiwara, Toshiaki Kodama, Takashi Imamura, Masashi Sakaguchi, Toshiaki Ohgitani, Akira Sawata, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Masatake Muramatsu, Kenji Tsukamoto, Zhifeng Lin, Kotaro Tuchiya, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida
    VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY 147 3-4 283 - 291 2011年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) represent a major global concern in poultries and human health. Avian influenza (AI) vaccines are available but not preferred for field applications, primarily because vaccination interferes with sero-surveillances of AIV infection. To overcome the problem, ELISA systems using nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of AIV as antigens (NS1-ELISA) have been developed to measure anti-NS1 antibodies that are raised in AIV-infected but not in vaccinated chickens. However, some AI-vaccinated chickens having a weak anti-virus immune response may subsequently be infected with AIV and spread the virus. This raises a concern for the validity of NS1-ELISA to detect AIV infection in previously vaccinated chickens. In this study, we developed NS1-ELISA and assessed its feasibility to detect HPAIV infection in chickens previously immunized with H5 or H7 AI vaccines. The results indicated that the NS1-ELISA could identify HPAIV infection in both unvaccinated and vaccinated chickens at 1 week after infection in correlation with results from time-consuming virus isolation tests. Taken together, the NS1-ELISA system would be valuable tool to define HPAIV infection when AI vaccine program is in place. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Yoshihiro Sakoda, Sengee Sugar, Damdinjav Batchluun, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Norikazu Isoda, Kosuke Soda, Hiroki Takakuwa, Yoshimi Tsuda, Naoki Yamamoto, Noriko Kishida, Keita Matsuno, Eri Nakayama, Masahiro Kajihara, Ayaka Yokoyama, Ayato Takada, Ruuragchaa Sodnomdarjaa, Hiroshi Kida
    VIROLOGY 406 1 88 - 94 2010年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses were isolated from dead wild waterfowl at Khunt, Erkhel, Doityn Tsagaan, Doroo, and Ganga Lakes in Mongolia in July 2005, May 2006, May 2009, July 2009, and May 2010, respectively. The isolates in 2005 and 2006 were classified into genetic clade 2.2, and those in 2009 and 2010 into clade 2.3.2. A/whooper swan/Mongolia/6/2009 (H5N1) experimentally infected ducks and replicated systemically with higher mortality than that of the isolates in 2005 and 2006. Intensive surveillance of avian influenza in migratory waterfowl flying from their nesting lakes in Siberia to Mongolia in every autumn indicate that HPAI viruses have not perpetuated at their nesting lakes until 2009. The present results demonstrate that wild waterfowl were sporadically infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses prevailing in domestic poultry in the southern Asia and died in Mongolia on the way back to their northern territory in spring. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Kosuke Soda, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Norikazu Isoda, Masahiro Kajihara, Yoshinari Haraguchi, Hitomi Shibuya, Hiromi Yoshida, Takashi Sasaki, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Kazue Saijo, Junko Hagiwara, Hiroshi Kida
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 55 2-3 93 - 98 2008年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    To establish vaccine strains of H5 and H7 influenza viruses, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/04 (H5N1) [Vac-1/04 (H5N1)], A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/07 (H5N1) [Vac-3/07 (H5N1)], and A/duck/Hokkaido/ Vac-2/04 (H7N7) [Vac-2/04 (H7N7)] were generated from non-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from migratory ducks. Vac-1/04 (H5N1) and Vac-3/07 (H5N1) were generated by genetic reassortment between H5N2 or H5N3 virus as an HA gene provider and H7N1 or H6N1 viruses as an NA gene provider. Vac-2/04 (H7N7) was a genetic reassortant obtained using H7N7 and H9 N2 viruses to give high growth character of the H9N2 virus in chicken embryonated eggs. The results of sequence analyses and experimental infections revealed that these H5N1 and H7N7 reassortant viruses were non-pathogenic in chickens and embryos, and had good growth potential in embryonated eggs. These viruses should be useful to develop vaccines against H5 and H7 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

書籍

  • 島田, 周平, 大山, 修一 (担当:分担執筆範囲:コウモリが宿すウイルスを探る.)
    明石書店 2020年08月 (ISBN: 9784750350622) 370p

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  • 保全医学演習
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 獣医学院
  • 保全医学演習
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 博士後期課程
    開講学部 : 国際感染症学院


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