研究者データベース

坂岡 桂一郎(サカオカ ケイイチロウ)
水産学部 附属練習船うしお丸
准教授

基本情報

所属

  • 水産学部 附属練習船うしお丸

職名

  • 准教授

学位

  • 水産学学士(北海道大学)

J-Global ID

研究キーワード

  • 水産学一般   

研究分野

  • ライフサイエンス / 水圏生産科学

職歴

  • 2021年04月 - 現在 北海道大学 水産学部 うしお丸 船長
  • 2011年04月 - 2021年03月 北海道大学 水産学部 おしょろ丸 准教授
  • 2000年04月 - 2011年03月 北海道大学 水産学部 おしょろ丸 助手
  • 1997年 - 2000年 水産学部練習船北星丸 助手
  • 1997年 - 2000年 Research Associate
  • 1994年04月 - 1997年03月 北海道大学 水産学部 おしょろ丸 助手
  • 1994年 - Research Associate
  • 1993年 - 同助手(水産学部附属練習船北星丸) 助手
  • 1993年 - Research Associate
  • 1992年 - 北海道大学助手(水産学部附属練習船おしょろ丸) 助手
  • 1992年 - Research Associate

学歴

  •         - 1992年   北海道大学   水産学研究科   漁業学専攻
  •         - 1992年   北海道大学
  •         - 1991年   北海道大学   水産学部   漁業学科研究生
  •         - 1991年   北海道大学
  •         - 1990年   北海道大学   水産学部   特設専攻科
  •         - 1990年   北海道大学
  •         - 1989年   北海道大学   水産学部   漁業学科
  •         - 1989年   北海道大学

研究活動情報

論文

  • Ren Uchida, Kenshi Kuma, Aya Omata, Satoko Ishikawa, Nanako Hioki, Hiromichi Ueno, Yutaka Isoda, Keiichiro Sakaoka, Yoshihiko Kamei, Shohgo Takagi
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 118 3 1257 - 1271 2013年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We measured water-column iron concentrations from west to east along 47 degrees N in the subarctic North Pacific, and in the Bering Sea. In the North Pacific dissolved Fe (D-Fe) showed surface depletion, mid-depth maxima at 1000-1500 m (west, 1.3-1.6 nM; east, 0.9-1.1 nM), and a gradual decrease with depth below 3500-4000 m depth (west, 1.1-1.4 nM; east, 0.6-0.7 nM). D-Fe and total soluble Fe (T-Fe) in deep water showed a decreasing trend eastward. The higher iron concentrations in western deep waters probably result from higher inputs of dissolved Fe through atmospheric deposition or lateral transport. In contrast, D-Fe throughout the Bering Sea showed a consistent depth regime characterized by a rapid increase with depth to mid-depths, a gradual increase with depth in intermediate water to a maximum of 1.6-1.7 nM at 1500-2250 m, and a gradual decrease with depth to 1.3-1.4 nM at 3700 m. Higher iron concentrations and deeper D-Fe maxima in the Bering Sea are likely due to higher biological productivity and greater and deeper D-Fe input from the decomposition of sinking particulate organic matter in deep water. We suggest that the higher concentrations and deeper input of D-Fe as well as PO4 and humic-type fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Bering Sea probably results from the longer time for the accumulation of decomposition products resulting from iron supply from the organic-rich downslope sediment along the steep continental slopes and slow replacement of the deep water in the Bering Sea Basin.
  • 山本 潤, 岩森利弘, 星 直樹, 阿部拓三, 坂岡桂一郎, 亀井佳彦, 高木省吾, 沼本 修, 阪 幸宏, 桜井泰憲, 末岡和久, 有村博紀, 渡邉日出海
    水産技術 5 2 171 - 174 水産総合研究センター 2013年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We developed a battery powered compact 2000m class ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) system with a High-Definition video camera. It does not require specialized equipment to operate. It can be operated using only general purpose equipment. This system mainly consists of a shipboard controller, a vehicle and a launcher. A thin, light optical fiber cable (diameter 9mm, length 2,500m), the primary cable, transfers control data and video images between the shipboard controller and the launcher. The secondary cable, a composite cable (diameter 14.2mm, length 50m), transfers control data and video images and supplies power to the vehicle from the six packs of lithium-ion batteries, which are mounted in the launcher. The launcher is suspended by a rope from the support ship, and the depth of the launcher is adjusted by changing the length of the rope using a general purpose rewinder.
    Although initially, we had some trouble due to the launcher rope and the primary cable getting tangled, a newly-designed instrument that restricts the movement of the carabiner, and the use of a low expansion rope, facilitated smoother operation and an easier recovery of the ROV.
  • Ren Uchida, Kenshi Kuma, Aya Omata, Satoko Ishikawa, Nanako Hioki, Hiromichi Ueno, Yutaka Isoda, Keiichiro Sakaoka, Yoshihiko Kamei, Shohgo Takagi
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 118 3 1257 - 1271 2013年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We measured water-column iron concentrations from west to east along 47°N in the subarctic North Pacific, and in the Bering Sea. In the North Pacific dissolved Fe (D-Fe) showed surface depletion, mid-depth maxima at 1000-1500 m (west, 1.3-1.6 nM east, 0.9-1.1 nM), and a gradual decrease with depth below 3500-4000 m depth (west, 1.1-1.4 nM east, 0.6-0.7 nM). D-Fe and total soluble Fe (T-Fe) in deep water showed a decreasing trend eastward. The higher iron concentrations in western deep waters probably result from higher inputs of dissolved Fe through atmospheric deposition or lateral transport. In contrast, D-Fe throughout the Bering Sea showed a consistent depth regime characterized by a rapid increase with depth to mid-depths, a gradual increase with depth in intermediate water to a maximum of 1.6-1.7 nM at 1500-2250 m, and a gradual decrease with depth to 1.3-1.4 nM at 3700 m. Higher iron concentrations and deeper D-Fe maxima in the Bering Sea are likely due to higher biological productivity and greater and deeper D-Fe input from the decomposition of sinking particulate organic matter in deep water. We suggest that the higher concentrations and deeper input of D-Fe as well as PO 4 and humic-type fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Bering Sea probably results from the longer time for the accumulation of decomposition products resulting from iron supply from the organic-rich downslope sediment along the steep continental slopes and slow replacement of the deep water in the Bering Sea Basin. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
  • Jun Nishioka, Tsuneo Ono, Hiroaki Saito, Keiichiro Sakaoka, Takeshi Yoshimura
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 116 2 2011年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Multiyear (2003-2008) time series observations along the A line provided information on the temporal variability of the dissolved iron (diss-Fe) concentration in the Oyashio region of the western subarctic Pacific, and the data indicated that there was an annual cycle in the concentration of surface diss-Fe occurring every year. Diss-Fe was supplied into the surface water in this region every winter and supports the spring phytoplankton bloom after development of the thermocline. The diss-Fe concentration was drawn down during the phytoplankton bloom period and was depleted in summer in some water masses. Then diss-Fe increased from autumn to winter with the increasing depth of the surface mixed layer. The high diss-Fe concentrations in the surface layer in winter were controlled by mesoscale oceanic intrinsic processes, such as vertical winter mixing and horizontal Fe-rich intermediate water transport. Difference in magnitude of the winter mixing processes among different water masses caused the heterogeneous distribution of diss-Fe concentration in the surface layer. Moreover, the vertical section profiles along a cross-Oyashio transect showed the occurrence of Fe-rich intermediate water, and upward transport of materials from the intermediate water to the surface layer via tidal and winter mixing processes are important mechanisms to explain the high winter surface diss-Fe concentrations. Additionally, the substantially higher diss-Fe/NO3 ratio in the winter surface layer in this studied area other than the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll region indicates that the winter surface water in the Oyashio and the Oyashio-Kuroshio transition zone has a high potential to stimulate phytoplankton growth.
  • Nishioka J, Ono T, Saito H, Sakaoka K, Yoshimura T
    Journal of Geophysical Research 116 C2 C02021  2011年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Jun Nishioka, Tsuneo Ono, Hiroaki Saito, Keiichiro Sakaoka, Takeshi Yoshimura
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 116 2 2011年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Multiyear (2003-2008) time series observations along the A line provided information on the temporal variability of the dissolved iron (diss-Fe) concentration in the Oyashio region of the western subarctic Pacific, and the data indicated that there was an annual cycle in the concentration of surface diss-Fe occurring every year. Diss-Fe was supplied into the surface water in this region every winter and supports the spring phytoplankton bloom after development of the thermocline. The diss-Fe concentration was drawn down during the phytoplankton bloom period and was depleted in summer in some water masses. Then diss-Fe increased from autumn to winter with the increasing depth of the surface mixed layer. The high diss-Fe concentrations in the surface layer in winter were controlled by mesoscale oceanic intrinsic processes, such as vertical winter mixing and horizontal Fe-rich intermediate water transport. Difference in magnitude of the winter mixing processes among different water masses caused the heterogeneous distribution of diss-Fe concentration in the surface layer. Moreover, the vertical section profiles along a cross-Oyashio transect showed the occurrence of Fe-rich intermediate water, and upward transport of materials from the intermediate water to the surface layer via tidal and winter mixing processes are important mechanisms to explain the high winter surface diss-Fe concentrations. Additionally, the substantially higher diss-Fe/NO3 ratio in the winter surface layer in this studied area other than the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll region indicates that the winter surface water in the Oyashio and the Oyashio-Kuroshio transition zone has a high potential to stimulate phytoplankton growth. Copyright © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
  • Nishioka J, Ono T, Saito H, Sakaoka K, Yoshimura T, Matoba
    AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts 1 0331  2010年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Saori Kitayama, Kenshi Kuma, Eri Manabe, Koji Sugie, Hyoe Takata, Yutaka Isoda, Kenji Toya, Sei-Ichi Saitoh, Shohgo Takagi, Yoshihiko Kamei, Keiichiro Sakaoka
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 114 8 2009年08月08日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    [1] Dissolved Fe in the western and central North Pacific Ocean was characterized by surface depletion, middepth maxima and, below that, a slight decrease with depth similar to the vertical distributions of nutrients, apparent oxygen utilization, Fe(III) hydroxide solubility, and humic-type fluorescence (H-flu) intensity. Dissolved Fe concentrations ([D-Fe], < 0.22-μm fraction) in the deep water column were one-half lower in the central region (0.3-0.6 nM) than the western region (0.5-1.2 nM) although the Fe(III) solubility ([Fe(III)sol], < 0.025-μm fraction) levels and distributions in deep waters were almost the same between both regions with middepth maxima (∼0.6 nM) at 500-1500-m depth range and then a gradual decrease to ∼0.3 nM at 5000-m depth. Higher [D-Fe] than [Fe(III)sol] in the deep water column of the western region results from the higher production of dissolved Fe from the decomposition of sinking particulate organic matter in the western region than the central region because of the high atmospheric and/or lateral Fe inputs in the western region. Similarity between [D-Fe] level and [Fe(III)sol] value at each deep water depth in the central region may be attributed to [D-Fe] being nearly in the solubility equilibrium with Fe(III) hydroxide in seawater. Strong linear correlation between [D-Fe] and H-flu intensity in the central region and relatively similar linear relationships between [Fe(III)sol] and H-flu intensity in the western and central regions are the first confirmation that humic-type fluorescent dissolved organic matter may be responsible for [D-Fe] in the deep water column as natural organic ligands complexing with Fe(III). Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.
  • Saori Kitayama, Kenshi Kuma, Eri Manabe, Koji Sugie, Hyoe Takata, Yutaka Isoda, Kenji Toya, Sei-ichi Saitoh, Shohgo Takagi, Yoshihiko Kamei, Keiichiro Sakaoka
    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS 114 2009年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Dissolved Fe in the western and central North Pacific Ocean was characterized by surface depletion, middepth maxima and, below that, a slight decrease with depth similar to the vertical distributions of nutrients, apparent oxygen utilization, Fe(III) hydroxide solubility, and humic-type fluorescence (H-flu) intensity. Dissolved Fe concentrations ([D-Fe], <0.22-mu m fraction) in the deep water column were one-half lower in the central region (0.3-0.6 nM) than the western region (0.5-1.2 nM) although the Fe(III) solubility ([Fe(III)sol], <0.025-mu m fraction) levels and distributions in deep waters were almost the same between both regions with middepth maxima (similar to 0.6 nM) at 500-1500-m depth range and then a gradual decrease to similar to 0.3 nM at 5000-m depth. Higher [D-Fe] than [Fe(III)sol] in the deep water column of the western region results from the higher production of dissolved Fe from the decomposition of sinking particulate organic matter in the western region than the central region because of the high atmospheric and/or lateral Fe inputs in the western region. Similarity between [D-Fe] level and [Fe(III)sol] value at each deep water depth in the central region may be attributed to [D-Fe] being nearly in the solubility equilibrium with Fe(III) hydroxide in seawater. Strong linear correlation between [D-Fe] and H-flu intensity in the central region and relatively similar linear relationships between [Fe(III)sol] and H-flu intensity in the western and central regions are the first confirmation that humic-type fluorescent dissolved organic matter may be responsible for [D-Fe] in the deep water column as natural organic ligands complexing with Fe(III).
  • KITAYAMA Saori, KUMA Kenshi, MANABE Eri, SUGIE Koji, TAKATA Hyoe, ISODA Yutaka, TOYA Kenji, SAITOH Sei-ichi, TAKAGI Shohgo, KAMEI Yoshihiko, SAKAOKA Keiichiro
    Journal of Geophysical Research 114 C8 C08019  2009年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • おしょろ丸による夏季ベーリング海陸棚・陸棚斜面観測
    溝端浩平, 齋藤誠一, 久万健志, 目黒敏美, 梶原善之, 高木省吾, 亀井佳彦, 坂岡桂一郎
    月刊海洋 号外 50 116 - 126 2008年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 和川 拓, 磯田 豊, 齋藤 菜那, 東屋 知範, 坂岡 桂一郎, Taku Wagawa, Yutaka Isoda, Nana Saitoh, Tomonori Azumaya, Keiichiro Sakaoka, Graduate School of Fisheries Science Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Fisheries Science Hokkaido University, Factory of Fisheries Hokkaido University, Factory of Fisheries Hokkaido University
    海の研究 15 3 267 - 281 日本海洋学会 2006年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    北部北太平洋には亜寒帯前線と亜寒帯境界の間として定義される移行領域(Transitional Domain: TD)が存在し,TDを南北に横切るように170°Eに沿って天皇海山列が存在している。本研究では155°E,165°E,170°E,175.5°E,180°線における長期間の海洋観測データを解析し,TDにおける水塊構造が天皇海山列を境界に大きく変化していることを明らかにした。天皇海山列の東西海域ではTDを明確に特定できるのに対して,天皇海山列上においてTDはしばしば存在せず,南から北に向かって亜熱帯水から亜寒帯水に急激に変化する水塊前線を形成していた。さらに,TDにおける東向き輸送に沿って,水塊は西から東に向かって亜寒帯水から亜熱帯水へ急激に変化していた。TD付近に存在する強い東向きの傾圧流は,天皇海山列上の43°N付近(推古海山と仁徳海山の間)を通過した後,北側にシフトする。この傾圧流の強弱や分布位置は経年変動したが,北側にシフトする傾向は何れの年においても同じであった。傾圧流を挟んだ西側と東側のTDで起こる水塊の変化は,亜表層において特徴的な水塊である中央モード水が重い密度帯から軽い密度帯へ変化することに起因していた。すなわち,傾圧流の北側へのシフトと中央モード水の密度帯の変化は密着に関連していることが示唆された。Spatial distributions of baroclinic flow and water mass in the "Transition Domain" (TD), defined between the Subarctic Front and Subarctic Boundary in the northern North Pacific, were investigated through analysis of long-term hydrographic data taken in 155°E, 165°E, 170°E, 175.5°E, and 180° meridians. Along the 170°E meridian, the Emperor Seamounts is located across the TD in a strict north to south direction. Although the TD could be clearly detected on both sides of the Emperor Seamounts, it frequently disappeared and had a remarkable watermass front, i.e., abrupt and meridional, changing from subtropical to subarctic water masses, in the location of the Emperor Seamounts. Furthermore, along the eastward transport of the TD, an abrupt zonal change from subarctic to subtropical water took place. In each year, the estimated eastward baroclinic flow around the TD suggested a shift to the north after passage through the trench of the Emperor Seamounts around 43°N (between Suiko Seamount and Nintoku Seamount), although small year-to-year changes were shown in its intensity and horizontal distribution. This shift in flow might explain the above zonal water mass change in the TD. It was also shown that the density of the "Central Mode Water", formed at the sea surface mixed layer in winter, was gradually lighter from the west to the east.
  • H Takata, K Kuma, Y Saitoh, M Chikira, S Saitoh, Y Isoda, S Takagi, K Sakaoka
    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 33 2 L02613 - L02613 2006年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Labile dissolved Fe (< 0.22 mu m) in the western (165 degrees E) and eastern (165 degrees W) North Pacific Ocean had nutrient- and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU)- like profiles characterized by surface depletion and deep enrichment ( 5 - 3000 m depth). Dissolved Fe concentrations in the deep-water column at the mid-latitudes were approximately one-half lower in the eastern region (0.5 - 0.8 nM) than in the western region ( 0.8 - 1.3 nM) although the dissolved Fe concentrations in the surface mixed layer in both regions were extremely depleted to 0.1 - 0.2 nM. Surprisingly, the labile particulate Fe concentrations (<=similar to 0.1 nM, total dissolvable Fe minus labile dissolved Fe) throughout the water column at low latitudes in the eastern region were extremely lower than those (similar to 0.5 - 1 nM) in the western region. It is suggested that the low Fe levels in the eastern mid-latitude oceanic region are primarily due to the lower atmospheric Fe supply in the eastern region.
  • 橋本 洋平, 磯田 豊, 大西 広二, 坂岡 桂一郎
    海の研究 14 4 513 - 525 2005年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • 山口 篤, 目黒 敏美, 梶原 善之, 高木 省吾, 亀井 佳彦, 坂岡 桂一郎
    水産海洋研究 68 4 2004年11月10日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • H Takata, K Kuma, S Iwade, Y Yamajyoh, A Yamaguchi, S Takagi, K Sakaoka, Y Yamashita, E Tanoue, T Midorikawa, K Kimura, J Nishioka
    MARINE CHEMISTRY 86 3-4 139 - 157 2004年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Sources of natural Fe(III)-complexing organic ligands which control vertical distributions of Fe(III) hydroxide solubilities [Fe(III) solubility, < 0.025 mum] and labile dissolved Fe (< 0.22 mum) concentrations were studied at the subarctic and subtropical surface waters (5-300-m depth) in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean during June 2002. High Fe(III) solubility values (0.71.3 nM) were observed at the depth of high chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations in the surface mixed layer with no strong correlation between Fe(III) solubility and size-fractionated Chl a concentrations. However, a significant correlation was found between Fe(Ill) solubility values and heterotrophic bacteria abundance at 5 - 100-m depth in the subarctic coastal water. The high Fe(III) solubility observed in the surface mixed layer is probably due to the production of natural Fe(III)-complexing organic ligands, such as siderophores, which were possibly released by specific phytoplankton or bacteria species. Higher Fe(III) solubility values than the labile dissolved Fe concentrations in the surface waters indicate that natural Fe(III)-complexing organic ligands are in excess of labile dissolved Fe concentrations. The Fe(III) solubility levels appeared to increase with depth in mid-depth waters (100-300-m depth), especially in the subarctic waters, in association with higher iron levels (labile dissolved Fe and dissolvable Fe concentrations), nutrient concentrations and humic-type fluorescence intensity. The relatively strong linear correlations between labile dissolved Fe concentrations or Fe(III) solubility values and humic-type fluorescence intensity in mid-depth waters suggest that the labile dissolved Fe concentrations and Fe(III) solubility in mid-depth waters are primarily associated with humic-type fluorescent organic matter produced through the oxidative decomposition and transformation of sinking biogenic organic matter. Humic-type fluorescent organic matter (i.e., marine dissolved humic substances) may thus account for a significant fraction of the Fe(III)-complexing organic ligands, which control Fe(III) solubility and labile dissolved Fe concentrations in mid-depth waters. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • 天野 春菜, 深田 陽久, 藤田 敏明, 小林 直人, 坂岡 桂一郎, 原 彰彦
    水産増殖 52 3 293 - 300 日本水産増殖学会 2004年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    ハイドロキシルアパタイトおよびゲル濾過カラムを用いて, Vgの構成成分である卵黄蛋白Lvをメバチマグロ卵巣から精製した。精製Lvはゲル濾過において300kDa, SDS-PAGEでは105kDaであった。Lvを抗原とした特異抗体は, Western blottingでは雄血清とは反応せず, 雌血清とのみ特異的に反応した。雌血清で観察されたバンドは210kDaであり, Vgであると考えられた。精製Lvをスタンダードとしアクリジニウム標識抗体を用いて, simultaneous CLIAによるメバチマグロVg測定系を確立した。測定範囲は0.97-1000ng/mlであり, 卵抽出液と雌血清の希釈系列は精製Lvスタンダードカーブと平行性を示した。アッセイ内およびアッセイ間変動係数は10%未満であった。さらに, 本測定系はクロマグロ, キハダマグロおよびブリと免疫交叉性を示した。ハワイ沖で捕獲したメバチマグロ雌魚では7個体中3個体からVgが検出され, 雄個体からVgは検出されなかった。
  • 小達 恒夫, 坂岡 桂一郎, 梶原 善之, 今井 圭理, 小林 直人, 目黒 敏美, 福地 光男
    日本プランクトン学会報 46 2 134 - 142 日本プランクトン学会 1999年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • S. Takagi, Y. Sakurai, Y. Kamei, T. Miyoi, K. Sakaoka, N. Shiga
    Bulletin - Hokkaido University, Faculty of Fisheries 48 1-2 13 - 28 1997年 
    Oceanographic conditions and distribution of pelagic nekton during the summer and fall in 1995 and 1996 in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean were examined. The gillnet survey and hydrographic observations were conducted along 155°E longitude from 32° to 44° N latitude. The Kuroshio Front located at the northern boundray of the Kuroshio Extension current was found near 38°N in the summer and fall. In the summer, warm water from the Kuroshio was found in the Subarctic Domain. The warm water was associated with an increase in chlorophyll-a and zooplankton. In the fall, Intermediate Cold Water occured in the Subarctic Domain, and concentration of nutrients and chlorophyll-a were high in fine structure. The distribution of pelagic nekton differed in the summer and fall. In the summer, the dominant species north side of the front were pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O.keta. The dominant species around the front was flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii. In the fall, the dominant species in subtropical waer were flying squid and dolphin Coryphaena hippurus. The distribution of flying squid was controlled by the Kuroshio Front. In the summer, the front corresponded to the boundary between LL-size group (north side) and the small-size group (south side). In the fall, the front corresponded to the boundary between immature (north side) and mature (south side) squid.

その他活動・業績

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • 海洋の気体交換フィードバックシステムと生物生産応答に関する研究
    研究期間 : 2009年 -2012年
  • プランクトンネット採集特性に及ぼす船舶操作に関する研究

大学運営

学内役職歴

  • 2021年4月1日 - 2023年3月31日 水産学部附属練習船うしお丸船長


Copyright © MEDIA FUSION Co.,Ltd. All rights reserved.