研究者データベース

研究者情報

マスター

アカウント(マスター)

  • 氏名

    東 恒仁(ヒガシ ツネヒト), ヒガシ ツネヒト

所属(マスター)

  • 医学研究院 生理系部門 薬理学分野

所属(マスター)

  • 医学研究院 生理系部門 薬理学分野

独自項目

syllabus

  • 2020, 基本医学研究, Master's Thesis Research in Medical Sciences, 修士課程, 医学院, 神経薬理学、情動機能、精神疾患、モノアミン作動性神経系、動物モデル、実験計画法、統計解析 neuropharmacology, emotion, psychiatric disorders, model animals, experimental design, statistical analysis
  • 2020, 基盤医学研究, Dissertation Research in Medical Sciences, 博士後期課程, 医学院, 神経薬理学、情動機能、精神疾患、動物モデル、実験計画法、統計解析 neuropharmacology, emotion, psychiatric disorders, model animals, experimental design, statistical analysis
  • 2020, 薬理学実習, Pharmacology Laboratory, 学士課程, 医学部, 薬物療法、薬力学、薬物動態学、副作用
  • 2020, 薬理学Ⅱ, PharmacologyⅡ, 学士課程, 医学部, 薬理学 薬力学 薬物動態学

timetable

  • 博士後期課程, 医学研究科, 2020, 医学研究法Ⅳ

researchmap

プロフィール情報

学位

  • 博士(工学)(大阪大学)

プロフィール情報

  • 東, Higashi
  • 恒仁, Tsunehito
  • ID各種

    200901089534159560

対象リソース

業績リスト

研究キーワード

  • 細胞毒性   不飽和カルボニル化合物   動物細胞工学   

研究分野

  • 環境・農学 / 化学物質影響
  • 環境・農学 / 放射線影響
  • ライフサイエンス / 薬理学
  • ものづくり技術(機械・電気電子・化学工学) / バイオ機能応用、バイオプロセス工学

経歴

  • 2012年 - 現在 北海道大学大学院医学研究科 助教
  • 2011年 - 2012年 東京理科大学理工学部 博士研究員
  • 2009年 - 2011年 米国カリフォルニア大学サンディエゴ校 博士研究員
  • 2007年 - 2009年 福島県立医科大学医学部助教
  • 2007年 - 2007年 福島県立医科大学医学部助手
  • 2006年 - 2007年 :日本学術振興会特別研究員(PD)(学位取得に伴う資格変更)
  • 2005年 - 2006年 :日本学術振興会特別研究員(DC2)

学歴

  • 2003年 - 2006年   大阪大学大学院   工学研究科   応用生物工学専攻博士後期課程
  •         - 2006年   大阪大学
  • 2001年 - 2003年   大阪大学大学院   工学研究科   応用生物工学専攻博士前期課程
  • 1997年 - 2001年   大阪大学   工学部   応用自然科学科

論文

  • Decreased proteasomal function induces neuronal loss and memory impairment
    Tomaru U, Ito T, Ohmura Y, Higashikawa K, Miyajima S, Tomatsu R, Higashi T, Ishizu A, Kuge Y, Yoshioka M, Kasahara M
    Am J Pathol 191 1 144 - 156 2021年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Cigarette smoke extract induces ferroptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells
    Sampilvanjil A, Karasawa T, Yamada N, Komada T, Higashi T, Baatarjav C, Watanabe S, Kamata R, Ohno N, Takahashi M
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 318 3 H508 - H518 2020年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Pyrenosine A induces monopolar spindle formation and suppress proliferation of cancer cells
    Myobatake Y, Kamisuki S, Tsukuda S, Higashi T, Chinen T, Takemoto K, Hachisuka M, Suzuki Y, Takei M, Tsurukawa Y, Maekawa H, Takeuchi T, Matsunaga TM, Sahara H, Usui T, Matsunaga S, Sugawara F
    Bioorg Med Chem 27 23 115149  2019年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Mitofusin 2 is involved in chemotaxis of neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells
    Mazaki Y, Takada S, Nio-Kobayashi J, Maekawa S, Higashi T, Onodera Y, Sabe H
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 513 3 708 - 713 2019年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Endothelin type B receptor interacts with 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein
    Mazaki Y, Higashi T, Onodera Y, Nam JM, Hashimoto A, Hashimoto S, Horinouchi T, Miwa S
    FEBS Lett 593 6 644 - 651 2019年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Annexin A2 is involved in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase upon endothelin-1 stimulation
    Mazaki Y, Higashi T, Horinouchi T, Miwa S
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 511 1 69 - 72 2019年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Glutathione and cysteines suppress cytotoxicity of gas phase of cigarette smoke by direct reaction with unsaturated carbonyl compounds in the gas phase
    Higashi T, Elmeligy E, Mai Y, Noya Y, Terada K, Mazaki Y, Kuge Y, Miwa S
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 509 4 988 - 993 2019年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Autoantibodies undetectable by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay require extended antigen-antibody reaction time for detection
    Mai Y, Ujiie H, Higashi T, Yamagami J, Iwata H, Shimizu H
    Br J Dermatol 180 1 215 - 216 2019年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Tsunehito Higashi, Yosuke Mai, Yuichi Mazaki
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 126 4 527 - 532 2018年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Unsaturated carbonyl compounds, such as acrolein (ACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), are known as the environmental pollutants, and are contained in smoke, automobile exhaust, and heated oil. Although they can enter the circulation through the alveolar epithelium, the details of their effects on the vascular system remain to be clarified. We have recently reported that ACR and MVK induce protein kinase C (PKC) activation and cell damage mediated by intracellular Ca2+ in rat glioma cells (Higashi et al., J. Biosci. Bioeng., 124, 680–684, 2017). In this study, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of ACR and MVK on the vascular system, because blood vessels are easily exposed to these compounds. The rat aorta smooth muscle cells A7r5 were highly sensitive to ACR and MVK, whereas the human umbilical vein endothelial cells EA.hy926 were resistant to them. The ACR- and MVK-induced cell damage in A7r5 cells was PKC-dependent. In A7r5 cells, PKCα, PKCδ, PKCε, and PKCι were expressed. ACR and MVK induced PKCα and PKCδ translocation to the cell membrane. PKC activity was enhanced in A7r5 cells by ACR and MVK. These results indicate that the unsaturated carbonyl compounds might affect the vascular system by damaging smooth muscle cells via PKC activation.
  • Tsunehito Higashi, Yosuke Mai, Yuichi Mazaki, Soichi Miwa
    JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCE AND BIOENGINEERING 124 6 680 - 684 2017年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The unsaturated carbonyl compounds are known as the environmental pollutants. Acrolein (ACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) are representative unsaturated carbonyl compounds. ACR is contained in smoke, automobile exhaust, industrial waste, and several foods. MVK is widely used as the industrial chemical. Although ACR and MVK are highly toxic, the molecular mechanism for their cytotoxicity has been unclear. We have previously reported that ACR and MVK are major cytotoxic compounds in the gas phase of cigarette smoke, and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor and NADPH oxidases inhibitor partially rescued cells from ACR-or MVK-induced cell death (Noya et al., Toxicology, 314, 1-10, 2013). PKC translocation, which is hallmark for PKC activation, and cell damage were induced by treatment of cultured cells with ACR or MVK. Intracellular Ca2+ chelator completely suppressed ACR-or MVK-induced PKC translocation to the cell membrane and cell damage, while extracellular Ca2+ chelator had no effects on ACR- and MVK-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that intracellular Ca2+ is an essential factor for cell damage caused by both PKC-dependent and PKC-independent pathways, and mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores is induced by ACR or MVK. (C) 2017, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.
  • Yuichi Mazaki, Yasuhito Onodera, Tsunehito Higashi, Takahiro Horinouchi, Tsukasa Oikawa, Hisataka Sabe
    CELL COMMUNICATION AND SIGNALING 15 36  2017年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Background: The small GTPase ARF1 mediates membrane trafficking mostly from the Golgi, and is essential for the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils. In this process, ARF1 is activated by the guanine nucleotide exchanger GBF1, and is inactivated by the GTPase-activating protein GIT2. Neutrophils generate the G beta gamma.-PAK1-aPIX-GIT2 linear complex during GPCR-induced chemotaxis, in which aPIX activates RAC1/CDC42, which then employs PAK1. However, it has remained unclear as to why GIT2 is included in this complex. Results: We investigated the association between ARF1 and RAC1/CDC42 during the fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis of HL60 cells. We found that the silencing of GBF1 significantly impaired the recruitment of RAC1 to the leading edges, but not PAK1, aPIX, RAC2, or CDC42. A significant population of RAC1 colocalized with ARF1 at the leading edges in stimulated cells, whereas fMLP activated both ARF1 and ARF5. Consistently, the silencing of ARF1, but not ARF5, impaired the recruitment of RAC1, whereas the silencing of RAC1 did not affect the recruitment of ARF1 to the leading edges. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the activation of ARF1 triggers the plasma membrane recruitment of RAC1 in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis, which is essential for cortical actin remodeling. Thus, membrane remodeling at the leading edges appears to precede actin remodeling in chemotaxis. Together with the fact that GIT2, which inactivates ARF1, is an integral component of the machinery activating RAC1, we proposed a model in which the ARF1-RAC1 linkage enables the regulation of ARF1 by repetitive on/off cycles during GPCR-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis.
  • Cigarette smoke extract inhibits platelet aggregation by suppressing cyclooxygenase activity
    Kashiwagi H, Yuhki K, Imamichi Y, Kojima F, Kumei S, Higashi T, Horinouchi T, Miwa S, Narumiya S, Ushikubi F
    TH Open 1 2 e122 - e129 2017年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Chie Sugimoto, Makoto Hirotani, Kazunori Yoshikiyo, Uichi Koshimizu, Rika Wakao, Takahiro Horinouchi, Yuichi Mazaki, Tsunehiko Higashi, Toshiyuki Fukazawa, Hiroyoshi Fujita, Hidenao Sasaki, Hiroshi Wakao
    SPRINGERPLUS 5 1 1 - 16 2016年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination, gliosis and axonal loss in the Central Nervous System. Although the etiology of the disease has remained enigmatic, recent studies have suggested a role of the innate-like T cells, called Mucosal Associated Invariant T cells (MAITs) in the pathophysiology. In the present study, we have analyzed the relative frequency of MAITs and the expression of the cell surface antigens in MAITs to seek a possible link to the disease. Results: There was little difference in the frequency of total MAITs between healthy donors (HDs) and untreated MS patients, whereas the latter harbored more CD8(lo/neg) (DN) MAITs concomitant with a decrease in CD8(high) MAITs and in CD4 MAITs compared with those in HDs. While the expression of CCR5, CCR6, CD95, CD127, and CD150 has increased in untreated subjects compared with that in HDs, CD45RO has declined in untreated subjects in both DN MAITs and CD8(hi) MAITs. FTY720 therapy has increased the relative frequency of total MAITs in a time-dependent fashion up to 2 years. Intriguingly, FTY720 therapy for 3 years reversed the above phenotype, engendering more CD8high MAITs accompanied with decreased DN MAITs. FTY720 therapy affected the cytokine production from CD4 T cells and also enhanced the relative frequency of cells producing both TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma from MAITs, CD8 T cells, and CD4 T cells compared with that in untreated subjects. Conclusions: FTY 720 therapy enhanced the relative frequency of MAITs in MS patients in a time-dependent manner. Although the expression of CD8 in MAITs has been affected early by FTY720, longer treatment has reversed the phenotypic change. These data demonstrated that FTY720 induced dynamic change in the relative frequency and in the phenotype of MAITs in MS.
  • Tsunehito Higashi, Yosuke Mai, Yuichi Mazaki, Takahiro Horinouchi, Soichi Miwa
    BIOLOGICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN 39 6 898 - 902 2016年06月 [査読有り][招待有り]
     
    The gas phase of cigarette smoke is important from the viewpoint of human health, because it can pass through alveolar epithelium and enter the circulation. There is no standard method for the preparation of a gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE), although CSE is widely used for research instead of whole cigarette smoke. We have established a standard method for the preparation of CSE. One cigarette per trial is continuously combusted under a reduced pressure generated by an aspiration pump with a velocity of 1.050L/min: the main stream of the smoke is passed through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, and subsequently, bubbled through a glass ball filter (pore size, 20-30 mu m) into 15 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To express the concentration of CSE, a virtual tar concentration is introduced, which is calculated assuming that tar trapped on the Cambridge filter is dissolved in the PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original virtual tar concentration <= 15 mg/mL) show similar concentration response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations. CSEs prepared from various brands of cigarettes and by different smoking regimes (continuous and puff smoking) show similar cytotoxic potency if the virtual tar concentrations are the same. In conclusion, using the standardized method for CSE preparation in combination with the virtual tar concentration, it becomes possible to simply and rapidly prepare standard CSEs with defined concentrations from any brand of cigarettes, which are toxicologically equivalent to CSE prepared by puff smoking.
  • 骨格筋細胞においてエンドセリン-1はGタンパク質共役型受容体キナーゼ2を介してインスリン抵抗性を惹起する
    堀之内孝広, 星暁壮, 原田拓弥, 比嘉綱己, サリタ・カルキ, 寺田晃士, 東恒仁, 眞井洋輔, ネパル・プラハ, 真崎雄一, 三輪聡一
    北海道医学雑誌 91 77  2016年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • Horinouchi T, Hoshi A, Harada T, Higa T, Karki S, Terada K, Higashi T, Mai Y, Nepal P, Mazaki Y, Miwa S
    Br. J. Pharmacol. 173 1018 - 1032 2016年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • 堀之内孝広, 真崎雄一, 寺田晃士, 東恒仁, 三輪聡一
    日本薬理学雑誌 148 231 - 238 2016年 [査読有り][招待有り]
  • Horinouchi T, Higashi T, Mazaki Y, Miwa S
    Biol. Pharm. Bull. 39 909 - 914 2016年 [査読有り][招待有り]
  • Horinouchi T, Terada K, Higashi T, Miwa S
    Methods in Molecular Biology. 1397 266 - 277 2016年 [査読有り][招待有り]
  • Yosuke Yamada, Utano Tomaru, Akihiro Ishizu, Tomoki Ito, Takayuki Kiuchi, Ayako Ono, Syota Miyajima, Katsura Nagai, Tsunehito Higashi, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita, Masaharu Nishimura, Soichi Miwa, Masanori Kasahara
    LABORATORY INVESTIGATION 95 6 625 - 634 2015年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease common in elderly people, characterized by progressive destruction of lung parenchyma and chronic inflammation of the airways. The pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear, but recent studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in alveolar cells contributes to emphysematous lung destruction. The proteasome is a multicatalytic enzyme complex that plays a critical role in proteostasis by rapidly destroying misfolded and modified proteins generated by oxidative and other stresses. Proteasome activity decreases with aging in many organs including lungs, and an age-related decline in proteasomal function has been implicated in various age-related pathologies. However, the role of the proteasome system in the pathogenesis of COPD has not been investigated. Recently, we have established a transgenic (Tg) mouse model with decreased proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, showing age-related phenotypes. Using this model, we demonstrate here that decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary emphysema. CS-exposed Tg mice showed remarkable airspace enlargement and increased foci of inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Importantly, apoptotic cells were found in the alveolar walls of the affected lungs. Impaired proteasomal activity also enhanced apoptosis in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed fibroblastic cells derived from mice and humans in vitro. Notably, aggresome formation and prominent nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor were observed in CSE-exposed fibroblastic cells isolated from Tg mice. Collective evidence suggests that CS exposure and impaired proteasomal activity coordinately enhance apoptotic cell death in the alveolar walls that may be involved in the development and progression of emphysema in susceptible individuals such as the elderly.
  • 堀之内孝広, 東恒仁, 真崎雄一, 三輪聡一
    東邦医学誌 62 197 - 199 2015年 [査読無し][招待有り]
  • Terada K, Horinouchi T, Higashi T, Nepal P, Miwa S
    Nihon yakurigaku zasshi. Folia pharmacologica Japonica 145 1 4 - 9 2015年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Koji Terada, Takahiro Horinouchi, Yoichiro Fujioka, Tsunehito Higashi, Prabha Nepal, Mika Horiguchi, Sarita Karki, Chizuru Hatate, Akimasa Hoshi, Takuya Harada, Yosuke Mai, Yusuke Ohba, Soichi Miwa
    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 289 51 35283 - 35295 2014年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Two types of G protein-coupled receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ETAR) and ETBR, closely resemble each other, but upon ET-1 stimulation, they follow totally different intracellular trafficking pathways; ETAR is recycled back to plasma membrane, whereas ETBR is targeted to lysosome for degradation. However, the mechanisms for such different fates are unknown. Here we demonstrated that ETBR but not ETAR was ubiquitinated on the cell surface following ET-1 stimulation and that ETBR was internalized and degraded in lysosome more rapidly than ETAR. The mutant ETBR (designated 5KR mutant) in which 5 lysine residues in the C-tail were substituted to arginine was not ubiquitinated, and its rates of internalization and degradation after ET-1 stimulation became slower, being comparable with those of ETAR. Confocal microscopic study showed that following ET-1 stimulation, ETAR and 5KR mutant of ETBR were co-localized mainly with Rab11, a marker of recycling endosome, whereas ETBR was co-localized with Rab7, a marker of late endosome/lysosome. In the 5KR mutant, ET-1-induced ERK phosphorylation and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration upon repetitive ET-1 stimulation were larger. A series of ETBR mutants (designated 4KR mutant), in which either one of 5 arginine residues of the 5KR mutant was reverted to lysine, were normally ubiquitinated, internalized, and degraded, with ERK phosphorylation being normalized. These results demonstrate that agonist-induced ubiquitination at either lysine residue in the C-tail of ETBR but not ETAR switches intracellular trafficking from recycling to plasma membrane to targeting to lysosome, causing decreases in the cell surface level of ETBR and intracellular signaling.
  • Tsunehito Higashi, Yosuke Mai, Yoichi Noya, Takahiro Horinouchi, Koji Terada, Akimasa Hoshi, Prabha Nepal, Takuya Harada, Mika Horiguchi, Chizuru Hatate, Yuji Kuge, Soichi Miwa
    PLOS ONE 9 9 e107856  2014年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Cigarette smoke consists of tar and gas phase: the latter is toxicologically important because it can pass through lung alveolar epithelium to enter the circulation. Here we attempt to establish a standard method for preparation of gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE). CSE was prepared by continuously sucking cigarette smoke through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, followed by bubbling it into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). An increase in dry weight of the filter was defined as tar weight. Characteristically, concentrations of CSEs were represented as virtual tar concentrations, assuming that tar on the filter was dissolved in PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original tar concentrations <= 15 mg/ml) showed similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations, but with CSEs from larger numbers (tar >= 20 mg/ml), the curves were shifted rightward. Accordingly, the cytotoxic activity was detected in PBS of the second reservoir downstream of the first one with larger numbers of cigarettes. CSEs prepared from various cigarette brands showed comparable concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity. Two types of CSEs prepared by continuous and puff smoking protocols were similar regarding concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity, pharmacology of their cytotoxicity, and concentrations of cytotoxic compounds. These data show that concentrations of CSEs expressed by virtual tar concentrations can be a reference value to normalize their cytotoxicity, irrespective of numbers of combusted cigarettes, cigarette brands and smoking protocols, if original tar concentrations are <= 15 mg/ml.
  • Takuya Harada, Takahiro Horinouchi, Tsunaki Higa, Akimasa Hoshi, Tsunehito Higashi, Koji Terada, Yosuke Mai, Prabha Nepal, Mika Horiguchi, Chizuru Hatate, Soichi Miwa
    LIFE SCIENCES 104 1-2 24 - 31 2014年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Aims: Endothelin (ET) system plays a critical role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In skeletal muscle, differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes is accompanied by the development of insulin sensitivity. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 inhibits the differentiation of myoblasts, leading to insulin resistance. Although ET receptor (ETR) stimulation generally activates ERK1/2, the mechanism for ETR-mediated ERK1/2 activation in skeletal muscle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the signal transduction pathway involved in ET-1-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in L6 myoblasts derived from rat skeletal muscle. Main methods: Changes in phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 following stimulation with ET-1 were analyzed by Western blot in L6 myoblasts. To inhibit receptor internalization, dominant-negative dynamin (K44A) Was overexpressed in L6 myoblasts using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Key findings: ET-1 induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in L6 myoblasts. The ERK1/2 phosphorylation was abolished by BQ123 (a selective ET type A receptor (ETAR) antagonist), YM-254890 (a G(alpha q/11) protein inhibitor), and AG370 (a platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) kinase inhibitor), while U-73122 (a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor) was less potent. The ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited by overexpression of dominant-negative dynamin (K44A). These results suggest that ETAR stimulation induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation in L6 myoblasts through G(q/11) protein-dependent, PLC-independent PDGFR transactivation which requires dynamin-dependent ETAR internalization. Significance: Because activation of ERK1/2 is considered to inhibit differentiation of myoblasts with the development of insulin sensitivity, the ETAR-mediated PDGFR transactivation and subsequent ERK1/2 activation play an important role in ET-1-induced insulin resistance. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Yoichi Noya, Koh-ichi Seki, Hiroshi Asano, Yosuke Mai, Takahiro Horinouchi, Tsunehito Higashi, Koji Terada, Chizuru Hatate, Akimasa Hoshi, Prabha Nepal, Mika Horiguchi, Yuji Kuge, Soichi Miwa
    Toxicology 314 1 1 - 10 2013年12月06日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular diseases, but the mechanism for its genesis is unknown. We have recently shown that the gas phase of cigarette smoke (nicotine- and tar-free cigarette smoke extract CSE) likely to reach the systemic circulation contains stable substances which cause cytotoxicity like plasma membrane damage and cell death in cultured cells, and also that the plasma membrane damage is caused through sequential activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) and the resulting generation of reactive oxygen species (PKC/NOX-dependent mechanism), whereas cell death is caused through PKC/NOX-dependent and -independent mechanisms. To identify these stable substances, the CSE was prepared by passing the main-stream smoke of 10 cigarettes through a Cambridge glass fiber filter, trapping of the smoke in a vessel cooled at -80°C, and subsequent dissolution in 10ml of water. The CSE was fractionated into nine fractions using reversed-phase HPLC, and each fraction was screened for cytotoxicity in cultured cells, using propidium iodide uptake assay for cell membrane damage and MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] reduction assay for cell viability. The cytotoxicity was positive in two of the nine fractions (Fr2 and Fr5). After extraction of the active fractions into dichloromethane, GC/MS analysis identified 2-cyclopenten-1-one (CPO) in Fr5 but none in Fr2. After derivatization of the active fractions with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine hydrochloride, GC/MS analysis identified acrolein, acetone and propionaldehyde in Fr2, and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) in Fr5. After 4-h incubation, authentic acrolein and MVK induced concentration-dependent cytotoxicity with EC50 values of 75.9±8.2 and 47.0±8.0μM (mean±SEM n=3), respectively, whereas acetone, propionaldehyde and CPO were without effect. However, after 24-h incubation, CPO induced concentration-dependent cytotoxicity with an EC50 value of 264.0±16.9μM (n=3). The concentrations of acrolein, MVK and CPO in the CSE were 3368±334, 2429±123 and 392.9±31.8μM (n=4), respectively, which were higher than the cytotoxic concentrations. The cytotoxicity of acrolein and MVK consisted of plasma membrane damage and decreased cell viability: the plasma membrane damage was totally prevented by treatment with an inhibitor of PKC or NOX, whereas the decreased cell viability was only partially prevented by these inhibitors. The cytotoxicity of CPO consisted only of decreased cell viability, which was totally resistant to these inhibitors. These results show that acrolein and MVK are responsible for the acute cytotoxicity of the CSE through PKC/NOX-dependent and -independent mechanisms, whereas CPO is responsible for the delayed cytotoxicity of the CSE through a PKC/NOX-independent mechanism. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Tsunehito Higashi, Wataru Watanabe, Sachihiro Matsunaga
    JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCE AND BIOENGINEERING 115 2 122 - 126 2013年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Visualization has been an indispensable technique in the biological field. The advantage of visualization is to perform non-disruptive analyses with high spatio and temporal resolution. Using these properties, visualization has been employed for cell and tissue engineering research, including therapeutic protein production, cell and organelle manipulation, and stem cell technology. For cell assessment and manipulation, two-photon microscopy based on femtosecond laser is becoming a major tool because of its high depth resolution, low cell damages, and depth of penetration into tick specimen. Non-disruptive and single cell observation/manipulation technique is a powerful tool for stem cell research. In this review, we discuss recent developments in cell and tissue engineering in relation to the revolution in visualization techniques. (C) 2012, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.
  • Erin Eun-Young Ahn, Tsunehito Higashi, Ming Yan, Shinobu Matsuura, Christopher J. Hickey, Miao-Chia Lo, Wei-Jong Shia, Russell C. DeKelver, Dong-Er Zhang
    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 288 8 5381 - 5388 2013年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    SON is a DNA-and RNA-binding protein localized in nuclear speckles. Although its function in RNA splicing for effective cell cycle progression and genome stability was recently unveiled, other mechanisms of SON functions remain unexplored. Here, we report that SON regulates GATA-2, a key transcription factor involved in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and differentiation. SON is highly expressed in undifferentiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and leukemic blasts. SON knockdown leads to significant depletion of GATA-2 protein with marginal down-regulation of GATA-2 mRNA. We show that miR-27a is up-regulated upon SON knockdown and targets the 3'-UTR of GATA-2 mRNA in hematopoietic cells. Up-regulation of miR-27a was due to activation of the promoter of the miR-23a similar to 27a similar to 24-2 cluster, suggesting that SON suppresses this promoter to lower the microRNAs from this cluster. Our data revealed a previously unidentified role of SON in microRNA production via regulating the transcription process, thereby modulating GATA-2 at the protein level during hematopoietic differentiation.
  • Horinouchi T, Terada K, Higashi T, Miwa S
    Journal of pharmacological sciences 123 85 - 101 2 2013年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Yosuke Mai, Tsunehito Higashi, Koji Terada, Chizuru Hatate, Prabha Nepal, Mika Horiguchi, Takuya Harada, Soichi Miwa, Takahiro Horinouchi
    JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES 120 4 310 - 314 2012年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Nicotine- and tar-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) is reported to induce cell damage via activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) in rat C6 glioma cells. Here we determined PKC isozyme(s) activated by CSE and their activation mechanism. In C6 glioma cells, mRNAs for PKC alpha, PKC delta, PKC epsilon, and PKC iota were expressed. CSE triggered translocation of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon to plasma membrane. CSE-induced cell damage and PKC translocation were inhibited by chelating intracellular Ca2+ but not extracellular Ca2+. These results suggest that CSE induces cell damage through intracellular Ca2+-dependent activation of PKC alpha and PKC epsilon and subsequent NOX activation.
  • Takahiro Horinouchi, Tsunehito Higashi, Tsunaki Higa, Koji Terada, Yosuke Mai, Hiroyuki Aoyagi, Chizuru Hatate, Prabha Nepal, Mika Horiguchi, Takuya Harada, Soichi Miwa
    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 428 2 252 - 258 2012年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor to control ER Ca2+ levels. A recent study has shown that STIM1L, a new splice variant of STIM1, is expressed in various tissues of rodent and in human skeletal muscle, and that the interaction of STIM1L with actin filament allows rapid activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) mediated through Orai1 channels. Here, we characterize mRNA expression and function of human STIM1 and STIM1L, and compare their binding property to Orai1 functioning as store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCCs), and TRPC3 (transient receptor potential canonical 3) and TRPC6 channels functioning as endothelin type A receptor (ETAR)-operated Ca2+ channels (ROCCs). Although mRNA for STIM1 was ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, STIM1L was detected only in skeletal muscle. STIM1L augmented thapsigargin- and endothelin-1 -induced SOCE more strongly than STIM1 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing ETAR, whereas, it tends to suppress ETAR-operated Ca2+ entry (ROCE) via TRPC3 and TRPC6 more strongly than STIM1. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments have revealed that when compared with STIM1, STIM1L binds more abundantly to Orai1 and also to TRPC3 and TRPC6. These results suggest that the higher binding capacity of ST1M1L to SOCCs and ROCCs plays an important role in the regulation of Ca2+ signaling such as the augmentation of SOCE via rail and the inhibition of ROCE via TRPC3 and TRPC6. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Takahisa Suzuki, Seisuke Arai, Mayumi Takeuchi, Chiye Sakurai, Hideaki Ebana, Tsunehito Higashi, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa, Ikuo Wada
    PLOS ONE 7 5 e37551  2012年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Molecular imaging employing fluorescent proteins has been widely used to highlight specific reactions or processes in various fields of the life sciences. Despite extensive improvements of the fluorescent tag, this technology is still limited in the study of molecular events in the extracellular milieu. This is partly due to the presence of cysteine in the fluorescent proteins. These proteins almost cotranslationally form disulfide bonded oligomers when expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although single molecule photobleaching analysis showed that these oligomers were not fluorescent, the fluorescent monomer form often showed aberrant behavior in folding and motion, particularly when fused to cysteine-containing cargo. Therefore we investigated whether it was possible to eliminate the cysteine without losing the brightness. By site-saturated mutagenesis, we found that the cysteine residues in fluorescent proteins could be replaced with specific alternatives while still retaining their brightness. cf(cysteine-free) SGFP2 showed significantly reduced restriction of free diffusion in the ER and marked improvement of maturation when fused to the prion protein. We further applied this approach to TagRFP family proteins and found a set of mutations that obtains the same level of brightness as the cysteine-containing proteins. The approach used in this study to generate new cysteine-free fluorescent tags should expand the application of molecular imaging to the extracellular milieu and facilitate its usage in medicine and biotechnology.
  • Sachihiro Matsunaga, Hideaki Takata, Akihiro Morimoto, Kayoko Hayashihara, Tsunehito Higashi, Kouhei Akatsuchi, Eri Mizusawa, Mariko Yamakawa, Mamoru Ashida, Tomoko M. Matsunaga, Takachika Azuma, Susumu Uchiyama, Kiichi Fukui
    CELL REPORTS 1 4 299 - 308 2012年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Cohesion is essential for the identification of sister chromatids and for the biorientation of chromosomes until their segregation. Here, we have demonstrated that an RNA-binding motif protein encoded on the X chromosome (RBMX) plays an essential role in chromosome morphogenesis through its association with chromatin, but not with RNA. Depletion of RBMX by RNA interference (RNAi) causes the loss of cohesin from the centromeric regions before anaphase, resulting in premature chromatid separation accompanied by delocalization of the shugoshin complex and outer kinetochore proteins. Cohesion defects caused by RBMX depletion can be detected as early as the G2 phase. Moreover, RBMX associates with the cohesin subunits, Scc1 and Smc3, and with the cohesion regulator, Wapl. RBMX is required for cohesion only in the presence of Wapl, suggesting that RBMX is an inhibitor of Wapl. We propose that RBMX is a cohesion regulator that maintains the proper cohesion of sister chromatids.
  • Shinobu Matsuura, Ming Yan, Miao-Chia Lo, Eun-Young Ahn, Stephanie Weng, David Dangoor, Mahan Matin, Tsunehito Higashi, Gen-Sheng Feng, Dong-Er Zhang
    BLOOD 119 13 3155 - 3163 2012年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The t(8;21)(q22;q22) is common in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The RUNX1-ETO fusion protein that is expressed by this translocation is poorly leukemogenic and requires additional mutations for transformation. Loss of sex chromosome (LOS) is frequently observed in t(8;21) AML. In the present study, to evaluate whether LOS cooperates with t(8;21) in leukemogenesis, we first used a retroviral transduction/transplantation model to express RUNX1-ETO in hematopoietic cells from XO mice. The low frequency of leukemia in these mice suggests that the potentially critical gene for suppression of t(8;21) leukemia in humans is not conserved on mouse sex chromosomes. The gene encoding the GM-CSF receptor alpha subunit (CSF2RA) is located on X and Y chromosomes in humans but on chromosome 19 in mice. GM-CSF promotes myeloid cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. To determine whether GM-CSF signaling affects RUNX1-ETOleukemogenesis, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that lack GM-CSF signaling were used to express RUNX1-ETO and transplanted into lethally irradiated mice, and a high penetrance of AML was observed in recipients. Furthermore, GM-CSF reduced the replating ability of RUNX1-ETO-expressing cells. These results suggest a possible tumor-suppressor role of GM-CSF in RUNX1-ETO leukemia. Loss of the CSF2RA gene may be a critical mutation explaining the high incidence of LOS associated with the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation. (Blood. 2012;119(13):3155-3163)
  • Wataru Watanabe, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Tsunehito Higashi, Kiichi Fukui, Kazuyoshi Itoh
    JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS 13 3 031213(1-8)  2008年05月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Femtosecond laser pulses in the near-infrared region have potential applications in the imaging and manipulation of intracellular organelles. We report on the manipulation of intracellular organelles by two-photon excitation. The dynamics of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-histone are investigated by two-photon fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Intracellular ablation of fluorescently labeled organelles in living cells is performed by focusing femtosecond laser pulses. We report on the selective marking of individual organelles by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein. (c) 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
  • Tsunehito Higashi, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Keisuke Isobe, Akihiro Morimoto, Tomoko Shimada, Shogo Kataoka, Wataru Watanabe, Susumu Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi Itoh, Kiichi Fukui
    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 357 3 627 - 632 2007年06月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Historic tail domains play important roles in cellular processes, such as replication, transcription, and chromosome condensation. Histone H2A has one central and two tail domains, and their functions have mainly been studied from a biochemical perspective. In addition, analyses based on visualization have been employed for functional analysis of some chromatin proteins. In this study, we analyzed histone H2A mobility in vivo by two-photon FRAP, and elucidated that the histone H2A N- and C-terminal tails regulate its mobility. We found that histone H2A mobility was increased following treatment of host cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Our results support a model in which core histone tails directly regulate transcription by interacting with nucleosome DNA via electrostatic interactions. (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Arni E. Gambe, Rika Maniwa Ono, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Takumi Higaki, Tsunehito Higashi, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Susumu Uchiyama, Kiichi Fukui
    CYTOMETRY PART A 71A 5 286 - 296 2007年05月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Background: Cell-based assays utilizing digital image cytometry yield multivariate sets of information measuring the efficacy of medicines/chemicals. The use of a HeLa cell line that expresses a GFP-Histone-H1 fusion protein further enhances the performance of these systems, avoiding the use of dyes that may have detrimental influence on cells. Aside from the mitotic index, the distribution of the cell-cycle phases during mitosis can be used as measures of drug/treatment efficacy. Quantification of these parameters, however, requires skill and is time consuming. The purpose of this research was therefore to create a classifier to be incorporated into a system that can automaiically identify the cell-cycle phases in a given image. Methods: Features based on the shape and texture of the chromosomal regions in images of live Hela cells were measured and analyzed. linear discriminant functions were calculated for the eight cell-cycle phases: interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, early anaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. Results: The multistage linear discriminant classifier developed had an average classification efficiency of 87-30%. Conclusion: We demonstrated the possibility of creating a classifier to discriminate between cell-cycle phases using shape and texture features of chromosomal regions. The classifier can be fused to an algorithm for image segmentation, forming a system to automatically and rapidly measure the aforementioned parameters. The results can then be collated to constitute an assay assessing the effects of a drug or treatment on mammalian cells. (c) 2007 International Society for Analytical Cytology.
  • Isobe K, Kataoka S, Murase R, Watanabe W, Higashi T, Kawakami S, Matsunaga S, Fukui K, Itoh K
    Opt Express 14 789 - 793 2006年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • T Shimada, W Watanabe, S Matsunaga, T Higashi, H Ishii, K Fukui, K Isobe, K Itoh
    OPTICS EXPRESS 13 24 9869 - 9880 2005年11月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to selectively disrupt and dissect intracellular organelles. We report on disruption of mitochondria in living HeLa cells using a femtosecond laser oscillator with a repetition rate of 76 MHz. We studied the laser parameters used for disruption. The long-term viability of the cells after disruption of a single mitochondrion was confirmed by the observation of cell division, indicating that intracellular disruption of organelles using a femtosecond laser oscillator can be performed without compromising the long-term cell viability. (c) 2005 Optical Society of America
  • T Higashi, S Miyakawa, S Uchiyama, S Matsunaga, H Takata, S Fujimoto, M Noda, A Terauchi, T Shimizu, M Oda, T Azuma, K Fukui
    JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 120 3 262 - 272 2005年11月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    We raised monoclonal antibodies by immunizing mice with total chromosome proteins extracted from isolated human metaphase chromosomes. The indirect immunofluorescence, screening of hybridoma cell lines provided 15 monoclonal antibodies against the chromosomal antigens. The antigen proteins of the mAbs were identified by immunoblotting as core histones or by immunoprecipitation followed by a peptide mass fingerprinting method as nuclear mitotic apparatus protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, ribosomal protein S4, linker histone and beta-actin. During mitosis, localizations of these proteins on chromosomes were clearly observed using the obtained antibodies. These results indicate that the current strategy is effective for obtaining monoclonal antibodies useful for immunoblotting and/or immunofluorescent staining of human proteins, using the antigens with high homology to mouse proteins. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Watanabe, W, Matsunaga, S, Shimada, T, Higashi, T, Fukui, K, Itoh, K
    Medical Laser Application 20 3 185 - 191 2005年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • S Uchiyama, S Kobayashi, H Takata, T Ishihara, N Hori, T Higashi, K Hayashihara, T Sone, D Higo, T Nirasawa, T Takao, S Matsunaga, K Fukui
    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 280 17 16994 - 17004 2005年04月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    DNA is packaged as chromatin in the interphase nucleus. During mitosis, chromatin fibers are highly condensed to form metaphase chromosomes, which ensure equal segregation of replicated chromosomal DNA into the daughter cells. Despite > 1 century of research on metaphase chromosomes, information regarding the higher order structure of metaphase chromosomes is limited, and it is still not clear which proteins are involved in further folding of the chromatin fiber into metaphase chromosomes. To obtain a global view of the chromosomal proteins, we performed proteome analyses on three types of isolated human metaphase chromosomes. We first show the results from comparative proteome analyses of two types of isolated human metaphase chromosomes that have been frequently used in biochemical and morphological analyses. 209 proteins were quantitatively identified and classified into six groups on the basis of their known interphase localization. Furthermore, a list of 107 proteins was obtained from the proteome analyses of highly purified metaphase chromosomes, the majority of which are essential for chromosome structure and function. Based on the information obtained on these proteins and on their localizations during mitosis as assessed by immunostaining, we present a four-layer model of metaphase chromosomes. According to this model, the chromosomal proteins have been newly classified into each of four groups: chromosome coating proteins, chromosome peripheral proteins, chromosome structural proteins, and chromosome fibrous proteins. This analysis represents the first compositional view of human metaphase chromosomes and provides a protein framework for future research on this topic.
  • Proteome analysis of human metaphase chromosomes.
    Uchiyama, S, Kobayashi, S, Takata, H, Ishihara, T, Hori, N, Higashi, T, Hayashihara, K, Sone, T, Higo, D, Nirasawa, T, Takao, T, Matsunaga, S, Fukui, K
    J. Biol. Chem. 12 4 269 - 284 2005年04月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • K Isobe, W Watanabe, S Matsunaga, T Higashi, K Fukui, K Itoh
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS & EXPRESS LETTERS 44 1-7 L167 - L169 2005年 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    We report on a novel technique of multi-spectral two-photon-excited fluorescence microscopy by use of broadband supercontinuum light. A supercontinuum in the near-infrared region is generated in a 4.5-min-long photonic crystal fiber using a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator. The supercontinuum is used as a multi-spectral excitation light source in a two-photon excited fluorescence microscope. We demonstrate that three-color fluorescence images of organelles in a cell can be simultaneously acquired.
  • T Doi, S Matsunaga, E Maeno, K Tsuchiya, T Higashi, S Misawa, S Uchiyama, T Ooi, M Nakao, K Fukui
    JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCE AND BIOENGINEERING 98 4 304 - 305 2004年10月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    The minimum size of a closed nano-space in which cells can survive was determined using 4-nl nanowells. One or two cells could divide in the nanowell. Our results suggest that the cell division activity in the nano-space is determined by the conflict between intercellular effects and consumption of substrates.
  • W Watanabe, N Arakawa, S Matsunaga, T Higashi, K Fukui, K Isobe, K Itoh
    OPTICS EXPRESS 12 18 4203 - 4213 2004年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Subcellular organelles in living cells were inactivated by tightly focusing femtosecond laser pulses inside the cells. Photodisruption of a mitochondrion in living cells was experimentally confirmed by stacking three-dimensional confocal images and by restaining of organelles. The viability of the cells after femtosecond laser irradiation was ascertained by impermeability of propidium iodide as well as by the presence of cytoplasmic streaming. (C) 2004 Optical Society of America.
  • Haibo Liu, Akira Kawabe, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Hee Kim Yeon, Tsunehito Higashi, Susumu Uchiyama, Satoshi Harashima, Akio Kobayashi, Kiichi Fukui
    Cytologia 69 2 235 - 240 2004年06月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    A part of chromosome 5 from Arabidopsis thaliana, which has 36 genes, on yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) was transferred into tobacco BY-2 cells using a bio-active beads method. The YAC was constructed using the chromosome-splitting technique. The GFP gene located on the YAC showed repeated transient expression after transformation. Molecular analyses confirmed that 1 (At5g57980) of the 5 genes checked had transcribed in the tobacco BY-2 cells. This demonstrates that the promoter of this gene could work in both A. thaliana and tobacco BY-2 cells.
  • T Higashi, E Nagamori, T Sone, S Matsunaga, K Fukui
    JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCE AND BIOENGINEERING 97 3 191 - 195 2004年03月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    The direct transfer of genetic materials into mammalian cells is an indispensable technique. We have developed calcium alginate (CA) microbeads which can deliver plasmid DNAs and yeast artificial chromosomes into plant and yeast cells. In this paper, we demonstrate the effective transfection of mammalian cells by CA microbeads immobilizing plasmid DNAs. The transfection was performed using the pEGFP-C1 plasmid containing the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The transient expression of EGFP was observed 24 h after transfection. The expression efficiency was maximum when the concentration of sodium alginate was 1% and the amount of plasmid DNA was increased to 100 mug. The expression efficiency of our method using CA microbeads is 2-10 times higher than that of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) method. Our results suggest that the CA microbead mediated transfection of mammalian cells effectively delivers genetic materials into mammalian suspension cells.

MISC

  • Wataru Watanabe, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Tsunehito Higashi, Kiichi Fukui, Kazuyoshi Itoh JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS 13 (3) 031213(1-8) 2008年05月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Femtosecond laser pulses in the near-infrared region have potential applications in the imaging and manipulation of intracellular organelles. We report on the manipulation of intracellular organelles by two-photon excitation. The dynamics of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-histone are investigated by two-photon fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Intracellular ablation of fluorescently labeled organelles in living cells is performed by focusing femtosecond laser pulses. We report on the selective marking of individual organelles by using two-photon conversion of a photoconvertible fluorescent protein. (c) 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
  • Tsunehito Higashi, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Keisuke Isobe, Akihiro Morimoto, Tomoko Shimada, Shogo Kataoka, Wataru Watanabe, Susumu Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi Itoh, Kiichi Fukui BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 357 (3) 627 -632 2007年06月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Historic tail domains play important roles in cellular processes, such as replication, transcription, and chromosome condensation. Histone H2A has one central and two tail domains, and their functions have mainly been studied from a biochemical perspective. In addition, analyses based on visualization have been employed for functional analysis of some chromatin proteins. In this study, we analyzed histone H2A mobility in vivo by two-photon FRAP, and elucidated that the histone H2A N- and C-terminal tails regulate its mobility. We found that histone H2A mobility was increased following treatment of host cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Our results support a model in which core histone tails directly regulate transcription by interacting with nucleosome DNA via electrostatic interactions. (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Arni E. Gambe, Rika Maniwa Ono, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Takumi Higaki, Tsunehito Higashi, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Susumu Uchiyama, Kiichi Fukui CYTOMETRY PART A 71A (5) 286 -296 2007年05月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Background: Cell-based assays utilizing digital image cytometry yield multivariate sets of information measuring the efficacy of medicines/chemicals. The use of a HeLa cell line that expresses a GFP-Histone-H1 fusion protein further enhances the performance of these systems, avoiding the use of dyes that may have detrimental influence on cells. Aside from the mitotic index, the distribution of the cell-cycle phases during mitosis can be used as measures of drug/treatment efficacy. Quantification of these parameters, however, requires skill and is time consuming. The purpose of this research was therefore to create a classifier to be incorporated into a system that can automaiically identify the cell-cycle phases in a given image. Methods: Features based on the shape and texture of the chromosomal regions in images of live Hela cells were measured and analyzed. linear discriminant functions were calculated for the eight cell-cycle phases: interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, early anaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. Results: The multistage linear discriminant classifier developed had an average classification efficiency of 87-30%. Conclusion: We demonstrated the possibility of creating a classifier to discriminate between cell-cycle phases using shape and texture features of chromosomal regions. The classifier can be fused to an algorithm for image segmentation, forming a system to automatically and rapidly measure the aforementioned parameters. The results can then be collated to constitute an assay assessing the effects of a drug or treatment on mammalian cells. (c) 2007 International Society for Analytical Cytology.
  • K Isobe, S Kataoka, R Murase, W Watanabe, T Higashi, S Kawakami, S Matsunaga, K Fukui, K Itoh OPTICS EXPRESS 14 (2) 786 -793 2006年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    We propose a novel microscopy technique based on the four-wave mixing (FWM) process that is enhanced by two-photon electronic resonance induced by a pump pulse along with stimulated emission induced by a dump pulse. A Ti:sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator are used as light sources for the pump and dump pulses, respectively. We demonstrate that our proposed FWM technique can be used to obtain a one-dimensional image of ethanol-thinned Coumarin 120 solution sandwiched between a hole-slide glass and a cover slip, and a two-dimensional image of a leaf of Camellia sinensis. (c) 2006 Optical Society of America.
  • T Shimada, W Watanabe, S Matsunaga, T Higashi, H Ishii, K Fukui, K Isobe, K Itoh OPTICS EXPRESS 13 (24) 9869 -9880 2005年11月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to selectively disrupt and dissect intracellular organelles. We report on disruption of mitochondria in living HeLa cells using a femtosecond laser oscillator with a repetition rate of 76 MHz. We studied the laser parameters used for disruption. The long-term viability of the cells after disruption of a single mitochondrion was confirmed by the observation of cell division, indicating that intracellular disruption of organelles using a femtosecond laser oscillator can be performed without compromising the long-term cell viability. (c) 2005 Optical Society of America
  • T Higashi, S Miyakawa, S Uchiyama, S Matsunaga, H Takata, S Fujimoto, M Noda, A Terauchi, T Shimizu, M Oda, T Azuma, K Fukui JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 120 (3) 262 -272 2005年11月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    We raised monoclonal antibodies by immunizing mice with total chromosome proteins extracted from isolated human metaphase chromosomes. The indirect immunofluorescence, screening of hybridoma cell lines provided 15 monoclonal antibodies against the chromosomal antigens. The antigen proteins of the mAbs were identified by immunoblotting as core histones or by immunoprecipitation followed by a peptide mass fingerprinting method as nuclear mitotic apparatus protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, ribosomal protein S4, linker histone and beta-actin. During mitosis, localizations of these proteins on chromosomes were clearly observed using the obtained antibodies. These results indicate that the current strategy is effective for obtaining monoclonal antibodies useful for immunoblotting and/or immunofluorescent staining of human proteins, using the antigens with high homology to mouse proteins. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • S Uchiyama, S Kobayashi, H Takata, T Ishihara, N Hori, T Higashi, K Hayashihara, T Sone, D Higo, T Nirasawa, T Takao, S Matsunaga, K Fukui JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 280 (17) 16994 -17004 2005年04月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    DNA is packaged as chromatin in the interphase nucleus. During mitosis, chromatin fibers are highly condensed to form metaphase chromosomes, which ensure equal segregation of replicated chromosomal DNA into the daughter cells. Despite > 1 century of research on metaphase chromosomes, information regarding the higher order structure of metaphase chromosomes is limited, and it is still not clear which proteins are involved in further folding of the chromatin fiber into metaphase chromosomes. To obtain a global view of the chromosomal proteins, we performed proteome analyses on three types of isolated human metaphase chromosomes. We first show the results from comparative proteome analyses of two types of isolated human metaphase chromosomes that have been frequently used in biochemical and morphological analyses. 209 proteins were quantitatively identified and classified into six groups on the basis of their known interphase localization. Furthermore, a list of 107 proteins was obtained from the proteome analyses of highly purified metaphase chromosomes, the majority of which are essential for chromosome structure and function. Based on the information obtained on these proteins and on their localizations during mitosis as assessed by immunostaining, we present a four-layer model of metaphase chromosomes. According to this model, the chromosomal proteins have been newly classified into each of four groups: chromosome coating proteins, chromosome peripheral proteins, chromosome structural proteins, and chromosome fibrous proteins. This analysis represents the first compositional view of human metaphase chromosomes and provides a protein framework for future research on this topic.
  • K Isobe, W Watanabe, S Matsunaga, T Higashi, K Fukui, K Itoh JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS & EXPRESS LETTERS 44 (1-7) L167 -L169 2005年 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    We report on a novel technique of multi-spectral two-photon-excited fluorescence microscopy by use of broadband supercontinuum light. A supercontinuum in the near-infrared region is generated in a 4.5-min-long photonic crystal fiber using a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator. The supercontinuum is used as a multi-spectral excitation light source in a two-photon excited fluorescence microscope. We demonstrate that three-color fluorescence images of organelles in a cell can be simultaneously acquired.
  • W Watanabe, N Arakawa, S Matsunaga, T Higashi, K Fukui, K Isobe, K Itoh OPTICS EXPRESS 12 (18) 4203 -4213 2004年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Subcellular organelles in living cells were inactivated by tightly focusing femtosecond laser pulses inside the cells. Photodisruption of a mitochondrion in living cells was experimentally confirmed by stacking three-dimensional confocal images and by restaining of organelles. The viability of the cells after femtosecond laser irradiation was ascertained by impermeability of propidium iodide as well as by the presence of cytoplasmic streaming. (C) 2004 Optical Society of America.
  • Haibo Liu, Akira Kawabe, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Hee Kim Yeon, Tsunehito Higashi, Susumu Uchiyama, Satoshi Harashima, Akio Kobayashi, Kiichi Fukui Cytologia 69 (2) 235 -240 2004年06月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    A part of chromosome 5 from Arabidopsis thaliana, which has 36 genes, on yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) was transferred into tobacco BY-2 cells using a bio-active beads method. The YAC was constructed using the chromosome-splitting technique. The GFP gene located on the YAC showed repeated transient expression after transformation. Molecular analyses confirmed that 1 (At5g57980) of the 5 genes checked had transcribed in the tobacco BY-2 cells. This demonstrates that the promoter of this gene could work in both A. thaliana and tobacco BY-2 cells.
  • Doi T, Matsunaga S, Maeno E, Tsuchiya T, Higashi T, Misawa S, Uchiyama S, Ooi T, Nakao M, Fukui K J Biosci Bioeng 98 (4) 304 -305 2004年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • Higashi T, Nagamori E, Sone T, Matsunaga S, Fukui K J Biosci Bioeng 97 (3) 191 -195 2004年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • バイオアクティブビーズを用いた動物細胞への遺伝子導入法
    東恒仁, 松永幸大, 福井希一 生体の科学 55 (2月) 171 -177 2004年 [査読無し][通常論文]

講演・口頭発表等

  • 不飽和カルボニル化合物による細胞死誘導の分子機構の解明  [通常講演]
    東 恒仁, 眞井洋輔, 真崎雄一
    第40回日本分子生物学会 2017年12月 ポスター発表
  • Unsaturated carbonyl compounds in the gas phase extract of cigarette smoke induce cell death through intracellular Ca2+-dependent PKC activation  [通常講演]
    Tsunehito Higashi, Yosuke Mai, Yuichi Mazaki, Takahiro Horinouchi, Soichi Miwa
    ASCB 2016 Annual Meeting 2016年12月 ポスター発表
  • タバコ煙ガス相による細胞傷害の抑制因子の探索と抑制メカニズムの解明  [通常講演]
    東恒仁, 眞井洋輔, 堀之内孝広, 真崎雄一, 三輪聡一
    第89回日本薬理学会年会 2016年03月 口頭発表(一般)
  • ニコチン及びタール除去タバコ煙抽出物の細胞傷害作用に関与するPKCアイソザイムの同定と活性化機構の解明  [通常講演]
    東 恒仁, 眞井洋輔, 寺田晃士, 旗手千鶴, 堀之内孝広, 三輪聡一
    第63回日本薬理学会北部会 2012年09月 口頭発表(一般)
  • DCP1のP-bodyへの局在にはそのC末端領域が必要である  [通常講演]
    第22回日本動物細胞工学会大会 2009年 ポスター発表
  • Role of Dcp1 in the formation of P-bodies  [通常講演]
    Biophysical Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009年 ポスター発表
  • Role of Dcp1 in the formation of P-bodies  [通常講演]
    Biophysical Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009年 ポスター発表
  • P-body形成におけるDCP1の役割  [通常講演]
    第31回日本分子生物学会年会 2008年 ポスター発表
  • 二光子レーザー顕微法を用いた細胞小器官の操作  [通常講演]
    第20回動物細胞工学シンポジウム 2008年
  • テールドメインによるヒストンH2Aの細胞内動態制御  [通常講演]
    第59回日本生物工学会大会 2007年
  • 小胞体内におけるカーゴ蛋白質一分子ダイナミクスの解析  [通常講演]
    第30回日本分子生物学会年会 2007年
  • GFPを用いた染色体タンパク質の局在およびFRAP解析  [通常講演]
    平成18年度日本生物工学会大会 2006年
  • Mobility analyses of linker and core histones by two-photon FRAP  [通常講演]
    20th IUBMB 2006年 ポスター発表
  • Mobility analyses of linker and core histones by two-photon FRAP  [通常講演]
    20th IUBMB 2006年 ポスター発表

担当経験のある科目(授業)

  • 看護薬理学天使大学看護栄養学部
  • 薬理学日本医療大学保健医療学部, 名寄市立大学保健福祉学部
  • 薬理学実習北海道大学医学部
  • 薬理学II北海道大学医学部

所属学協会

  • 米国細胞生物学会   日本薬理学会   日本細胞生物学会   日本生物工学会   日本分子生物学会   日本動物細胞工学会   

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • -
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費補助金 若手(B)
    研究期間 : 2014年 -2016年 
    代表者 : 東 恒仁


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