小林 快次(コバヤシ ヨシツグ)



  • 総合博物館




  • Ph.D. (Southern Methodist University)


    eメール:    ykobayashi@museum.hokudai.ac.jp



  • 国際情報交換   系統   化石   進化   形態機能   機能形態   


  • 地球惑星科学 / 層位・古生物学


  • 2015年  北海道大学准教授





  • 田中 公教, 小林 快次 日鳥学誌 67 (1) 57 -68 2018年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    ヘスペロルニス目Hesperornithiformesは,白亜紀前期アルビアン期-白亜紀後期マーストリヒチアン期の北半球に広く分布した歯のある潜水鳥類である.鳥類の進化史上初めて潜水適応した最古の潜水鳥類として知られており,これまで15属31種が報告されている.1871年に初めて骨格化石が発見されたヘスペロルニスHesperornis regalisは,前肢が極端に発達しており,胸骨は竜骨突起を失い平たくなり,後肢は非常に発達していた.これらの形態的特徴から,ヘスペロルニスは白亜紀の飛翔能力を失った後肢推進性潜水鳥類と考えられる.この発見の後,アメリカ,カナダ,イギリス,スウェーデン,ロシア,カザフスタン,モンゴル,日本などから新たなヘスペロルニス目の化石が報告され,最古の潜水鳥類の進化の道のりが徐々に明らかになってきた.本稿では,現生鳥類の起源についての近年の研究のレビューを行い,現生鳥類がいつ頃から多様化を始めたのかを議論し,中生代の鳥類の最近の系統分類学を概観する.さらに,ヘスペロルニス目の発見からこれまでの研究を概説し,明らかになってきたヘスペロルニス目の生態や今後の研究課題について議論する.
  • 田中 康平, Darla K. Zelenitsky, François Therrien, 小林 快次 日鳥学誌 67 (1) 25 -40 2018年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 吉田純輝, CARPENTER Kenneth, 小林快次 日本古生物学会例会講演予稿集 164th 18 2015年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 田中公教, 小林快次, 栗原憲一, 加納学, FIORILLO Anthony 日本古生物学会例会講演予稿集 164th 21 2015年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 飯島正也, 小林快次, 樽野博幸, 渡辺克典 日本古生物学会例会講演予稿集 164th 39 2015年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 小林快次 日本古生物学会例会講演予稿集 164th 17 2015年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 森谷和浩, JENKINS Robert, ANDRZEJ Kaim, 小林快次, 越前谷宏紀 日本古生物学会例会講演予稿集 164th 32 2015年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • A. R. Fiorillo, Y. Kobayashi, P. J. McCarthy, T. C. Wright, C. S. Tomsich Historical Biology 27 671 -682 2015年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. We report on new records of pterosaur tracks from Alaska. Recent palaeontological investigations in the Lower Cantwell Formation of Denali National Park, central Alaska Range, Alaska, had resulted previously in the discovery of a single pterosaur manus track. Subsequent and ongoing investigation has shown that the track record for pterosaurs in this region is more robust. These new pterosaur records comprise large and small traces. The larger tracks are up to approximately 18 cm long and 6 cm wide. The smaller tracks are approximately 6 cm long and 4 cm wide. The assemblage of pterosaur traces from Denali National Park consists of manus impressions. The morphology of the pterosaur traces found in the Lower Cantwell Formation compares favourably with the morphology of the ichnogenus Pteraichnus. The presence of two very different body sizes of pterosaurs, along with the abundant record of fossil bird tracks, indicates the presence of ecological complexity among aerial vertebrates during the time that the sediments of the Lower Cantwell Formation were deposited. Sedimentological and palaeobotanical data, combined with the vertebrate ichnology record, offer details into how these aerial vertebrates were separated within this heterogenetic ecosystem.
  • Junchang Lü, Junchang Lü, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, D. Charles Deeming, Yongqing Liu, Yongqing Liu Geosciences Journal 19 273 -280 2014年10月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    © 2015, The Association of Korean Geoscience Societies and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Post-natal parental care seems to have evolved numerous times in vertebrates. Among extant amniotes, it is present in crocodilians, birds, and mammals. However, evidence of this behavior is extremely rare in the fossil record and is only reported for two types of dinosaurs, and a varanopid ‘pelycosaur’. Here we report new evidence for post-natal parental care in Philydrosaurus, a choristodere, from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning Province, China. We review the fossil record of reproduction in choristoderes, and this represents the oldest record of post-natal parental care in diapsids to our knowledge.
  • 佐藤裕司, 小原正顕, 加藤茂弘, 伊藤謙, 高橋京子, 上田貴洋, 橋爪節也, 江口太郎, 渡辺克典, 小栗一輝, 林昭次, 小林快次 日本第四紀学会講演要旨集 44 169 2014年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 小林 快次 化石 (95) 49 -51 2014年03月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 小林快次 化学と生物 52 (2) 127 -130 2014年02月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 小林快次, 西村智弘, 櫻井和彦, 千葉謙太郎, 田中康平, 佐藤たまき 日本古生物学会例会講演予稿集 163rd 17 2014年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • FIORILLO Anthony, 小林快次, HASIOTIS Stephen 日本古生物学会例会講演予稿集 163rd 16 2014年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 小林快次, LEE Yuong‐Nam, BARSBOLD Rinchen, ZELENITSKY Darla, 田中康平, LEE Hang‐Jae, 久保田克博 日本古生物学会例会講演予稿集 163rd 17 2014年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • Masaya Iijima, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi Paleobiology 40 608 -624 2014年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    © 2014 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved. The pelvic structure in non-avian archosaurs plays a key role in understanding the evolution of terrestrial locomotor patterns because the pelvis contains major attachment sites for proximal hind limb musculature. In order to investigate patterns of pelvic evolution in archosaurs, this study compiled three pelvic indices, as well as femoral head orientation, for 92 archosaur taxa. With the metrics and a reconstructed supertree, we examined the correlated evolution of the pelvis and femur, the correlation among pelvic components, and temporal trends in the evolution of the pelvis. The result shows that archosaurs with medially directed femoral heads have more cranially shifted iliac centroids and more posteriorly rotated pubes than taxa with anteromedially directed femoral heads. The craniad shift of the iliac centroid might be correlated to the posterior rotation of pubis. The pelvic structures of pterosaurs, ornithischians, sauropods, and avetheropods occupy a different morphospace from basal archosaurs, pseudosuchians, basal dinosauromorphs, basal theropods, and basal sauropodomorphs in having more cranially expanded ilia, more posteriorly rotated pubes, and medially deflected femoral heads. This may imply that pterosaurs and those derived dinosaurs independently underwent similar shifts in thigh muscles and locomotion. The evolutionary model fitting supports the early-burst model for iliac and pubic metrics in more inclusive archosaur clades, indicating that larger changes of archosaur pelves occurred in early times of the clade's history.
  • Anthony R. Fiorillo, Stephen T. Hasiotis, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi Geology 42 719 -722 2014年01月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    The discovery of a new tracksite of mostly hadrosaurid dinosaur footprints, made by a herd living in an ancient high-latitude continental ecosystem, provides insight into the herd structure and behavior of northern polar dinosaurs and perspective on populations of large-bodied herbivores in an Arctic greenhouse world. This tracksite occurs in the Upper Cretaceous Cantwell Formation in the Alaska Range (Denali National Park, Alaska, United States), and it is the largest tracksite known from this far north. Preservation of the tracksite is exceptional: most tracks, regardless of size, contain skin impressions and they co-occur with well-preserved plant fossils and invertebrate trace fossils of terrestrial and aquatic insects. Statistical analyses of the tracks show that individuals of four different age classes of hadrosaurids lived together in a large social group. Our research results independently corroborate the growth curve for hadrosaurids proposed by paleohistologists that suggests that these dinosaurs experienced a period of rapid growth early in their life history. © 2014 Geological Society of America.
  • 小林 快次 JGL : Japan geoscience letters 9 (2) 6 -8 2013年05月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • Anthony R. Fiorillo, Thomas L. Adams, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi Cretaceous Research 37 291 -299 2012年10月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    An unnamed nonmarine sedimentary package of rocks in southeastern Alaska in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve has provided the first evidence of dinosaurs for this vast region. The rock unit is contained within the Wrangellia Terrane and exposures are of limited geographic extent. The rock unit is considered to be latest Cretaceous age. Sections are overwhelmingly dominated by extraformational conglomerates. Fine- to medium-grained light coloured sandstones are common and medium grey shales occur as minor components of the sections. Megafloral specimens indicate an abundance of horsetails, ferns and gymnosperm wood. Rather than two-dimensional impressions, most ferns are preserved in three dimensions, suggesting rapid burial. The abundance of charcoal in these rocks suggests that this area during deposition was also prone to ecological disturbance. Field parties found evidence of a small theropod and ornithopods. A single theropod pes impression is approximately 9 cm long and 7 cm wide. Attribution to the Theropoda was based on the sinusoidal shape of the impression of the middle digit. An ornithopod impression, identified by clearly blunt and rounded digit impressions, is approximately 22 cm long and 26 cm wide. All impressions are under tracks. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
  • 小林 快次 遺伝 : 生物の科学 67 (3) 378 -384 2013年05月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • Kohei Tanaka, Junchang Lü, Yi Liu, Zhiqing Huang, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Dong Huang, Darla K. Zelenitsky Acta Geologica Sinica 86 294 -303 2012年04月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    The Zhutian and Dafeng formations (Upper Cretaceous) of the Heyuan Basin in northeastern Guangdong Province, China, have produced thousands of dinosaur eggs. Macromorphological features (egg diameter, egg shape, outer surface texture, and shell thickness) of 461 eggs were analyzed using non-destructive techniques and subjected to statistical analyses in order to assess their diversity and taxonomic affinities. Three types (1, 2 and 3) of eggs were discerned based on shape and outer surface morphology. Type 1 eggs are spherical to ellipsoidal in shape and have a rough surface. Three subtypes (Type 1-A-l, l-A-2, and 1-B) are apparent from scatter plots and cluster analyses of egg diameters and shell thickness. Type 2 eggs are elongate with linear ornamentation on the surface, and are comparable to eggs that belong to the oofamily Elongatoolithidae. Type 3 eggs are elongate with a smooth surface, and are assigned to the oofamily Prismatoolithidae. Macromorphological features of the various egg types suggest that Type 1 could have been laid by ornithischian, sauropod or therizinosaur dinosaurs, Type 2 by oviraptorids, and Type 3 by troodontids. This study represents the first comprehensive statistical analysis of macrofeatures of dinosaur eggs, and reveals taxonomic diversity in the dinosaurs that were laying eggs in the Upper Cretaceous Heyuan area heretofore unrecognized in skeletal remains.
  • 平山 廉, 大石 雅之, 真鍋 真, 對比地 孝亘, 薗田 哲平, 佐々木 和久, 小林 快次, 滝沢 利夫, 楠橋 直, 安藤 寿男, 三宅 優佳, 大倉 正敏 日本地質学会学術大会講演要旨 2012 (0) 2012年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 平山 廉, 小林 快次, 薗田 哲平 化石研究会会誌 42 (2) 74 -82 2010年04月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • Kobayashi Yoshitsugu, Tomida Yukimitsu, Kamei Tadao, Eguchi Taro National Science Museum monographs 35 i -121 2006年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    中期更新統の大阪層群から発見されたマチカネワニ(Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis)の模式標本について,本論文で詳細な再記載を行った.系統解析は,48分類群(2外群)の165形質を使って行った.その結果,420ステップで323個の最節約樹が得られた.厳密合意樹は,マチカネワニが明らかにマレーガビアル亜科(Tomistominae)に含まれることと,同亜科の唯一の現生種(マレーガビアルTomistoma schlegelii)の姉妹群であることを示している.さらに,系統樹の樹形は,マレーガビアル亜科がヨーロッパで起源したあとマチカネワニとマレーガビアルの分岐群が40万年前までに東アジアに拡散してきたことを支持し,これまでの研究と整合性を持つ.マチカネワニの定義についても改定した.従来は上顎の最大の歯は7番目と言われていたが,実際には12,13番目の方が7番目より大きい.上顎の7番より後方の歯はそれより前方の歯に比べてより密に並ぶ.上顎の8番から12番の歯は,かみ合ったときに下顎の歯の外側に位置するが,13番から16番の歯は対応する下顎歯と噛みあうことから,後方の歯は破砕の用途に使われたと考えられる.岸和田市から発見された類似のマレーガビアル亜科のワニ化石は,以前にはマチカネワニと考えられていたが,マチカネワニとは異なる分類群で,より原始的な種の可能性がある.
  • Kobayashi Yoshitsugu, Barsbold Rinchen Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 42 (9) 1501 -1521 2005年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    The holotype of Garudimimus brevipes, discovered from the Upper Cretaceous sediments of Mongolia and named by Barsbold in 1981, is redescribed in detail in this paper. Reexamination of the holotype reveals a great deal of anatomical information, which allows us to revise the original diagnosis of this taxon and make comparisons with other ornithomimosaur taxa to understand the evolution of ornithomimosaurs. This paper suggests that characters used to differentiate this taxon in the original paper (short ilia, short metatarsals, exposure of the proximal end of metatarsal III, presence of pedal digit I, and absence of pleurocoels) are not apomorphies but represent the primitive conditions in ornithomimosaurs and are symplesiomorphies. Revised diagnoses are assigned for G. brevipes (posteriorly positioned jaw articulation, fossae at base of dorsal process of supraoccipital, paired depressions on neural spines of proximal caudal vertebra, and deep groove on lateral surface of pedal phalanges III-1 and III-2). Metatarsals of Garudimimus display a non-arctometatarsalian condition as in an Early Cretaceous form, Harpymimus, but the constriction of metatarsal III in Garudimimus is intermediate between Harpymimus and the arctometatarsalian condition in Gallimimus and other derived ornithomimosaurs (ornithomimids). Garudimimus is the only non-ornithomimid ornithomimosaur with edentulous jaws, which were probably covered by rhamphothecae. The loss of teeth with evolution of rhamphothecae and development of a cutting edge in the dentary of Garudimimus suggest the acquisition of feeding habits that included plucking food at the anterior portion of the jaw and cutting at the middle portion, similar to ornithomimids.


  • 2018年10月 北海道 北海道文化奨励賞
    受賞者: 小林快次
  • 2017年11月 北海道新聞文化賞 学術部門
    受賞者: 小林快次
  • 2015年06月 日本古生物学会 学術賞
    受賞者: 小林快次


  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    研究期間 : 2015年 -2017年 
    代表者 : 小林 快次
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(C))
    研究期間 : 2012年 -2014年 
    代表者 : 小林 快次
  • 文部科学省:科学研究費補助金(基盤研究(B))
    研究期間 : 2006年 -2009年 
    代表者 : 小林 快次



  • 地球環境史特論
    開講年度 : 2017年
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 理学院
    キーワード : 古生物学,進化,地球史,古地理,古生態
  • 大学院共通授業科目(一般科目):自然科学・応用科学
    開講年度 : 2017年
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 地球生命史, 生物進化, 地球環境変化, 気候変動, 生物大量絶滅, 生物多様性, 古生物科学, 地質年代
  • 大学院共通授業科目(教育プログラム):博物館学
    開講年度 : 2017年
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 学術標本・資料、博物館、学芸員、アドバンストコース
  • 古生物学
    開講年度 : 2017年
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 理学部
    キーワード : 進化,生命化石、化石記録、生物間相互作用、古生態、生物多様性変動、古環境
  • 博物館展示論
    開講年度 : 2017年
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 文学部
    キーワード : 博物館、展示、学芸員

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