• 創成研究機構ワクチン研究開発拠点


  • 特任准教授


J-Global ID


  • Virus Diagnosis   Viral identification   進化のパタン   アデノウィルス   


  • ライフサイエンス / 分子生物学
  • ライフサイエンス / ゲノム生物学 / Analysis and comparison of genomic data


  • 2023年07月 - 現在 北海道大学 ワクチン研究開発拠点
  • 2020年12月 - 2023年06月 University College Dublin National Virus Reference Laboratory Clinical Bioinformatician



  • Patrick Reteng, Linh Nguyen Thuy, Mizanur Rahman, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Kyoko Hayashida, Tatsuki Sugi, Gabriel Gonzalez, William W Hall, Lan Anh Nguyen Thi, Junya Yamagishi
    mSphere e0033222  2022年08月25日 
    Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) offers a hypothesis-free approach for pathogen detection, but its applicability in clinical diagnosis, in addition to other factors, remains limited due to complicated library construction. The present study describes a PCR-free isothermal workflow for mNGS targeting RNA, based on a multiple displacement amplification, termed circular whole-transcriptome amplification (cWTA), as the template is circularized before amplification. The cWTA approach was validated with clinical samples and nanopore sequencing. Reads homologous to dengue virus 2 and chikungunya virus were detected in clinical samples from Bangladesh and Brazil, respectively. In addition, the practicality of a high-throughput detection system that combines mNGS and a group testing algorithm termed mNGS screening enhanced by a group testing algorithm (mEGA) was established. This approach enabled significant library size reduction while permitting trackability between samples and diagnostic results. Serum samples of patients with undifferentiated febrile illnesses from Vietnam (n = 43) were also amplified with cWTA, divided into 11 pools, processed for library construction, and sequenced. Dengue virus 2, hepatitis B virus, and parvovirus B19 were successfully detected without prior knowledge of their existence. Collectively, cWTA with the nanopore platform opens the possibility of hypothesis-free on-site comprehensive pathogen diagnosis, while mEGA contributes to the scaling up of sample throughput. IMPORTANCE Given the breadth of pathogens that cause infections, a single approach that can detect a wide range of pathogens is ideal but is impractical due to the available tests being highly specific to a certain pathogen. Recent developments in sequencing technology have introduced mNGS as an alternative that provides detection of a wide-range of pathogens by detecting the presence of their nucleic acids in the sample. However, sequencing library preparation is still a bottleneck, as it is complicated, costly, and time-consuming. In our studies, alternative approaches to optimize library construction for mNGS were developed. This included isothermal nucleic acid amplification and expansion of sample throughput with a group testing algorithm. These methods can improve the utilization of mNGS as a diagnostic tool and can serve as a high-throughput screening system aiding infectious disease surveillance.
  • Mei Hashizume, Gabriel Gonzalez, Chikako Ono, Ayako Takashima, Masaharu Iwasaki
    Viruses 13 1 2021年01月06日 
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), employs host-cell angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell entry. Genetic analyses of ACE2 have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific to different human populations. Molecular dynamics simulations have indicated that several of these SNPs could affect interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2, thereby providing a partial explanation for the regional differences observed in SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and severity. However, the significance of population-specific ACE2 SNPs in SARS-CoV-2 infectivity is unknown, as no in vitro validation studies have been performed. Here, we analyzed the impact of eight SNPs found in specific populations on receptor binding and cell entry in vitro. Except for a SNP causing a nonsense mutation that reduced ACE2 expression, none of the selected SNPs markedly altered the interaction between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SARS-2-S), which is responsible for receptor recognition and cell entry, or the efficiency of viral cell entry mediated by SARS-2-S. Our findings indicate that ACE2 polymorphisms have limited impact on the ACE2-dependent cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 and underscore the importance of future studies on the involvement of population-specific SNPs of other host genes in susceptibility toward SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • Herman M Chambaro, Michihito Sasaki, Edgar Simulundu, Isaac Silwamba, Yona Sinkala, Gabriel Gonzalez, David Squarre, Paul Fandamu, Caesar H Lubaba, Musso Munyeme, Alikhadio Maseko, Choopa Chimvwele, Liywalii Mataa, Lynnfield E Mooya, Andrew N Mukubesa, Hayato Harima, Kenny L Samui, Hetron M Munang'andu, Martin Simuunza, King S Nalubamba, Yongjin Qiu, Michael J Carr, William W Hall, Yuki Eshita, Hirofumi Sawa, Yasuko Orba
    Viruses 12 9 2020年08月31日 
    Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants with serious trade and socio-economic implications. Although the disease has been reported in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, there is currently no information on circulating serotypes and disease distribution in Zambia. Following surveillance for BT in domestic and wild ruminants in Zambia, BT virus (BTV) nucleic acid and antibodies were detected in eight of the 10 provinces of the country. About 40% (87/215) of pooled blood samples from cattle and goats were positive for BTV nucleic acid, while one hartebeest pool (1/43) was positive among wildlife samples. Sequence analysis of segment 2 revealed presence of serotypes 3, 5, 7, 12 and 15, with five nucleotypes (B, E, F, G and J) being identified. Segment 10 phylogeny showed Zambian BTV sequences clustering with Western topotype strains from South Africa, intimating likely transboundary spread of BTV in Southern Africa. Interestingly, two Zambian viruses and one isolate from Israel formed a novel clade, which we designated as Western topotype 4. The high seroprevalence (96.2%) in cattle from Lusaka and Central provinces and co-circulation of multiple serotypes showed that BT is widespread, underscoring the need for prevention and control strategies.
  • Hayato Harima, Michihito Sasaki, Masahiro Kajihara, Gabriel Gonzalez, Edgar Simulundu, Eugene C Bwalya, Yongjin Qiu, Kosuke Okuya, Mao Isono, Yasuko Orba, Ayato Takada, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Aaron S Mweene, Hirofumi Sawa
    The Journal of general virology 101 10 1027 - 1036 2020年07月24日 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) has been identified in humans, livestock and wild animals; this wide host range allows individual MRV to transmit into multiple species. Although several interspecies transmission and genetic reassortment events of MRVs among humans, livestock and wildlife have been reported, the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of MRVs in Africa are poorly understood. In this study, we report the first isolation and characterization of MRVs circulating in a pig population in Zambia. In our screening, MRV genomes were detected in 19.7 % (29/147) of faecal samples collected from pigs by reverse transcription PCR. Three infectious MRV strains (MRV-85, MRV-96 and MRV-117) were successfully isolated, and their complete genomes were sequenced. Recombination analyses based on the complete genome sequences of the isolated MRVs demonstrated that MRV-96 shared the S3 segment with a different MRV isolated from bats, and that the L1 and M3 segments of MRV-117 originated from bat and human MRVs, respectively. Our results suggest that the isolated MRVs emerged through genetic reassortment events with interspecies transmission. Given the lack of information regarding MRVs in Africa, further surveillance of MRVs circulating among humans, domestic animals and wildlife is required to assess potential risk for humans and animals.
  • Herman M Chambaro, Michihito Sasaki, Yona Sinkala, Gabriel Gonzalez, David Squarre, Paul Fandamu, Caesar Lubaba, Liywalii Mataa, Misheck Shawa, Kabemba E Mwape, Sarah Gabriël, Mwelwa Chembensofu, Michael J Carr, William W Hall, Yongjin Qiu, Masahiro Kajihara, Ayato Takada, Yasuko Orba, Edgar Simulundu, Hirofumi Sawa
    Transboundary and emerging diseases 67 6 2741 - 2752 2020年05月20日 [査読有り][通常論文]
    African swine fever (ASF) causes persistent outbreaks in endemic and non-endemic regions in Zambia. However, the epidemiology of the disease is poorly understood, particularly during the inter-epidemic periods. We conducted surveillance for ASF in asymptomatic domestic pigs and soft ticks in selected Zambian provinces. Whilst serum samples (n=1,134) were collected from crossbred pigs from all study sites between 2014 and 2017, whole blood (n=300) was collected from both crossbred and indigenous pigs in Eastern Province (EP) in 2017. Soft ticks were collected from Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park in Southern Province (SP) in 2019. Sera were screened for antibodies against ASF by ELISA while genome detection in whole blood and soft ticks was conducted by PCR. Ticks were identified morphologically and by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Seroprevalence was highest in EP (50.9%, 95% CI [47.0 - 54.9]) compared to significantly lower rates in SP (2.9%, 95% CI [1.6 - 5.1]). No antibodies to ASFV were detected in Lusaka Province. In EP, the prevalence of ASFV genome was 11.7% (35/300), significantly higher (OR = 6.2, 95% CI [2.4 - 16.6]) in indigenous pigs compared to crossbred pigs. The pooled prevalence of ASFV genome in ticks was 11.0%, 95% CI [8.5-13.9]. Free-range husbandry system was the only factor that was significantly associated with seropositive (p < 0.0001, OR = 39.3) and PCR positive results (p < 0.001, OR = 5.7). Phylogenetically, based on the p72 gene, ASFV from Ornithodoros moubata ticks detected in this study belonged to genotype I, but they separated into two distinct clusters. Besides confirming ASF endemicity in EP and the presence of ASFV-infected ticks in SP, these results provide evidence for exposure of domestic pigs to ASFV in non-endemic regions during the inter-epidemic period.
  • Moemi Miyazaki, Kenta Hara, Tomofumi Takayoshi, Tetsuya Kawase, Yasushi Nakagawa, Takashi Arai, Takeshi Sugimoto, Katsuhito Nishiyama, Gabriel Gonzalez, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Yoshiro Yasutomo, Koichi Yokono
    Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) 59 5 739 - 744 2020年03月01日 
    A 42-year-old man was hospitalized due to a fever, orchiodynia, and extremely severe myalgia predominantly in the extremities, which made it difficult for him to stand or walk. He had a history of contact with his son who had acute upper respiratory infection. Based on the characteristic clinical symptoms and detection of the partial sequence of human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) in throat swabs as well as stool and serum samples, he was diagnosed with epidemic myalgia associated with HPeV3 infection. Because HPeV3 infection is widespread among children in Japan, HPeV3-associated myalgia should be considered when adult patients manifest such distinguishing clinical characteristics.
  • Hayato Harima, Masahiro Kajihara, Edgar Simulundu, Eugene Bwalya, Yongjin Qiu, Mao Isono, Kosuke Okuya, Gabriel Gonzalez, Junya Yamagishi, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Hirofumi Sawa, Aaron S Mweene, Ayato Takada
    Viruses 12 2 2020年02月05日 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) has been detected worldwide in pig populations. Although PSV causes various symptoms such as encephalomyelitis, diarrhea, and pneumonia in pigs, the economic impact of PSV infection remains to be determined. However, information on the distribution and genetic diversity of PSV is quite limited, particularly in Africa. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of PSV infection in Zambia and characterized the isolated PSVs genetically and biologically. We screened 147 fecal samples collected in 2018 and found that the prevalences of PSV infection in suckling pigs and fattening pigs were high (36.2% and 94.0%, respectively). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Zambian PSVs were divided into three different lineages (Lineages 1-3) in the clade consisting of Chinese strains. The Zambian PSVs belonging to Lineages 2 and 3 replicated more efficiently than those belonging to Lineage 1 in Vero E6 and BHK cells. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that genetic recombination events had occurred and the recombination breakpoints were located in the L and 2A genes. Our results indicated that at least two biologically distinct PSVs could be circulating in the Zambian pig population and that genetic recombination played a role in the evolution of PSVs.
  • Kenichiro Takahashi, Gabriel Gonzalez, Masaaki Kobayashi, Nozomu Hanaoka, Michael J Carr, Masami Konagaya, Naomi Nojiri, Miki Ogi, Tsuguto Fujimoto
    Viruses 11 12 2019年12月06日 
    Between 2011 and 2018, 518 respiratory adenovirus infections were diagnosed in a pediatric clinic in Shizuoka, Japan. Detection and typing were performed by partial sequencing of both hexon- and fiber-coding regions which identified: adenovirus type 1 (Ad-1, n = 85), Ad-2 (n = 160), Ad-3 (n = 193), Ad-4 (n = 18), Ad-5 (n = 27), Ad-11 (n = 2), Ad-54 (n = 3), and Ad-56 (n = 1). Considering previous reports of the circulation of an endemic recombinant Ad-2, e.g., Ad-89, 100 samples typed as Ad-2 were randomly selected for further molecular typing by sequencing the penton base-coding region. Despite the high nucleotide sequence conservation in the penton base- coding region, 27 samples showed 98% identity to Ad-2. Furthermore, 14 samples showed 97.7% identity to Ad-2 and 99.8% identity to Ad-89, while the remaining 13 samples showed an average 98% pairwise identity to other Ad-C types and clustered with Ad-5. The samples typed as Ad-89 (n = 14) and as a recombinant Ad type (P5H2F2) (n = 13) represented 27% of cases originally diagnosed as Ad-2, and were detected sporadically. Therefore, two previously uncharacterized types in Japan, Ad-89 and a recombinant Ad-C, were shown to circulate in children. This study creates a precedent to evaluate the epidemiology and divergence among Ad-C types by comprehensively considering the type classification of adenoviruses.
  • Hashizume M, Aoki K, Ohno S, Kitaichi N, Yawata N, Gonzalez G, Nonaka H, Sato S, Takaoka A
    European journal of ophthalmology 31 2 1120672119891408 - 384 2019年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the antiviral effectivity of potassium peroxymonosulfate (RUBYSTA®, KYORIN) against five epidemic keratoconjunctivitis-related types of Human adenovirus D in vitro. METHODS: Five types of Human adenovirus D (8, 37, 53, 54 and 56) were incubated with 1% potassium peroxymonosulfate, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or alcohol-based disinfectant for 30 s or 1 min. These solutions were subjected to measurements of viral titres by infection assays in A549 cells. At day 6 post-infection, both, supernatants and cells, were collected and the viral genome was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. RESULTS: Treatments with 1% potassium peroxymonosulfate led to significant reduction in all tested Human adenovirus D types comparable to disinfecting effects by 0.1% NaClO. Overall, potassium peroxymonosulfate demonstrated sufficient inactivation of the major epidemic keratoconjunctivitis-causing Human adenovirus D to be considered for disinfection and prevention purposes in ophthalmological clinics and hospitals. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that potassium peroxymonosulfate is a promising disinfectant for the prevention of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis nosocomial infections in ophthalmological clinics.
  • Schachner A, Gonzalez G, Endler L, Ito K, Hess M
    Viruses 11 12 2019年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Carr M, Gonzalez G, Martinelli A, Wastika CE, Ito K, Orba Y, Sasaki M, Hall WW, Sawa H
    Virus genes 55 5 630 - 642 2019年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) exerts a profound burden of viral encephalitis. We have investigated the differentially expressed transcripts in the neuronal transcriptome during JEV infection by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of virus-infected SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment from two main pathways: endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-nucleus signaling (P value: 5.75E-18; false discovery rate [FDR] 3.11E-15) and the ER unfolded protein response (P value: 7.58E-18; FDR 3.11E-15). qPCR validation showed significant upregulation and differential expression (P < 0.01) of ER stress-signaling transcripts (SESN2, TRIB3, DDIT3, DDIT4, XBP1, and ATF4) at 24 h post-infection for both low (LN) and high (HN) neurovirulence JEV strains. Immunoblot analysis following JEV infection of SH-SY5Y cells showed an increase in levels of SESN2 protein following JEV infection. Similarly, Zika virus (MR766) infection of SH-SY5Y showed a titer-dependent increase in ER stress-signaling transcripts; however, this was absent or diminished for DDIT4 and ATF4, respectively, suggestive of differences in the induction of stress-response transcripts between flaviviruses. Interestingly, SLC7A11 and SLC3A2 mRNA were also both deregulated in JEV-infected SH-SY5Y cells and encode the two constituent subunits of the plasma membrane xCT amino acid antiporter that relieves oxidative stress by export of glutamate and import of cystine. Infection of SH-SY5Y and HEK293T cells by the JEV HN strain Sw/Mie/40/2004 lead to significant upregulation of the SLC7A11 mRNA to levels comparable to DDIT3. Our findings suggest upregulation of antioxidants including SESN2 and, also, the xCT antiporter occurs to counteract the oxidative stress elicited by JEV infection.
  • Gabriel Gonzalez, Michael J. Carr, 小林正明, 花岡希, 藤本嗣人
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 20 1 - 16 2019年10月 [査読有り][招待有り]
    エンテロウイルス(EV)は、小児コホート、特に東アジアおよび東南アジアでの非常に大規模で周期的な流行の原因となっています。臨床症状には、手足口病(HFMD)、無菌性髄膜炎、脳炎、急性弛緩性麻痺、急性弛緩性脊髄炎など、さまざまな疾患が含まれます。 HFMDは主に、主要な病原体であるEV-A71を含むEV-Aタイプ、およびコクサッキーウイルス、特にCV-A6、CV-A16、およびCV-A10に起因します。 1980年代初頭以降、アジアでは神経疾患の深刻な負担と致命的な結果に関連する複数のEV-A71の発生がありました。 EV-A71に対する有効なワクチンが中国で開発されましたが、他の国では小児用ワクチン接種プログラムが広く普及していません。脳炎は、HFMD感染から生じる合併症の結果として、視床および延髄に損傷をもたらします。ベトナムの研究は、ミオクローヌスがEV-A71関連HFMD症例の中枢神経系(CNS)合併症の重要な指標であることを示唆しています。小児のHFMD症例における迅速な反応は、CNS感染への進行を防ぐために不可欠です。しかし、予防薬と治療薬は国際的に十分に確立されていないため、抗ウイルス薬と多価ワクチンの開発を含むサーベイランスと機能研究は、小児集団の疾病負担を減らすために非常に重要です。
  • Anindita PD, Sasaki M, Gonzalez G, Phongphaew W, Carr M, Hang'ombe BM, Mweene AS, Ito K, Orba Y, Sawa H
    Scientific reports 9 1 8502 - 8502 2019年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
  • Anindita PD, Sasaki M, Gonzalez G, Phongphaew W, Carr M, Hang'ombe BM, Mweene AS, Ito K, Orba Y, Sawa H
    Scientific reports 9 1 5045 - 5045 2019年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    The Smacoviridae has recently been classified as a family of small circular single-stranded DNA viruses. An increasing number of smacovirus genomes have been identified exclusively in faecal matter of various vertebrate species and from insect body parts. However, the genetic diversity and host range of smacoviruses remains to be fully elucidated. Herein, we report the genetic characterization of eleven circular replication-associated protein (Rep) encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses detected in the faeces of Zambian non-human primates. Based on pairwise genome-wide and amino acid identities with reference smacovirus species, ten of the identified CRESS DNA viruses are assigned to the genera Porprismacovirus and Huchismacovirus of the family Smacoviridae, which bidirectionally encode two major open reading frames (ORFs): Rep and capsid protein (CP) characteristic of a type IV genome organization. The remaining unclassified CRESS DNA virus was related to smacoviruses but possessed a genome harbouring a unidirectionally oriented CP and Rep, assigned as a type V genome organization. Moreover, phylogenetic and recombination analyses provided evidence for recombination events encompassing the 3'-end of the Rep ORF in the unclassified CRESS DNA virus. Our findings increase the knowledge of the known genetic diversity of smacoviruses and highlight African non-human primates as carrier animals.
  • Gabriel Gonzalez, Camden R. Bair, Daryl M. Lamson, Hidemi Watanabe, Laura Panto, Michael J. Carr, Adriana E. Kajon
    Virology 538 11 - 23 2019年 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Species Human mastadenovirus E (HAdV-E) comprises several simian types and a single human type: HAdV-E4, a respiratory and ocular pathogen. RFLP analysis for the characterization of intratypic genetic variability has previously distinguished two HAdV-E4 clusters: prototype (p)-like and a-like. Our analysis of whole genome sequences confirmed two distinct lineages, which we refer to as phylogroups (PGs). PGs I and II comprise the p- and a-like genomes, respectively, and differ significantly in their G + C content (57.7% ± 0.013 vs 56.3% ± 0.015). Sequence differences distinguishing the two clades map to several regions of the genome including E3 and ITR. Bayesian analyses showed that the two phylogroups diverged approximately 602 years before the present. A relatively faster evolutionary rate was identified for PG II. Our data provide a rationale for the incorporation of phylogroup identity to HAdV-E4 strain designation to reflect the identified unique genetic characteristics that distinguish PGs I and II.
  • Gabriel Ram{\'{\i } }rez-Vargas, Diana L{\'{o, ez-Ure{\~{n } }a, Adriana Badilla, Josu{\'{e, Orozco-Aguilar, Tatiana Murillo, Priscilla Rojas, Thomas Riedel, Jörg Overmann, Gabriel Gonz{\'{a } }lez, Esteban Chaves-Olarte, Carlos Quesada-G{\'{o } }mez, C{\'{e } }sar Rodr{\'{\i } }guez
    Scientific Reports 8 1 Springer Nature America, Inc 2018年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Shintaro Hashimoto, Gabriel Gonzalez, Seiya Harada, Hideo Oosako, Nozomu Hanaoka, Rikutaro Hinokuma, Tsuguto Fujimoto
    Journal of Medical Virology 90 5 881 - 889 2018年05月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
    The aim of this study was to report the emergence of a recombinant human mastadenovirus (HAdV) type 85 (HAdV-85) and to describe its genomic and clinical characteristics. The strains were detected and identified in Japan in cases of adenoviral conjunctivitis including epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). The type was designated as HAdV-85 based on the novel combination of penton base (P = HAdV-37), hexon (H = HAdV-19), and fiber (F = HAdV-8). The whole genome sequence determined for HAdV-85 was compared against sequences of other types in the same species. The results of the phylogenetic analysis suggested a recombinant origin between HAdV-53 and HAdV-64, which have been two major causes of adenoviral EKC in Japan over the past decade. During the period between 2008 and 2016 in Kumamoto city, southwest of Japan, 311 cases diagnosed with conjunctivitis were diagnosed as being the consequence of adenoviral infections. Among them, 11 cases were determined to have been caused by HAdV-85 since 2015. Thus, HAdV-85 could be an emerging causative agent of adenoviral conjunctivitis.
  • Donovan Paul D, Gonzalez Gabriel, Higgins Desmond G, Butler Geraldine, Ito Kimihito
    PloS one 13 2 e0192898  Public Library of Science 2018年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Tsukahara-Kawamura Tomoko, Fujimoto Tsuguto, Gonzalez Gabriel, Hanaoka Nozomu, Konagaya Masami, Arashiro Takeshi, Saeki Yusuke, Uchio Eiichi
    Japanese journal of infectious diseases 71 4 JJID - 324 National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee 2018年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Michael Carr, Gabriel Gonzalez, Michihito Sasaki, Serena E. Dool, Kimihito Ito, Akihiro Ishii, Bernard M. Hang'ombe, Aaron S. Mweene, Emma C. Teeling, William W. Hall, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY 98 11 2771 - 2785 2017年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are considered to be highly host-specific in different mammalian species, with no well-supported evidence for host-switching events. We examined the species diversity and host specificity of PyVs in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp.), a broadly distributed and highly speciose mammalian genus. We annotated six PyV genomes, comprising four new PyV species, based on pairwise identity within the large T antigen (LTAg) coding region. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed two instances of highly related PyV species, one in each of the Alphapolyomavirus and Betapolyomavirus genera, present in different horseshoe bat host species (Rhinolophus blasii and R. simulator), suggestive of short-range host-switching events. The two pairs of Rhinolophus PyVs in different horseshoe bat host species were 99.9 and 88.8% identical with each other over their respective LTAg coding sequences and thus constitute the same virus species. To corroborate the species identification of the bat hosts, we analysed mitochondrial cytb and a large nuclear intron dataset derived from six independent and neutrally evolving loci for bat taxa of interest. Bayesian estimates of the ages of the most recent common ancestors suggested that the near-identical and more distantly related PyV species diverged approximately 9.1 E4 (5E3-2.8E5) and 9.9E6 (4E6-18E6) years before the present, respectively, in contrast to the divergence times of the bat host species: 12.4E6 (10.4E6-15.4E6). Our findings provide evidence that short-range host-switching of PyVs is possible in horseshoe bats, suggesting that PyV transmission between closely related mammalian species can occur.
  • Hideaki Yoshitomi, Nobuyuki Sera, Gabriel Gonzalez, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto
    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY 89 7 1192 - 1200 2017年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Human mastadenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly infectious viral pathogens that survive for prolonged periods in environmental waters. We monitored the presence of HAdVs in sewage waters between April 2014 and March 2015. A total of 27 adenoviral strains were detected in 75%(18/24 in occasion-base) of 24 wastewater collected samples. We identified the types of the strains asHAdV-C2 (n = 5), HAdV-A31 (5), HAdV-C1 (4), HAdV-B3 (4), HAdV-C5 (4), HAdV-B11 (2), P11H34F11 (2), and HAdV-D56 (1). The complete genome sequence of one P11H34F11 (strain T150125) was determined by next-generation sequencing and compared to other genome sequences of HAdV-B strains. The comparisons revealed evidence of a recombination event with breaking point in the hexon encoding region, which evidenced high similarity to HAdV-B34, while half of the rest of the genome showed similarity to HAdV-B11, including regions encoding fiber and E3 region proteins. The penton base encoding region seemed to be a recombinant product of HAdV-B14, -34; however, it was evidenced to be divergent to both as a novel type despite showing low bootstrap to support a new clade. We propose T150125(P11H34F11) is a strain of a novel genotype, HAdV-79. These results support the usefulness of environmental surveillance approaches to monitor circulating HAdVs including novel types.
  • Michael Carr, Gabriel Gonzalez, Michihito Sasaki, Kimihito Ito, Akihiro Ishii, Bernard M. Hang'ombe, Aaron S. Mweene, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY 98 4 726 - 738 2017年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Bat species represent natural reservoirs for a number of high-consequence human pathogens. The present study investigated the diversity of polyomaviruses (PyVs) in Zambian insectivorous and fruit bat species. We describe the complete genomes from four newly proposed African bat PyV species employing the recently recommended criteria provided by the Polyomaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A comprehensive phylogenetic and recombination analysis was performed to determine genetic relationships and the distribution of recombination events in PyV from mammalian and avian species. The novel species of PyV from Zambian bats segregated with members of the genera Alphapolyomavirus and Betapolyomavirus, forming monophyletic clades with bat and non-human primate PyVs. Miniopterus schreibersii polyomavirus 1 and 2 segregated in a clade with South American bat PyV species, Old World monkey and chimpanzee PyVs and Human polyomavirus 13 (New Jersey PyV). Interestingly, the newly described Egyptian fruit bat PyV, tentatively named Rousettus aegyptiacus polyomavirus 1, had the highest nucleotide sequence identity to species of PyV from Indonesian fruit bats, and Rhinolophus hildebrandtii polyomavirus 1 was most closely related to New World monkey PyVs. The distribution of recombination events in PyV genomes was non-random: recombination boundaries existed in the intergene region between VP1 and LTAg and also at the 3' end of VP2/3 in the structural genes, whereas infrequent recombination was present within the LTAg gene. These findings indicate that recombination within the LTAg gene has been negatively selected against during polyomaviral evolution and support the recent proposal for taxonomic classification based on LTAg to define novel PyV species.
  • Michael Carr, Akira Kawaguchi, Michihito Sasaki, Gabriel Gonzalez, Kimihito Ito, Yuka Thomas, Bernard M. Hang'ombe, Aaron S. Mweene, Guoyan Zhao, David Wang, Yasuko Orba, Akihiro Ishii, Hirofumi Sawa
    ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 162 2 543 - 548 2017年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    To investigate the diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) among nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Zambia, next-generation sequencing was performed to determine the complete genome sequence of a novel SIV recovered by co-culturing African green monkey (AGM) peripheral blood lymphocytes with human CD4(+) T-cell lines. We report the first described SIV (SIVagmMAL-ZMB) from a malbrouck (Chlorocebus cynosuros). SIVagmMAL-ZMB was detected by real-time PCR analysis of splenic RNA in 3.2% (3/94) of AGMs and was undetectable in baboons (0/105). SIVagmMAL-ZMB possessed < 80% nucleotide sequence identity to known SIV isolates and was located basally to vervet monkey SIV strains in all phylogenies.
  • Gabriel Gonzalez, Michihito Sasaki, Lucy Burkitt-Gray, Tomonori Kamiya, Noriko M. Tsuji, Hirofumi Sawa, Kimihito Ito
    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 7 40447  2017年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Advances in Next Generation Sequencing technologies have enabled the generation of millions of sequences from microorganisms. However, distinguishing the sequence of a novel species from sequencing errors remains a technical challenge when the novel species is highly divergent from the closest known species. To solve such a problem, we developed a new method called Optimistic Protein Assembly from Reads (OPAR). This method is based on the assumption that protein sequences could be more conserved than the nucleotide sequences encoding them. By taking advantage of metagenomics, bioinformatics and conventional Sanger sequencing, our method successfully identified all coding regions of the mouse picobirnavirus for the first time. The salvaged sequences indicated that segment 1 of this virus was more divergent from its homologues in other Picobirnaviridae species than segment 2. For this reason, only segment 2 of mouse picobirnavirus has been detected in previous studies.
  • Michihito Sasaki, Yasuko Orba, Satoko Sasaki, Gabriel Gonzalez, Akihiro Ishii, Bernard M. Hang'ombe, Aaron S. Mweene, Kimihito Ito, Hirofumi Sawa
    JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY 97 10 2488 - 2493 2016年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Group A rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhoea in humans, especially in young children. Bats also harbour group A rotaviruses, but the genetic backgrounds of bat rotavirus strains are usually distinct from those of human rotavirus strains. We identified a new strain of group A rotavirus in the intestinal contents of a horseshoe bat in Zambia. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the identified virus, named RVA/Bat-wt/ZMB/LUS12-14/2012/G3P[3], possessed the genotype constellation G3-P[3]-I3-R2-C2-M3-A9-N2-T3-E2-H3. Several genome segments of LUS12-14 were highly similar to those of group A rotaviruses identified from humans, cows and antelopes, indicating interspecies transmission of rotaviruses between bats and other mammals with possible multiple genomic reassortment events.
  • Michihito Sasaki, Gabriel Gonzalez, Yuji Wada, Agus Setiyono, Ekowati Handharyani, Ibenu Rahmadani, Siswatiana Taha, Sri Adiani, Munira Latief, Zainal Abidin Kholilullah, Mawar Subangkit, Shintaro Kobayashi, Ichiro Nakamura, Takashi Kimura, Yasuko Orba, Kimihito Ito, Hirofumi Sawa
    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 6 24257  2016年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Bufavirus is a recently recognized member of the genus Protoparvovirus in the subfamily Parvovirinae. It has been reported that human bufavirus was detected predominantly in patients with diarrhoea in several countries. However, little is known about bufavirus or its close relatives in nonhuman mammals. In this study, we performed nested-PCR screening and identified bufavirus from 12 megabats of Pteropus spp. in Indonesia. Furthermore, we determined nearly the full genome sequence of a novel megabat-borne bufavirus, tentatively named megabat bufavirus 1. Phylogenetic analyses showed that megabat bufavirus 1 clustered with known protoparvoviruses, including human bufavirus but represented a distinct lineage of bufavirus. Our analyses also inferred phylogenetic relationships among animal-borne bufaviruses recently reported by other studies. Recombination analyses suggested that the most common recent ancestor of megabat bufavirus 1 might have arisen from multiple genetic recombination events. These results characterized megabat bufavirus 1 as the first protoparvovirus discovered from megabats and indicates the high genetic divergence of bufavirus.
  • Gabriel Gonzalez, Kanako O. Koyanagi, Koki Aoki, Hidemi Watanabe
    JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 89 12 6209 - 6217 2015年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Human mastadenovirus D (HAdV-D) is exceptionally rich in type among the seven human adenovirus species. This feature is attributed to frequent intertypic recombination events that have reshuffled orthologous genomic regions between different HAdV-D types. However, this trend appears to be paradoxical, as it has been demonstrated that the replacement of some of the interacting proteins for a specific function with other orthologues causes malfunction, indicating that intertypic recombination events may be deleterious. In order to understand why the paradoxical trend has been possible in HAdV-D evolution, we conducted an interregional coevolution analysis between different genomic regions of 45 different HAdV-D types and found that ca. 70% of the genome has coevolved, even though these are fragmented into several pieces via short intertypic recombination hot spot regions. Since it is statistically and biologically unlikely that all of the coevolving fragments have synchronously recombined between different genomes, it is probable that these regions have stayed in their original genomes during evolution as a platform for frequent intertypic recombination events in limited regions. It is also unlikely that the same genomic regions have remained almost untouched during frequent recombination events, independently, in all different types, by chance. In addition, the coevolving regions contain the coding regions of physically interacting proteins for important functions. Therefore, the coevolution of these regions should be attributed at least in part to natural selection due to common biological constraints operating on all types, including protein-protein interactions for essential functions. Our results predict additional unknown protein interactions. IMPORTANCE Human mastadenovirus D, an exceptionally type-rich human adenovirus species and causative agent of different diseases in a wide variety of tissues, including that of ocular region and digestive tract, as well as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, is known to have highly diverged through frequent intertypic recombination events; however, it has also been demonstrated that the replacement of a component protein of a multiprotein system with a homologous protein causes malfunction. The present study solved this apparent paradox by looking at which genomic parts have coevolved using a newly developed method. The results revealed that intertypic recombination events have occurred in limited genomic regions and been avoided in the genomic regions encoding proteins that physically interact for a given function. This approach detects purifying selection against recombination events causing the replacement of partial components of multiprotein systems and therefore predicts physical and functional interactions between different proteins and/or genomic elements.
  • Tsuguto Fujimoto, Shotaro Yamane, Tomoko Ogawa, Nozomu Hanaoka, Atsushi Ogura, Chiemi Hotta, Takeshi Niwa, Yakou Chiba, Gabriel Gonzalez, Koki Aoki, Kanako Ono Koyanagi, Hidemi Watanabe
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 67 5 416 - 416 2014年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Gabriel Gonzalez, Kanako O. Koyanagi, Koki Aoki, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi, Shigeaki Ohno, Hisatoshi Kaneko, Susumu Ishida, Hidemi Watanabe
    GENE 547 1 10 - 17 2014年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D), which is composed of clinically and epidemiologically important pathogens worldwide, contains more taxonomic "types" than any other species of the genus Mastadenovirus, although the mechanisms accounting for the high level of diversity remain to be disclosed. Recent studies of known and new types of HAdV-D have indicated that intertypic recombination between distant types contributes to the increasing diversity of the species. However, such findings raise the question as to how homologous recombination events occur between diversified types since homologous recombination is suppressed as nucleotide sequences diverge. In order to address this question, we investigated the distribution of the recombination boundaries in comparison with the landscape of intergenomic sequence conservation assessed according to the synonymous substitution rate (d(s)). The results revealed that specific genomic segments are conserved between even the most distantly related genomes; we call these segments "universally conserved segments" (UCSs). These findings suggest that UCSs facilitate homologous recombination, resulting in intergenomic segmental exchanges of UCS-flanking genomic regions as recombination modules. With the aid of such a mechanism, the haploid genomes of HAdV-Ds may have been reshuffled, resulting in chimeric genomes out of diversified repertoires in the HAdV-D population analogous to the MHC region reshuffled via crossing over in vertebrates. In addition, some HAdVs with chimeric genomes may have had the opportunity to avoid host immune responses thereby causing epidemics. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tsuguto Fujimoto, Shotaro Yamane, Tomoko Ogawa, Nozomu Hanaoka, Atsushi Ogura, Chiemi Hotta, Takeshi Niwa, Yakou Chiba, Gabriel Gonzalez, Koki Aoki, Kanako Ono Koyanagi, Hidemi Watanabe
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 67 4 282 - 287 2014年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Recently, new genotypes of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been reported and many of them have been found to be recombinant forms of different known types of HAdV species D (HAdV-D). The objective of this study was to document the evolutionary features of a novel isolate (HAdV_Chiba_E086/2012) obtained from the eye swab of a patient with conjunctivitis in Japan. Viral DNA was extracted from the isolate to sequence the whole genome by the Sanger method and aligned with available genome sequences of HAdV-Ds. The phylogenetic trees of the nucleotide sequences of the penton base, hexon, and fiber genes and the E3 region showed that HAdV_Chiba_E086/2012 is closest to HAdV genotype 65 (HAdV-GT65), HAdV-48, HAdV-GT60 and HAdV-22 at 98%, 99%, 95% and 98% identity, respectively, suggesting that this isolate is a novel recombinant form to be designated as P65H48F60. Further phylogenetic and recombination analyses of the genome alignment of the new isolate implied that nested recombination events involving HAdV-GT59, GT65, 48, GT60, 22, and some ancestral lineages or their close relatives have shaped its genome. These results showed that HAdV_Chiba_E086/2012 is the first HAdV-48-related HAdV found in Japan, which has the most complicated evolutionary history among the known HAdVs so far.
  • Shotaro Yamane, Amanda Wei Ling Lee, Nozomu Hanaoka, Gabriel Gonzalez, Hisatoshi Kaneko, Susumu Ishida, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi, Shigeaki Ohno, Kanako O Koyanagi, Koki Aoki, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Nobuyo Yawata, Hidemi Watanabe
    Journal of virology 87 2 1285 - 6 2013年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Hisatoshi Kaneko, Koki Aoki, Shigeaki Ohno, Hiroaki Ishiko, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Masayuki Kikuchi, Seiya Harada, Gabriel Gonzalez, Kanako O. Koyanagi, Hidemi Watanabe, Tatsuo Suzutani
    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY 49 2 484 - 490 2011年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    For 4 months from September 2008, 102 conjunctival swab specimens were collected for surveillance purposes from patients across Japan suspected of having epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). Human adenovirus (HAdV) DNA was detected in 61 samples by PCR, though the HAdV type for 6 of the PCR-positive samples could not be determined by phylogenetic analysis using a partial hexon gene sequence. Moreover, for 2 months from January 2009, HAdV strains with identical sequences were isolated from five conjunctival swab samples obtained from EKC patients in five different regions of Japan. For the analyses of the 11 samples mentioned above, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the entire penton base, hexon, and fiber genes and early 3 (E3) region, which are variable regions among HAdV types, and compared them to those of other HAdV species D strains. The nucleotide sequences of loops 1 and 2 in the hexons of all 11 samples showed high degrees of identity with those of the HAdV type 15 (HAdV-15) and HAdV-29 prototype strains. However, the fiber gene and E3 region sequences showed high degrees of identity with those of HAdV-9, and the penton base gene sequence showed a high degree of identity with the penton base gene sequences of HAdV-9 and -26. Moreover, the complete genome sequence of the 2307-S strain, which was isolated by viral culture from 1 of the 11 samples, was determined. The 2307-S strain was a recombinant HAdV between HAdV-9, -15, -26, -29, and/or another HAdV type; however, the recombination sites in the genome were not obvious. We propose that this virus is a novel intertypic recombinant, HAdV-15/29/H9, and may be an etiological agent of EKC.
    GENE 112 2 197 - 204 1992年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
    Caldesmon (CDM) is a potential actomyosin regulatory protein found in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells. Domain mapping and physical studies suggest that CDM is an elongated molecule with an N-terminal myosin/calmodulin-binding domain and a C-terminal tropomyosin/actin/calmodulin-binding domain separated by a 40-nm-long central helix. An 1100-nucleotide (nt) cDNA probe encoding the C terminus of avian caldesmon (aCDM) was used to screen a human aorta library and clone smooth-muscle and non-muscle CDM-encoding cDNAs (CDM). The human (h) smooth-muscle hCDM is 3050-3630 nt long, having variation in length in the 3'-untranslated region. The predicted hCDM protein has a high degree of identity, > 90%, to aCDM in the N- and C-terminal-binding domains. The central helical domain is more variable, but retains characteristic repeated peptides and an 'i, i + 4' acidic/basic amino acid (aa) motif found in aCDM which can form intra-helical salt bridges to stabilize the central helix. The predicted smooth-muscle protein is 793 aa long (93 262 Da) with a calculated pI of 5.75. As is the case for the chicken, nonmuscle hCDM is missing the central helical domain, 256 aa overall. Our nonmuscle clone is not full length, but the C-terminal end is identical to the smooth-muscle form. If the N-terminal domain is identical, as it is in the chicken, the predicted protein is 537 aa (62 558 Da). Examination of the 'junctions' at either end of the deleted central domain gives a clear indication of the splice sites and suggests that the nonmuscle form is generated by exon skipping. The results suggest the CDMs are a small family of highly conserved proteins probably derived from a single gene.


  • 橋爪芽衣, 青木功喜, 青木功喜, 青木功喜, 八幡信代, GONZALEZ Gabriel, 石田晋, 大野重昭, 大野重昭, 佐藤精一, 高岡晃教, 北市伸義, 北市伸義 臨床眼科 75 (4) 2021年
  • Koki Aoki, Gabriel Gonzalez, Rikutaro Hinokuma, Nobuyo Yawata, Masayuki Tsutsumi, Shigeaki Ohno, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 95 (4) 114885 -114885 2019年12月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a major cause of ocular morbidity worldwide and specific antiviral therapies are not available. EKC is primarily caused by Human adenovirus D (HAdV-D) types 8, 37, 53, 54, 56 and 64. Considering the genomic variation in HAdV-D, we hypothesized that clinical signs could be differentiated by virus type. The hypothesis was retrospectively tested with clinical signs recorded from 250 patients with ocular infections visiting an ophthalmological clinic in southern Japan between 2011 and 2014. The results showed that conjunctival opacity, corneal epithelial disorders and pre-auricular lymphadenopathy, were more frequently associated with EKC than other ocular infections. Furthermore, HAdV types 8, 37 and 54, caused corneal complications and longer infections significantly more frequently than infections by types 53 and 56 (P < 0.05). Our descriptive results supported that symptoms severity vary with the infecting type, however, further research is needed to improve diagnosis of EKC.
  • Gabriel Gonzalez, Nobuyo Yawata, Koki Aoki, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 112 1 -9 2019年03月 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) presents as severe conjunctival inflammations involving the cornea that can lead to the development of corneal opacities and blurred vision, which can persist for months. EKC is highly contagious and responsible for outbreaks worldwide, therefore accurate diagnosis and rapid containment are imperative. EKC is caused by a number of types within Human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D): 8, 37 and 64 (formerly known as 19a) and these types were considered the major causes of EKC for over fifty years. Nonetheless, recent improved molecular typing methodologies have identified recombinant HAdV-D types 53, 54 and 56, as newly emerging etiologic agents of EKC infections worldwide. EKC cases due to these recombinant types have potentially been underdiagnosed and underestimated as a source of new EKC outbreaks. Recombination events among circulating HAdV-D types represent a source of new infectious disease threats. Also, the growing number of adenoviral types enabled genomic and phenotypic comparisons to determine pathological properties related to EKC. This review covers the clinical features of EKC, current challenges in clinical practice and recent progress in EKC-related HAdV research, which focuses on the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
  • 藤本嗣人, 高橋健一郎, 花岡希, 小長谷昌未, GONZALEZ Gabriel, 牛島宏治 国内の病原体サーベイランスに資する機能的なラボネットワークの強化に関する研究 平成30年度 総括・分担研究報告書(Web) 2019年
  • 佐々木道仁, 伊藤直人, 杉山誠, GONZALEZ Gabriel, 伊藤公人, 伊藤公人, 大場靖子, 澤洋文, 澤洋文 日本ウイルス学会学術集会プログラム・予稿集(Web) 67th 2019年
  • 藤本嗣人, 小川知子, 花岡希, 小倉惇, 堀田千恵美, 仁和岳史, GONZALEZ Gabriel, 渡邉日出海 日本ウイルス学会学術集会プログラム・抄録集 61st 193 2013年10月29日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • Hisatoshi Kaneko, Koki Aoki, Susumu Ishida, Shigeaki Ohno, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi, Hiroaki Ishiko, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Yoshifumi Ikeda, Masako Nakamura, Gabriel Gonzalez, Kanako O Koyanagi, Hidemi Watanabe, Tatsuo Suzutani Journal of General Virology 92 (6) 1251 -1259 2011年 [査読無し][通常論文]
    Human adenovirus type 53 (HAdV-53) has commonly been detected in samples from epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) patients in Japan since 1996. HAdV-53 is an intermediate virus, containing hexon-chimeric, penton base and fiber structures similar to HAdV-22 and -37, HAdV- 37 and HAdV-8, respectively. HAdV-53-like intermediate strains were first isolated from EKC samples in Japan in the 1980s. Here, the complete genome sequences of three such HAdV-53- like intermediate strains (870006C, 880249C and 890357C) and four HAdV-53 strains were determined, and their relationships were analysed. The seven HAdV strains were classified into three groups, 870006C/880249C, 890357C and the four HAdV-53 strains, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of the partial and complete genome sequences. HAdV strains within the same group showed the highest nucleotide identities (99.87-100.00 %). Like HAdV-53, the hexon loop 1 and 2 regions of 870006C, 880249C and 890357C showed the highest identity with HAdV-22. However, these strains did not show a hexon-chimeric structure similar to HAdV-22 and -37, or a penton base similar to HAdV-37. The fiber genes of 870006C and 880249C were identical to that of HAdV-37, but not HAdV-8. Thus, the three intermediate HAdVs isolated in the 1980s were similar to each other but not to HAdV-53. The recombination breakpoints were inferred by the Recombination Detection Program (RDP) using whole-genome sequences of these seven HAdV and of 12 HAdV-D strains from GenBank. HAdV-53 may have evolved from intermediate HAdVs circulating in the 1980s, and from HAdV-8, -22 and -37, by recombination of sections cut at the putative breakpoints. © 2011 SGM.

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