研究者データベース

小林 真(コバヤシ マコト)
北方生物圏フィールド科学センター 森林圏ステーション 北管理部
准教授

基本情報

所属

  • 北方生物圏フィールド科学センター 森林圏ステーション 北管理部

職名

  • 准教授

学位

  • 博士 (農学)(北海道大学)

ホームページURL

J-Global ID

研究キーワード

  • 撹乱   北方林   ツンドラ   生態系生態学   気候変動   地上部ー地下部相互作用   樹木生理生態学   

研究分野

  • 環境・農学 / 環境影響評価
  • ライフサイエンス / 森林科学

職歴

  • 2018年04月 - 現在 北海道大学 北方生物圏フィールド科学センター森林圏ステーション 准教授
  • 2017年03月 - 現在 ウメオ大学 気候変動研究センター 連携研究員
  • 2013年07月 - 2018年03月 北海道大学 北方生物圏フィールド科学センター森林圏ステーション 助教
  • 2012年04月 - 2013年06月 日本学術振興会(横浜国立大学) 特別研究員(PD)
  • 2010年06月 - 2012年03月 ウメオ大学 (スウェーデン) 気候影響研究センター 博士研究員
  • 2010年04月 - 2010年05月 北海道大学 農学研究院 博士研究員
  • 2007年04月 - 2010年03月 北海道大学 環境資源学専攻 博士後期課程
  • 2007年04月 - 2010年03月 日本学術振興会 特別研究員(DC1)

学歴

  • 2005年04月 - 2010年03月   北海道大学   農学研究院   環境資源学専攻
  • 2000年04月 - 2005年03月   北海道大学   農学部   森林科学科

所属学協会

  • 日本土壌動物学会   日本生態学会   日本森林学会   

研究活動情報

論文

  • Kobayashi Makoto, Pamela H. Templer, Ayumi Katayama, Osamu Seki, Kentaro Takagi
    ECOSPHERE 13 7 2022年07月 
    The occurrence of extreme warm events and early snowmelt is predicted to increase in high-latitude ecosystems, even during periods of time when there is no coincident reduction in total precipitation. However, because extreme events like these occur unpredictably, little is known about how advancing snowmelt by a single extreme warm event, without a reduction in precipitation amount, influences overstory trees and understory vegetation simultaneously in an ecosystem. We conducted a warming experiment (four 20 x 20 m plots) in temperate forests of Japan to determine the effects of earlier snowmelt on both understory dwarf bamboo plants and overstory birch trees. Our experimental treatment advanced snowmelt by about 10 days and increased soil temperatures that were associated with increased rates of soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification. Furthermore, these changes led to lower C:N ratios of leaves together with the greater growth of understory bamboo vegetation, with no changes in leaf C:N or growth rates of overstory birch trees. Together, our results demonstrate that advancing snowmelt by an extreme warm event in temperate forests is likely to affect N cycling and will benefit understory vegetation without a commensurate change in overstory vegetation, likely due to the increase in available soil N. These results also demonstrate that with the projected increase in the frequency of extreme warm events and advanced snowmelt, understory vegetation is likely to benefit more than overstory trees in Japanese temperate forests with heavy snow.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Elizaveta Susloparova, Ikutaro Tsuyama, Takuya Shimase, Satoshi Nakaba, Naoki Takahashi, Toshiya Yoshida
    Journal of Wood Science 67 1 2021年12月 
    AbstractHeartwood colour is often an important factor in determining timber prices. However, the determinants of intraspecific variation in heartwood colour, which is useful information for sustainable wood marketing, are little understood, especially at the local scale in cool temperate forests. Because heartwood is produced as a secondary compound and photosynthesis is regulated by nitrogen (N) in cool temperate forests, we hypothesized that (1) soil conditions determine heartwood colour even at a local scale within a tree species and (2) N, specifically, can be an important driver of the intraspecific variation in heartwood colour in the trees of cool temperate forests. To test these hypotheses, we investigated the relationship between the colour values (luminescence, redness, and yellowness) of heartwood from Juglans mandshurica var. sachalinensis and the soil parameters in a cool temperate forest. Among the soil properties, not soil N but soil magnesium (Mg) contents alone had a significant influence on the redness and yellowness of the heartwood. Higher soil Mg contents resulted in increased redness and yellowness of the heartwood in our study, probably due to the increase in phenolics and the colouring of the tannins in the heartwood with Mg. Our results indicate that even at a local scale, soil condition can determine the intraspecific variation in heartwood colour and that forest managers can utilize edaphic information to predict heartwood colour for timber marketing.
  • Masahiro Nakamura, Moeko Minoshima, Chisato Terada, Kentaro Takagi, Kobayashi Makoto, Hideaki Shibata, Tsutom Hiura
    Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 4 2021年09月22日 
    Given the time scale based on the duration of exposure to global warming, natural climate-gradient studies and experimental manipulations have detected long-term (decades to centuries) and short-term (years to decades) ecological responses to global warming. Combination of these two complementary approaches within a single study may enable prediction of the likely responses of ecological processes to global warming. To understand how global warming affects plant–herbivore interactions within a canopy of Erman’s birch, we combined an elevational gradient study and a warming experiment involving mature birch trees in which the soil and tree branches were warmed separately. In the elevational gradient study, herbivory by chewing insects and plant growth increased as elevation decreased, and the concentrations of condensed tannins and total phenolics in the leaves decreased. In the warming experiment, soil warming alone increased herbivory, and the addition of branch warming amplified the effect on herbivory. Soil warming alone decreased the tannin concentration, and the addition of branch warming led to a further reduction. The variation in herbivory was best explained by the tannin content of leaves. Our experimental results demonstrate that the decreased tannin content of leaves due to a combination of soil and branch warming was an important driver of increased herbivory in the canopy of the mature birch trees. The similar tendencies in the short- and long-term responses imply that global warming is likely to increase background herbivory in mature birch trees by decreasing the tannin content of leaves in the canopy.
  • Shinichi Tatsumi, Shunsuke Matsuoka, Saori Fujii, Kobayashi Makoto, Takashi Osono, Forest Isbell, Akira S. Mori
    Environmental DNA 3 5 930 - 939 2021年09月 
    Soil fungi can help improve ecosystem restoration, yet our understanding of how they reassemble in degraded land is limited. Here, using DNA metabarcoding, we studied the fungal community structure in reforested sites following agricultural abandonment and ungulate overabundance. Two treatments, namely “reforestation using different numbers of tree species” and “deer exclusion,” have been applied for multiple decades in the study sites. We found that local fungal richness (alpha diversity) and total fungal richness (gamma diversity) were 1.9–2.9 and 1.3–1.9 times greater, respectively, in reforested stands than in natural forests. These results were regardless of the number of tree species planted in the reforested stands. Conversely, reforested stands had a spatially homogenized community structure with relatively lower degrees of compositional dissimilarity among sites within each stand (beta diversity). These findings were attributable to lower environmental heterogeneity, stronger dispersal limitation, and a comparatively shorter time since the onset of community assembly in reforested stands. Deer exclosures had no detectable effect on fungal community structure. Overall, the agricultural legacy in fungal community structure appears to have persisted for decades, even under proactive restoration of aboveground vegetation. Direct human intervention belowground may therefore be necessary for the recovery of soil biota once altered.
  • Yu Fukasawa, Kimiyo Matsukura, Jörg G. Stephan, Kobayashi Makoto, Satoshi N. Suzuki, Yuji Kominami, Masahiro Takagi, Nobuaki Tanaka, Shuhei Takemoto, Haruo Kinuura, Kunihiro Okano, Zewei Song, Mayuko Jomura, Kohmei Kadowaki, Satoshi Yamashita, Masayuki Ushio
    Fungal Ecology 101095 - 101095 2021年07月 
    Given that forest dieback due to emerging pests is increasing under global warming, understanding the relationships between pests, climate, and forest biodiversity is an urgent priority. In Japan, mass attacks of an ambrosia beetle, vectoring a pathogenic fungus, cause oak wilt outbreaks in recent decades. Here, the associations of oak wilt and climate with wood-inhabiting fungal communities in apparently healthy Quercus serrata trunks were investigated using DNA metabarcoding in seven sites along a climatic gradient in Japan. Amplicon sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 region generated 1,339,958 sequence reads containing 879 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in 234 wood samples. OTU compositions were significantly different between sites with and without oak wilt. OTU richness increased with temperature and precipitation at sites where oak wilt was present, but this relationship was not observed at sites without oak wilt, possibly due to interaction between oak wilt and climate.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Takayoshi Koike
    Ecological Research 2020年10月08日 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Erika Marumo, Kentaro Takagi, Kobayashi Makoto
    Journal of Forest Research 25 4 285 - 290 2020年07月03日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    © 2020 The Japanese Forest Society. Bud-burst timing is one of the key factors to determine tree growth. Smaller trees are known to show earlier bud bursts, owing to the ontogeny in temperate forests. Snowpack is one of the factors affecting burst timing, especially that of small trees. Because small individuals were buried under snowpack until late spring, we hypothesized although the smaller individuals require less degree-day accumulation for their bud burst, the bud-burst timing of smaller individuals is not always earlier than that of larger trees. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the height of individuals and the sum of degree-days required until the day of bud burst, as well as the relationship with the bud-burst timings for Acer mono and Quercus crispula over 2 years. As hypothesized, both species showed positive relationship between tree height and degree-days for budburst in both years. Conversely, there was negative relationship between tree height and the bud-burst timing for both species in both years. These results indicate small individuals tended to be late to reach an adequate temperature for bud burst due to the heavy snowpack, and the day of bud burst was sometime later for the seedlings as compared to the large trees in spite of the less accumulation of degree-day for the bud burst of smaller trees. These results suggest snow regime changes may influence the phenology not of large trees but of small trees, which could result in a differential influence of winter climate change on tree growth depending on the individual tree height.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Scott D. Wilson, Takao Sato, Gesche Blume‐Werry, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen
    Oikos 129 5 643 - 650 2020年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Gaku Kudo
    Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 52 1 408 - 415 2020年01月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Rupert Seidl, Juha Honkaniemi, Tuomas Aakala, Alexey Aleinikov, Per Angelstam, Mathieu Bouchard, Yan Boulanger, Philip J. Burton, Louis De Grandpré, Sylvie Gauthier, Winslow D. Hansen, Jane U. Jepsen, Kalev Jõgiste, Daniel D. Kneeshaw, Timo Kuuluvainen, Olga Lisitsyna, Kobayashi Makoto, Akira S. Mori, Deepa S. Pureswaran, Ekaterina Shorohova, Elena Shubnitsina, Anthony R. Taylor, Nadezhda Vladimirova, Floortje Vodde, Cornelius Senf
    Ecography 2020年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    © 2020 The Authors. Ecography published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Society Oikos Disturbance regimes are changing in forests across the world in response to global climate change. Despite the profound impacts of disturbances on ecosystem services and biodiversity, assessments of disturbances at the global scale remain scarce. Here, we analyzed natural disturbances in boreal and temperate forest ecosystems for the period 2001–2014, aiming to 1) quantify their within- and between-biome variation and 2) compare the climate sensitivity of disturbances across biomes. We studied 103 unmanaged forest landscapes with a total land area of 28.2 × 106 ha, distributed across five continents. A consistent and comprehensive quantification of disturbances was derived by combining satellite-based disturbance maps with local expert knowledge of disturbance agents. We used Gaussian finite mixture models to identify clusters of landscapes with similar disturbance activity as indicated by the percent forest area disturbed as well as the size, edge density and perimeter–area-ratio of disturbed patches. The climate sensitivity of disturbances was analyzed using Bayesian generalized linear mixed effect models and a globally consistent climate dataset. Within-biome variation in natural disturbances was high in both boreal and temperate biomes, and disturbance patterns did not vary systematically with latitude or biome. The emergent clusters of disturbance activity in the boreal zone were similar to those in the temperate zone, but boreal landscapes were more likely to experience high disturbance activity than their temperate counterparts. Across both biomes high disturbance activity was particularly associated with wildfire, and was consistently linked to years with warmer and drier than average conditions. Natural disturbances are a key driver of variability in boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, with high similarity in the disturbance patterns between both biomes. The universally high climate sensitivity of disturbances across boreal and temperate ecosystems indicates that future climate change could substantially increase disturbance activity.
  • Where and when does dispersal limitation matters in primary succession?
    Makoto, K, Wilson, S.D
    Journal of Ecology 107 559 - 565 2019年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Makoto, K, Bryanin, S.V, Takagi, K
    Applied Soil Ecology 144 1 - 7 2019年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    © 2019 Elsevier B.V. Due to spring climate warming, snowpack has been decreasing and the snowmelt timing has simultaneously been advancing in the cool-temperate forests of northern Japan. To investigate the effect of advancing snowmelt at the end of the snow season on soil nitrogen dynamics via overwintering earthworms, we conducted a snow removal field experiment at the end of the snow season using mesocosms with and without earthworms. In this study, the differences in the effect of snow removal on soil nitrogen according to the presence/absence and body size of Eisenia japonica were also tested in both early spring (April) and late spring (May). The snow removal did not influence the survival rate, body weight, or cast production of E. japonica. In early spring, while the snow removal increased nitrification significantly by 61%, the effect of snow removal was similar irrespective of the earthworm treatments. This indicates that neither the presence of earthworms nor earthworm body size influences the effect of snow reductions at the end of the snow season on the soil nitrogen dynamics in early spring. On the other hand, in late spring, snow removal no longer had a significant effect on soil nitrogen dynamics, while ammonification and nitrification significantly increased by 195% and by 50%, respectively, in the mesocosms with adult earthworms compared to the mesocosms without E. japonica earthworms. These findings indicate that the effects of snow decrease and the simultaneous advancement of snowmelt timing at the end of the snow season on soil nitrogen appear only just after snowmelt; alternatively, the effect of earthworm body size on soil nitrogen dynamics is predominant in late spring in snowy cool-temperate forests.
  • Suzuki, S.N, authors including, Makoto, K
    Ecological Research 34 5 575 - 576 2019年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Litter and soil organic matter decomposition represents one of the major drivers of carbon and nutrient cycling in a given ecosystem; however, it also contributes to a significant production of relevant greenhouse gasses. The Japanese archipelago spans several biomes (boreal-temperate-subtropical) and covers a large range of elevations and ecosystem types. Hence, the comprehension of this fundamental biogeochemical process in diverse ecosystems is crucial to maintain their ecosystem services. In this article, we have provided data on plant leaf decomposition from 33 research sites across Japan. At each site, standard litter material with different decomposition rates, rooibos tea and green tea were incubated for 90days between 2012 and 2016 and the remaining mass was recorded. In total, 1904 bags were used. In addition, supplementary measurements of environmental variables essential for the interpretation of the collected data, such as soil and vegetation, were recorded. Plot-level averages of the remaining mass rates of bag contents after incubation ranged 0.17-0.51 for green tea and 0.54-0.82 for rooibos tea. Continued monitoring will also provide important insights into the temporal dynamics of litter decomposition.
  • Earthworms under 1 m of snow: the seasonal dynamics of earthworm abundance in cool-temperate forests with heavy snowfall
    Makoto, K, Kawakami, T
    Edaphologia 105 15 - 23 2019年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Warming increased feeding of a root-chewing insect at soil surface and enhanced its damage on a grass.
    Tsunoda, T, Makoto, K, Suzuki, J.I, Kaneko, N
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry in press 2018年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Eveline J. Krab, Jonas Roennefarth, Marina Becher, Gesche Blume-Werry, Frida Keuper, Jonatan Klaminder, Juergen Kreyling, Kobayashi Makoto, Ann Milbau, Ellen Dorrepaal
    Journal of Ecology 106 2 599 - 612 2018年03月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Climate change-driven increases in winter temperatures positively affect conditions for shrub growth in arctic tundra by decreasing plant frost damage and stimulation of nutrient availability. However, the extent to which shrubs may benefit from these conditions may be strongly dependent on the following spring climate. Species-specific differences in phenology and spring frost sensitivity likely affect shrub growth responses to warming. Additionally, effects of changes in winter and spring climate may differ over small spatial scales, as shrub growth may be dependent on natural variation in snow cover, shrub density and cryoturbation. We investigated the effects of winter warming and altered spring climate on growing-season performance of three common and widespread shrub species in cryoturbated non-sorted circle arctic tundra. By insulating sparsely vegetated non-sorted circles and parts of the surrounding heath with additional snow or gardening fleeces, we created two climate change scenarios: snow addition increased soil temperatures in autumn and winter and delayed snowmelt timing without increasing spring temperatures, whereas fleeces increased soil temperature similarly in autumn and winter, but created warmer spring conditions without altering snowmelt timing. Winter warming affected shrub performance, but the direction and magnitude were species-specific and dependent on spring conditions. Spring warming advanced, and later snowmelt delayed canopy green-up. The fleece treatment did not affect shoot growth and biomass in any shrub species despite decreasing leaf frost damage in Empetrum nigrum. Snow addition decreased frost damage and stimulated growth of Vaccinium vitis-idaea by c. 50%, while decreasing Betula nana growth (p < .1). All of these effects were consistent the mostly barren circles and surrounding heath. Synthesis. In cryoturbated arctic tundra, growth of Vaccinium vitis-idaea may substantially increase when a thicker snow cover delays snowmelt, whereas in longer term, warmer winters and springs may favour E. nigrum instead. This may affect shrub community composition and cover, with potentially far-reaching effects on arctic ecosystem functioning via its effects on cryoturbation, carbon cycling and trophic cascading. Our results highlight the importance of disentangling effects of winter and spring climate change timing and nature, as spring conditions are a crucial factor in determining the impact of winter warming on plant performance.
  • Semyon Bryanin, Evgeniya Abramova, Kobayashi Makoto
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 116 1 - 3 2018年01月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Boreal forest soils are a huge carbon sink, but the forests are regularly subjected to fire disturbance. The fine roots in these forests substantially contribute to soil carbon accumulation. Charcoal is a fire by-product that influences ecosystem processes including soil organic matter decomposition. However, the extent to which charcoal affects fine root decomposition is unclear. We performed field litterbag experiments over 515 days involving the incubation of fine larch roots with varying concentrations of charcoal in soil. At the end of experiment the loss of root mass in samples incubated with higher concentrations of charcoal was greater (42% and 40%) than that in the control (30%) and a treatment containing the average measured soil charcoal content (27%). The degree of mass loss generally increased with increasing charcoal content. Our result provides the first field evidence that fire-derived charcoal may enhance the decomposition of fine larch roots, and consequently CO2 release from boreal forests.
  • Masayuki Ushio, Hisato Fukuda, Toshiki Inoue, Kobayashi Makoto, Osamu Kishida, Keiichi Sato, Koichi Murata, Masato Nikaido, Tetsuya Sado, Yukuto Sato, Masamichi Takeshita, Wataru Iwasaki, Hiroki Yamanaka, Michio Kondoh, Masaki Miya
    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY RESOURCES 17 6 e63 - e75 2017年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Terrestrial animals must have frequent contact with water to survive, implying that environmental DNA (eDNA) originating from those animals should be detectable from places containing water in terrestrial ecosystems. Aiming to detect the presence of terrestrial mammals using forest water samples, we applied a set of universal PCR primers (MiMammal, a modified version of fish universal primers) for metabarcoding mammalian eDNA. The versatility of MiMammal primers was tested in silico and by amplifying DNAs extracted from tissues. The results suggested that MiMammal primers are capable of amplifying and distinguishing a diverse group of mammalian species. In addition, analyses of water samples from zoo cages of mammals with known species composition suggested that MiMammal primers could successfully detect mammalian species from water samples in the field. Then, we performed an experiment to detect mammals from natural ecosystems by collecting five 500-ml water samples from ponds in two cool-temperate forests in Hokkaido, northern Japan. MiMammal amplicon libraries were constructed using eDNA extracted from water samples, and sequences generated by Illumina MiSeq were subjected to data processing and taxonomic assignment. We thereby detected multiple species of mammals common to the sampling areas, including deer (Cervus nippon), mouse (Mus musculus), vole (Myodes rufocanus), raccoon (Procyon lotor), rat (Rattus norvegicus) and shrew (Sorex unguiculatus). Many previous applications of the eDNA metabarcoding approach have been limited to aquatic/semiaquatic systems, but the results presented here show that the approach is also promising even for forest mammal biodiversity surveys.
  • Interactive effects of charcoal and earthworm activity increase bioavailable phosphorus in sub-boreal forest soils.
    Pingree, M.R.A, Makoto, K, DeLuca, T.H
    Biology and Fertility of Soils 53 8 873 - 884 2017年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Semyon V. Bryanin, Kobayashi Makoto
    PLANT AND SOIL 416 1-2 409 - 418 2017年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Fine roots are only a small part of total ecosystem biomass, but substantially contributing to soil carbon accumulation in boreal forests. Wildfires may influence fine root dynamics directly via heating and indirectly via interactions with wildfire-deposited charcoal. We tested if the presence of charcoal in a recently burned larch forest affected fine root vitality. This study was stratified across vegetation type (understorey and overstorey), soil depth (upper and lower layers), and root diameter classes: fine (ae0.5 mm but < 2 mm diameter), and very fine (diameter < 0.5 mm) in a recently surface-burned Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) forest in the Russian Far East. Charcoal content and fine root vitality were positively correlated for overstorey vegetation, but negatively correlated for understorey vegetation. On the other hand, total charcoal content did not significantly correlate with very fine root vitality, biomass or necromass. Our study provides the first field evidence that fine root dynamics are influenced by fire-derived charcoal in frequently burned boreal forest. Furthermore, the effect of charcoal on fine root vitality depends on the vegetation type, root diameter, and soil depth, which indicates the necessity of complicated modeling of soil organic carbon derived from fine roots in post-fire boreal forests.
  • Tomoya Kawakami, Kobayashi Makoto
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 32 4 603 - 610 2017年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Calcium (Ca)-rich food can increase feeding of Lumbricidae. Earthworms can be genetically differentiated at a small spatial scale and acclimatize to the local environment during growth. Soil feeding and subsequent cast production by earthworms affects soil N mineralization. Here, we hypothesized that soil feeding and subsequent cast production by Lumbricidae species increases with high soil Ca content and that this increase is stronger in worms from high-Ca soil. We also hypothesized that changes in the soil feeding of Lumbricidae species along with the Ca content affects the soil N mineralization via changes in the cast production. Using a geophageous earthworm species (Eisenia japonica) originated from two different Ca environments (calcareous soil and sedimentary soil), we investigated cast production and soil N mineralization in three soils (sedimentary soil, sedimentary soil with Ca addition, and calcareous soil). The soil feeding of E. japonica from both origins did not always increase despite the high soil Ca content. We suggest that both the Ca content and other soil conditions (e.g., soil C:N) might be major factors in increasing soil feeding by E. japonica. Furthermore, the influence of Ca addition on cast production varied according to the earthworm origin. As expected, these differences in cast production are linked to soil N mineralization (especially nitrification). In summary, our study suggests that the acclimatization and/or adaptation of Lumbricidae species to local environmental factors not only soil Ca content explains spatially heterogeneous soil N mineralization in forest soil.
  • Saori Fujii, Akira S. Mori, Dai Koide, Kobayashi Makoto, Shunsuke Matsuoka, Takashi Osono, Forest Isbell
    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY 54 1 80 - 90 2017年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Biodiversity has been elucidated to be one of the major factors sustaining ecosystem functioning. The vast majority of studies showing a relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have come from experiments, and this knowledge has not yet been applied to most real-world cases of conservation and management. This is especially true in forest ecosystems, characterized by the dominance of long-lived organisms (trees) and high levels of structural complexity and environmental heterogeneity. To apply biodiversity-function relationships to actual forest management, there are several issues to be considered. These include employing a cross-taxon perspective, as some functions (e.g. soil biogeochemical processes) cannot be maintained by a narrow set of organisms, as is usually the case with experimental systems. More specifically, although the interaction between above- and below-ground diversity is important for many functions in forests, there are few studies that evaluated the roles of diversity in both subsystems in a manner that could be informative in practice. To evaluate the roles of above- and below-ground diversity to support natural soil ecosystem functions, we conducted a decomposition experiment in the northern forests of Japan, which are currently under restoration management. The restoration area consists of mosaics of different vegetation types by various revegetation activities and establishment of ungulate exclosures. Using structural equationmodelling and linear mixed-effects models, we assessed direct and indirect pathways from diversity to functions by focusing on both of taxonomic and functional diversity indices. To put our findings into practice, we utilized a trait-based approach, which provides a link between the functional consequences of human influences and ecosystem structure. We found little direct effects of tree diversity on below-ground functions such as decomposition rate and litter stabilization. However, once the diversities of understorey herbaceous plants and soil fungi were considered as a possible mediating explanatory factor, we found a significant effect of tree diversity to indirectly support these functions by supporting these other types of biodiversity. Particularly, we found that the models based on functional trait diversity, rather than on taxonomic species richness, best explained the variation in below-ground processes.Synthesis and applications. Forest restoration in the northern forests of Japan has had no explicit objective to restore soil functions. Nevertheless, afforestation, and the associated increase in tree diversity as a measure of forest restoration, was, although often unintentionally, proven effective for the maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions, such as soil biogeochemical processes. This finding suggests a great potential for management to make local tree assemblages functionally dissimilar and diverse for the sake of supporting and enhancing fundamental ecosystem functions in forests.
  • 長谷川元洋, 藤井佐織, 金田哲, 池田紘士, 菱拓雄, 兵藤不二夫, 小林真
    日本生態学会誌 67 2 95 - 118 2017年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Progress in ecological studies of soil fauna includes studies of the role and effects of soil fauna on decomposition and soil carbon dynamics in relation to global environmental changes, the introduction of molecular biology approaches to such studies, feeding habit analysis using stable isotopes, trait-based analysis of community ecology, and fine-scale experimental studies on the above/below ground relationship in ecosystems. In relation to this progress, six topics were reviewed: the function of soil fauna in the decomposition process carbon sequestration in earthworms the process of assemblage formation in earthworms a trait-based approach to the collembolan community food habit analysis using stable isotopes and soil faunal impacts on plants.
  • Masahiro Nakamura, Kobayashi Makoto, Motonobu Tanaka, Taiki Inoue, Yowhan Son, Tsutom Hiura
    TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 30 5 1535 - 1541 2016年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Tall birch trees allocate extra resource due to aboveground temperature elevation to bud and male flower production rather than to plant growth. Saplings increased only plant growth under warming. Size-dependent response should be considered. We experimentally heated canopy organs of tall birch trees (Betula ermanii Cham.; 18-20 m high) growing at a high latitude to determine how leaf phenology, plant growth, and bud and male flower production might shift in response to increases in aboveground temperature during global climate change. We warmed the canopies with infrared heat lamps fixed to steel pipe scaffolds built around the trees. The temperature of the warmed canopies increased by approximately 1 A degrees C. Warming extended the length of the growing season of canopy leaves (by accelerating leaf flush and delaying leaf fall), and significantly increased the numbers of buds and male flowers per shoot. Bud production and shoot length were positively correlated in both warmed and control branches. However, warming did not increase canopy shoot lengths. The intercept value of the positive regression slope between bud production and shoot length for warmed branches was higher than that for control branches. Thus, canopy warming had a direct positive effect on the bud production but had no indirect effect via increases in shoot length. Our experiment showed that tall birch trees allocated extra resources made available by increased aboveground temperature to bud and male flower production rather than to plant growth.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Yukio Minamiya, Nobuhiro Kaneko
    PLANT AND SOIL 404 1-2 209 - 218 2016年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Aims The magnitude of the change in tree growth caused by climate warming can be highly dependent on biological context, including factors such as the presence of associated decomposers and their behaviors. We test the hypothesis that 1) the presence of earthworms modifies the response of soil inorganic N and tree growth to warming via the change of cast production; and furthermore 2) the type of soil as food for earthworm differentiate the earthworm response and its effects on the plant-soil system. Methods We conducted a microcosm experiment rearing a geophageous earthworm species (Aporrectodea rosea) and birch (Betula ermanii) seedlings with two types of soil (sedimentary soil and serpentine soil) under two temperature regimes (ambient and ambient +3.3 degrees C). Results While the warming increased the cast production by the earthworms in the serpentine soil, it did not influence cast production in the sedimentary soil. The net nitrogen mineralization rate and the net inorganic N production showed similar dynamics to cast production under the warmer conditions, although the net nitrification rate did not. A significant increase in tree height from warming was observed only in the serpentine soil with earthworms, and the tree height was positively correlated with inorganic N production. Conclusions The context-dependent change of soil N dynamics to warming could be caused by differential feeding activity of earthworm, and it results in the modification of the growth characteristics of birch seedlings.
  • K. Makoto, Scott D. Wilson
    AMERICAN NATURALIST 187 6 804 - 811 2016年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Primary succession is limited by both ecosystem development and plant dispersal, but the extent to which dispersal constrains succession over the long-term is unknown. We compared primary succession along two co-occurring arctic chronosequences with contrasting spatial scales: sorted circles that span a few meters and may have few dispersal constraints and glacial forelands that span several kilometers and may have greater dispersal constraints. Dispersal constraints slowed primary succession by centuries: plots were dominated by cryptogams after 20 years on circles but after 270 years on forelands; plots supported deciduous plants after 100 years on circles but after >400 years on forelands. Our study provides century-scale evidence suggesting that dispersal limitations constrain the rate of primary succession in glacial forelands.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, S. V. Bryanin, V. V. Lisovsky, K. Kushida, N. Wada
    TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 30 2 431 - 439 2016年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Climate warming may directly and indirectly affect the large carbon stock in discontinuous permafrost soil at high latitudes. In recent decades, Siberian dwarf pine [Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel] has been invading dry heath alpine tundra in the northern Amur region of Far East Russia. Siberian dwarf pine is known to have high aboveground productivity, comparable to that of tall coniferous trees. We hypothesised that the invasion of Siberian dwarf pine into alpine tundra could increase soil carbon stocks via an increase in fine roots. Contrary to our expectations, the invasion of dwarf pine did not significantly increase the fine root biomass and productivity of the tundra, probably due to the belowground competitive exclusion between the dwarf pine and alpine tundra plants. Furthermore, the invasion of the dwarf pine did not affect soil carbon in the alpine tundra ecosystem. These results show that the recent invasion of Siberian dwarf pine into tundra did not influence the fine root dynamics or the soil carbon stock in the study site. Together, these results implied that (1) it takes a long time for pine invasion to change the belowground ecosystem properties of tundra vegetation to that of pine thickets and therefore (2) the lack of an increase in soil carbon from recent tree invasion should be taken into account when modelling future carbon dynamics in alpine tundra.
  • Akira S. Mori, Forest Isbell, Saori Fujii, Kobayashi Makoto, Shunsuke Matsuoka, Takashi Osono
    ECOLOGY LETTERS 19 3 249 - 259 2016年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Theory suggests that biodiversity might help sustain multiple ecosystem functions. To evaluate possible biodiversity-multifunctionality relationships in a natural setting, we considered different spatial scales of diversity metrics for soil fungi in the northern forests of Japan. We found that multifunctionality increased with increasing local species richness, suggesting a limited degree of multifunctional redundancy. This diversity-multifunctionality relationship was independent of the compositional uniqueness of each community. However, we still found the importance of community composition, because there was a positive correlation between community dissimilarity and multifunctional dissimilarity across the landscape. This result suggests that functional redundancy can further decrease when spatial variations in identities of both species and functions are simultaneously considered at larger spatial scales. We speculate that different scales of diversity could provide multiple levels of insurance against the loss of functioning if high-levels of local species diversity and compositional variation across locations are both maintained. Alternatively, making species assemblages depauperate may result in the loss of multifunctionality.
  • 初冬期に北海道北部の河川水中で発見された大量の陸棲ミミズ: 一斉移動への示唆.
    小林真, 南谷幸雄, 竹内史郎, 奥田篤志, 金子信博
    Edaphologia 97 37 - 40 2015年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Masayuki Ushio, Kobayashi Makoto, Jonatan Klaminder, Hiroyuki Takasu, Shin-ichi Nakano
    SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY 76 53 - 56 2014年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    In the present study, we perform the first direct analysis on how the composition of the prokaryotic soil community differs depending on whether high-throughput sequencing or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) is used. Soil samples were collected along short (<3 m) tundra vegetation gradients from Northern Sweden. Relative abundances of Acid-obacteria and Bacteroidetes estimated by the high-throughput sequencing were higher than those estimated by CARD-FISH, while relative abundances of Archaea and alpha-Proteobacteria estimated by high-throughput sequencing were lower than those estimated by CARD-FISH. The results indicated that the high-throughput sequencing overestimates/underestimates the relative abundance of some microbial taxa if we assume that CARD-FISH can provide potentially more quantitative data. Great caution should be taken when interpreting data generated by molecular technologies (both of high-throughput sequencing and CARD-FISH), and supports by multiple approaches are necessary to make a robust conclusion. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kobayashi Makoto
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 29 4 511 - 515 2014年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Kobayashi Makoto
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 29 4 517 - 527 2014年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    It is essential that scientists be able to predict how strong climate warming, including profound changes to winter climate, will affect the ecosystem services of alpine, arctic and boreal areas, and how these services are driven by vegetation-soil feedbacks. One fruitful avenue for studying such changing feedbacks is through plant functional traits, as an understanding of these traits may help us to understand and synthesise (1) responses of vegetation (through 'response traits' and 'specific response functions' of each species) to winter climate and (2) the effects of changing vegetation composition (through 'effect traits' and 'specific effect functions' of each species) on soil functions. It is the relative correspondence of variation in response and effect traits that will provide useful data on the impacts of winter climate change on carbon and nutrient cycling processes. Here we discuss several examples of how the trait-based, response-effect framework can help scientists to better understand the effects of winter warming on key ecosystem functions in cold biomes. These examples support the view that measuring species for their response and effect traits, and how these traits are linked across species through correspondence of variation in specific response and effects functions, may be a useful approach for teasing out the contribution of changing vegetation composition to winter warming effects on ecosystem functions. This approach will be particularly useful when linked with ecosystem-level measurements of vegetation and process responses to winter warming along natural gradients, over medium time scales in given sites or in response to experimental climate manipulations.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Takuya Kajimoto, Lina Koyama, Gaku Kudo, Hideaki Shibata, Yosuke Yanai, J. H. C. Cornelissen
    ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 29 4 593 - 606 2014年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The winter climate is changing in many parts of the world, and it is predicted that winter climate change will modify the structure and function of plant-soil systems. An understanding of these changes and their consequences in terrestrial ecosystems requires knowledge of the linkage between above- and below-ground components as well as the species interactions found in plant-soil systems, which have important implications for biogeochemical cycles. However, winter climate-change studies have focused on only a part of the ecosystem or ecological process. We summarize here recent findings related to the effects of winter climate and its changes on soil nitrogen (N) dynamics, greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions from the soil, N use by individual plants, vegetation development, and interactions between vegetation and pollinators to generate an integrative understanding of the response of the plant-soil system to winter climate change. This review indicates that the net effects on plants, soil microbes, pollinators, and the associated biogeochemical cycles are balanced among several processes and are highly variable depending on the context, such as the target species/functional group, original winter condition of the habitat, and type of climate change. The consequences of winter climate change for species interactions among plants, associated animals, and biogeochemical cycles are largely unknown. For further research, a large-scale comparative study to measure ecosystem-level functions is important, especially in less-cold ecosystems.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Miwa Arai, Nobuhiro Kaneko
    SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY 72 19 - 25 2014年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Although the direct effects of global warming on carbon and nutrient cycling between vegetation and soil have received much research attention, little is known about the indirect effects that occur through trophic interactions. The combined effects of air warming (+3.3 degrees C) and millipedes on plant soil nitrogen cycling and the millipede species dependency of the warming effects were assessed for two millipede species in a laboratory microcosm experiment. Warming accelerated cast production derived both from leaf litter and also probably soil, by millipedes, which resulted in an increase in inorganic nitrogen in the soil. However, the changes in millipede feeding and cast production due to warming did not have any significant effects on plant properties. Furthermore, the effects of warming on the cast production by millipedes and coincidental changes in soil inorganic nitrogen were similar for both of the evaluated millipede species. Interestingly, however, warming altered the way of food consumption differently for the two species: litter consumption by Parafontaria tonominea was increased, whereas that by Parafontaria laminata decreased under the warmer regime. Such species-specific consequences of warming on food consumption may cause a change in the structure and function of the organic horizon and surface soil. To predict the consequences of a warming climate on plant-soil nutrient feedback via millipedes, it is suggested that attention should be given to the relationship between behavioral traits, such as species-specific feeing behavior and environmental changes. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • QiaoZhi Mao, Makoto Watanabe, Kobayashi Makoto, Kazuhito Kita, Takayoshi Koike
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 10 1 1 - 8 2014年01月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    A recently developed hybrid larch F-1 (F-1: Larix gmelinii var. japonica x L. kaempferi) is being planted widely in re- and afforestation projects in northeast Asia. Nitrogen (N) deposition to forest ecosystems has been rapidly increasing in this region, due mainly to industrialization and overuse of N fertilizer. Together with excess N, phosphorus (P) is considered to be the key determinant of tree growth in northeast Asia, because most soils have originated from immature volcanic ash. To predict the response of the F-1 to increasing N deposition and its relation with soil P availability related to immature volcanic ash soil in northern Japan, planting stocks of F-1 were grown in potted brown forest soil and categorised into eight treatments, comprising four N treatments covering the amount of N deposition observed and predicted in northeast Asia in combination with two P levels. N application increased the biomass and the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (A (sat)) of the F-1 at all concentrations. Despite expectations, P did not have any effect on these parameters. As N application increased the content of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and chlorophyll (Chl) in needles, a positive correlation was found between the content of N, K, P and A (sat). These results suggest that N deposition improves the growth of the hybrid larch F-1 at least by improving the needle N condition, as well as the concentration of other macronutrients in the initial stage of plantation.
  • Masayuki Ushio, Kobayashi Makoto, Jonatan Klaminder, Shin-Ichi Nakano
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 64 147 - 154 2013年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The size and composition of soil microbial communities have important influences on terrestrial ecosystem processes such as soil decomposition. However, compared with studies of aboveground plant communities, there are relatively few studies on belowground microbial communities and their interactions with aboveground vegetations in the arctic region. In this study, we conducted the first investigation of the abundance and composition of prokaryotic communities along small-scale vegetation gradients (ca. 1-3m) in a dry arctic tundra ecosystem in Northern Sweden using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD). The number of prokaryotic cells increased with increasing vegetation cover along vegetation gradients, mainly as a function of increased amounts of soil carbon and moisture. Eubacteria and Archaea constituted approximately 59.7% and 33.4% of DAPI-positive cells, respectively. Among the analyzed bacterial phyla and sub-phyla, Acidobacteria and α-proteobacteria were the most dominant groups, constituting approximately 13.5% and 10.7% of DAPI-positive cells, respectively. Interestingly, the soil prokaryotic community composition was relatively unaffected by the dramatic changes in the aboveground vegetation community. Multivariate analyses suggested that the prokaryotic community composition depended on soil pH rather than on aboveground vegetation. Surface plants are weak predictors of the composition of the soil microbial community in the studied soil system and the size of the community is constrained by carbon and water availability. In addition, our study demonstrated that CARD-FISH, which is still a rarely-used technique in soil ecology, is effective for quantifying soil microbes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Hiroshi Tani, Naoto Kamata
    SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 28 6 581 - 585 2013年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Alaskan spruce forests are exposed to both fire and spruce beetles [Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)]. To understand the influence of spruce beetles on the process through which fire affects ecosystem function, we developed a reconstruction technique to measure prefire damage to trees caused by the spruce beetle. We validated our evaluation of prefire tree conditions using a high-resolution multispectral satellite image by comparing our results with a postfire ground survey. The prefire tree conditions determined by the two methods coincided well with each other. This result suggests that combining high-resolution multispectral imaging and postfire ground surveys of spruce beetles on snags is a powerful tool to determine the prefire condition of a forest in a changing boreal forest ecosystem.
  • Klaminder J, Giesler R, Makoto K
    SOIL BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY 57 922 - 924 2013年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • K. Makoto, J. Klaminder
    POLAR BIOLOGY 35 11 1659 - 1667 2012年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Non-sorted circles (NSCs), also known as frost boils, are common soil frost features that create a small-scale mosaic of vegetation zones in periglacial landscapes. The causes of variation in plant diversity within NSCs are poorly understood. This lack of understanding hampers our ability to predict how arctic plant communities respond to changing soil frost conditions. We hypothesised that plant communities of different ages develop at a micro-site scale within NSCs as soil frost periodically exposes uncolonised soil or fatally offsets plant succession. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the species diversity of plant communities (vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens) from the sparsely vegetated centre of the circles to the densely vegetated outer domain in conjunction with estimates of the age of the plant communities (inferred using lichenometry). Our results suggest that the variation in species diversity and density can largely be explained by the occurrence of progressively older plant communities from the centre towards the vegetated rim. Here, the high species diversity was observed to occur in communities having the ages approximately around 150 years. Our findings suggest that soil frost disturbances are important for maintaining successional gradients several centuries long within the arctic landscape at a small spatial scale (< 3 m). The termination of soil frost activity as a result of a warmer future winter climate is therefore most likely to result in a loss of micro-sites having young vegetation communities with high plant diversities and a subsequent establishment of mature shrub-dominated plant communities.
  • K. Makoto, H. Shibata, Y. S. Kim, T. Satomura, K. Takagi, M. Nomura, F. Satoh, T. Koike
    BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS 48 5 569 - 577 2012年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Ecological function of charcoal has been mainly investigated by adding charcoal to soil, which is not fully adequate to understand in situ the role in fire-prone forest ecosystem. To determine in situ effects of charcoal on ecosystem functions, such as nutrient availability, we conducted an experimental burning in a Japanese white birch forest with dense coverage of dwarf bamboo in the understory with or without removal of charcoal. Ammonium-N in the remaining humus layer increased immediately after the burning, but decreased to the level of unburnt plots within 1 month of the burning. Removal of charcoal had no significant effect on the NH4 (+)-N dynamics. Although burning did not affect NO3 (-)-N dynamics during the sampling period, charcoal removal led to a slight increase in NO3 (-)-N. The available P increased immediately after the burning, but then fell at 1 month after burning. Charcoal inhibited the available P depletion and prolonged the high availability of P. Greater availability of P might be due to the adsorption of phosphate in charcoal pores. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased gradually; charcoal appeared to extend the period of higher concentration of exchangeable Ca and Mg. Charcoal deriving from fire is a key factor in influencing available nutrient in the humus layer of post-fire forests.
  • E. Novriyanti, M. Watanabe, K. Makoto, T. Takeda, Y. Hashidoko, T. Koike
    PHOTOSYNTHETICA 50 2 273 - 281 2012年06月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    The ecophysiological traits of acacia and eucalypt are important in assessing their suitability for afforestation. We measured the gas-exchange rate, the leaf dry mass per area (LMA) and the leaf nitrogen content of two acacia and four eucalypt species. Relative to the eucalypts, the acacias had lower leaf net photosynthetic rate (P-N), lower photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), higher water-use efficiency (WUE), higher LMA and higher leaf nitrogen per unit area (N-area). No clear differences were observed within or between genera in the maximum rate of carboxylation (V-cmax) or the maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)), although these parameters tended to be higher in eucalypts. PNUE and LMA were negatively correlated. We conclude that acacias with higher LMA do not allocate nitrogen efficiently to photosynthetic system, explaining why their P-N and PNUE were lower than in eucalypts.
  • K. Makoto, N. Kamata, N. Kamibayashi, T. Koike, H. Tani
    SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 27 1 30 - 35 2012年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Alaskan boreal forests frequently suffer from outbreaks of bark beetles and fires, factors that appear to combine to alter charcoal production. Charcoal (black carbon) production in forest ecosystems is an important pathway to clarify for a more complete understanding of the effects of fire on carbon cycling in boreal forests. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of prevalent outbreaks of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), on charcoal production during forest fires in boreal forests. Snags with prefire damage by the spruce beetle (infested snags) have significantly more charcoal than those undamaged before fire (noninfested snags). This increased amount of charcoal in spruce beetle-damaged trees was probably the result of dried biomass in the canopies of these trees. The results of this study suggest that with changing environmental conditions, the proliferation of insect damage in the boreal forest can modify the effects of fire on carbon sink via a change in the amount of charcoal production.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Muneto Hirobe, Thomas H. DeLuca, Semyon V. Bryanin, Valentina F. Procopchuk, Takayoshi Koike
    JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS 11 8 1317 - 1322 2011年12月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Purpose Fire is a primary form of disturbance in boreal ecosystems. Charcoal is an important by-product of forest fire and has been reported to have the potential to influence the plant community establishing after fire. To date, however, no study has effectively tested the relationship between charcoal and plant regeneration in the actual post-fire forests. To determine the contribution of charcoal to soil properties and plant regeneration after forest fires, we conducted in situ investigations concerning the relationship between charcoal and the plant-soil system. Materials and methods We conducted a field investigation in a recently burnt Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii)/Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest in the Russian Far East to investigate charcoal contents, pH, water contents, and nutrient availability in soil together with the regeneration of larch and pine seedlings. Results and discussion Positive correlations were found between charcoal contents and soil pH, water contents, and available P contents. Additionally, charcoal contents and the number of pine seedlings were positively correlated. There was, however, no significant relationship between charcoal content and extractable NH(4) (+) content or the number of larch seedlings. These results suggest that while charcoal influences are somewhat obscure in the field, charcoal significantly contributes to the amelioration of water and nutrient availability together with the success of regeneration of pine seedling. Conclusions Charcoal produced during fire events in Gmelin larch and Scots pine forests of eastern Russia has a modest influence on soil properties, but has the potential to improve regeneration in these fire-prone ecosystems.
  • Yong Suk Kim, Kobayashi Makoto, Fumiaki Takakai, Hideaki Shibata, Takami Satomura, Kentaro Takagi, Ryusuke Hatano, Takayoshi Koike
    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH 130 6 1031 - 1044 2011年11月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Forest fires affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forest ecosystems, and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases (GHGs): carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). To determine changes in the soil GHG fluxes following a forest fire, we arranged a low-intensity surface fire in a white birch forest in northern Japan. We established three treatments, having four replications each: a control plot (CON), a burned plot (BURN), and a plot burned with removal of the resulting charcoal (BURN-CHA). Soil GHG fluxes and various properties of the soil were determined on four or five occasions during a period that spanned two growing seasons. We observed increased concentrations of ammonium-N (NH(4)-N) in BURN and BURN-CHA after the fire, while nitrate-N (NO(3)-N) concentration was only increased in BURN-CHA after the fire. The soil CO(2) flux was significantly higher in CON than in BURN or BURN-CHA, but there was no difference in soil CH(4) uptake between the three treatments. Moreover, the N(2)O flux from BURN-CHA soil was slightly greater than in CON or BURN. In BURN-CHA, the soil N(2)O flux peaked in August, but there was no peak in BURN. We found temporal correlations between soil GHG fluxes and soil variables, e.g. soil temperature or NO(3)-N. Our results suggest that environmental changes following fire, including the increased availability of N and the disappearance of the litter layer, have the potential to change soil GHG fluxes. Fire-produced charcoal could be significant in reducing soil N(2)O flux in temperate forests.
  • Kobayashi Makoto, Dongsu Choi, Yasuyuki Hashidoko, Takayoshi Koike
    BIOLOGY AND FERTILITY OF SOILS 47 4 467 - 472 2011年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Fires burn forest with spatially heterogeneous intensity and charcoals generated at various temperatures during fires exhibit variable physical and chemical characteristics. These variable properties of charcoal may, in turn, influence germination and growth of tree seedlings. To examine the effects of different charcoal properties on the growth of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii) seedlings, we conducted an experiment with larch-branch-derived charcoals produced at 400A degrees C (low charcoal) and 800A degrees C (high charcoal); charcoal was combined with sand at three different rates (5%, 20% and 50%, v/v charcoal in sand). The high charcoal had no significant effects on any measured property while the low charcoal application stimulated growth and the effect increased with the addition rate. The low charcoal application resulted in the greater available P content, a lower N/P in needles and the greater growth of seedlings than high charcoal application. The growth of seedlings was not affected by the application of the high charcoal at any rate probably because the high charcoal inhibited the seedling growth due to its high pH. These results indicate that charcoal produced at different temperatures during forest fires can affect the growth of Gmelin larch seedlings differently.
  • 小林真
    大気環境学会誌 46 4 217 - 223 2011年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • K. Makoto, Y. Tamai, Y. S. Kim, T. Koike
    PLANT AND SOIL 327 1-2 143 - 152 2010年02月 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
    Charcoal produced by fire on the soil surface mixes into the soil over time and is heterogeneously distributed within the soil profile in post-fire forests. To determine how different patterns of vertical distribution of charcoal and ectomycorrhizal formation affect the growth of Larix gmelinii (Gmelin larch) in post-fire forests, we conducted a model experiment in the pots. In this study, pots with a layer of charcoal in the middle of the soil profile promoted growth of the root system of the seedlings significantly more than did pots with no charcoal or with charcoal scattered throughout the soil. Along with the development of the root system, above-ground biomass and total biomass were also increased. Furthermore, in addition to the positive effects of charcoal in the soil, there were also strong positive effects on the growth of seedlings from ectomycorrhizal root formation. As a result, the largest above-ground biomass and total biomass were found for seedlings grown in layered charcoal with ectomycorrhizae. Furthermore, the highest phosphorus concentration in needles was also found for seedlings grown in layered charcoal with ectomycorrhizae. This is attributable to the frequent contact of roots with charcoal in the middle layer of the soil and the utilisation of phosphate by ectomycorrhizae. This suggests that buried and layered charcoal occurring in patches in post-fire stands may provide a suitable habitat for the growth of Gmelin larch seedlings.
  • L. Y. Qu, S. Kitaoka, K. Makoto, M. Kuromaru, M. Osaki, K. Sasa, H. Utsugi, T. Koike
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 5 2 115 - 123 2009年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We studied the effects of soil temperature (7, 15, and 25A degrees C) on the growth and photosynthesis of seedlings of the Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) and its hybrid larch (L. gmelinii x L. kaempferi) to simulate early stages of regeneration after disturbance. At a soil temperature of 7A degrees C, the root length per unit root biomass, chlorophyll concentration, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) were markedly lower in the Japanese larch than in the hybrid larch, which may indicate that the hybrid larch is better at acquiring water and nutrients. At ambient temperatures of 17-25A degrees C, the light-saturated photosynthesis rate (P (sat)) of both seedlings grown at a soil temperature of 7A degrees C was lower than at 15 or 25A degrees C. By the 16th week, the needle area, root area, and biomass in seedlings of both types were lower at a soil temperature of 7A degrees C than at soil temperatures of 15 or 25A degrees C. At a soil temperature of 25A degrees C, P (sat) and nitrogen uptake were lower in both larch species than at 15A degrees C. The growth of the Japanese larch declined sharply from 15 to 25A degrees C; however, the growth of the hybrid larch decreased only slightly from 15 to 25A degrees C. We conclude that an increased soil temperature may retard larch growth in cold regions, especially in the case of the Japanese larch.
  • Dongsu Choi, Kobayashi Makoto, Ali M. Quoreshi, Laiye Qu
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 5 2 107 - 113 2009年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We investigated the effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization, charcoal and CO2 levels on the germination of seeds of Larix kaempferi and Pinus densiflora, and also their subsequent physiological activity and growth. The seeds were sown in brown forest soil or brown forest soil mixed with charcoal, at ambient CO2 (360 mu mol mol(-1)) or elevated CO2 (720 mu mol mol(-1)), with or without ectomycorrhiza. The proportions of both conifer seeds that germinated in forest soil mixed with charcoal were significantly greater than for seeds sown in forest soil grown at each CO2 level (P < 0.05; t-test). However, the ectomycorrhizal colonization rate of each species grown in brown forest soil mixed with charcoal was significantly lower than in forest soil at each CO2 treatment [CO2] (P < 0.01; t-test). The phosphorus concentrations in needles of each seedling colonized with ectomycorrhiza and grown in forest soil were greater than in nonectomycorrhizal seedlings at each CO2 level, especially for L. kaempferi seedlings (P < 0.05; t-test), but the concentrations in seedlings grown in brown forest soil mixed with charcoal were not increased at any CO2 level. Moreover, the maximum net photosynthetic rate of each seedling for light and CO2 saturation (P (max)) increased when the seedlings were grown with ectomycorrhiza at 720 mu mol mol(-1) [CO2]. Ectomycorrhizal colonization led to an increase in the stem diameter of each species grown in each soil treatment at each CO2 level. However, charcoal slowed the initial growth of both species of seedling, constraining ectomycorrhizal development. These results indicate that charcoal strongly assists seed germination and physiological activity.
  • Masazumi Kayama, Kobayashi Makoto, Mutsumi Nomura, Fuyuki Satoh, Takayoshi Koike
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 5 2 125 - 135 2009年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) grows at a relatively high rate in northern Japan, even in serpentine soil. Serpentine soil has high concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cr), excessive Mg, and is nutrient deficient. These factors often suppress plant growth. We examined the mechanisms of Japanese larch's tolerance to serpentine soil. We compared growth, photosynthetic capacity, and concentrations of elements in needles and roots between larch seedlings growing in serpentine soil and in nonserpentine (i.e., brown forest) soil. Dry mass of needles, stems, and branches were lower in seedlings grown on serpentine soil than in those grown on brown forest soil. There were lower concentrations of phosphorus and potassium in seedlings grown on serpentine soil than in those grown on brown forest soil. Seedlings growing on serpentine soil had lower Ni in plant organs. Our results suggest that larch seedlings grown on serpentine soil were able to exclude toxic elements. Moreover, the photosynthetic capacity and nitrogen concentration in needles was almost the same for seedlings grown in the two soil types. A wide range in growth was observed among individuals grown on both soil types. This may be regulated by nitrogen storage in the roots.
  • Yong-Suk Kim, Myong-Jong Yi, Yoon-Young Lee, Makoto Kobayashi, Yowhan Son
    LANDSCAPE AND ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 5 2 157 - 166 2009年07月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Alder is a typical species used for forest rehabilitation after disturbances because of its N-2-fixing activities through microbes. To investigate forest dynamics of the carbon budget, we determined the aboveground and soil carbon content, carbon input by litterfall to belowground, and soil CO2 efflux over 2 years in 38-year-old alder plantations in central Korea. The estimated aboveground carbon storage and increment were 47.39 Mg C ha(-1) and 2.17 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Carbon storage in the organic layer and in mineral soil in the topsoil to 30 cm depth were, respectively, 3.21 and 66.85 Mg C ha(-1). Annual carbon input by leaves and total litter in the study stand were, respectively, 1.78 and 2.68 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The aboveground carbon increment at this stand was similar to the annual carbon inputs by total litterfall. The diurnal pattern of soil CO2 efflux was significantly different in May, August, and October, typically varying approximately twofold throughout the course of a day. In the seasonally observed pattern, soil CO2 efflux varied strongly with soil temperature; increasing trends were evident during the early growing season, with sustained high rates from mid May through late October. Soil CO2 efflux was related exponentially to soil temperature (R (2) = 0.85, P < 0.0001), but not to soil water content. The Q (10) value for this plantation was 3.8, and annual soil respiration was estimated at 10.2 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1).
  • Masazumi Kayama, Kobayashi Makoto, Mutsumi Nomura, Kaichiro Sasa, Takayoshi Koike
    TREES-STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 23 1 145 - 157 2009年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Sakhalin spruce (Picea glehnii), a native species typically found in northern Japan, has been used in reforestation on hillsides exposed to strong winds. In the reforestation areas, there are south-facing (S-slope) and northwest-facing slopes (NW-slope). Climatic conditions are contrasting between the two slopes, with shallower snow cover on the S-slopes. We compared growth responses of the spruce to micro-environment between the S- and NW-slopes through soil nutrients, needle longevity, water status, photosynthesis, and nutrients in the needles. These parameters were measured in needles exposed above the snow in winter and in lower needles protected by snow cover. High-position needles suffered from drought stress, especially in winter, and needles were shed early in the year on both slopes. Low-position needles did not suffer from drought stress, and maintained a high photosynthetic rate on both slopes. However, needle longevity was reduced on the S-slope, and concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the needles decreased with needle age. Soil nutrient concentrations were low on the S-slope, which suggests that the needles on the S-slope may remobilize nutrients from aged needles to younger needles prior to shedding. This characteristic is probably an adaptation in Sakhalin spruce to poor soil conditions.
  • K. Makoto, T. Koike
    PHOTOSYNTHETICA 45 1 99 - 104 2007年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    We investigated the responses of photon-saturated photosynthesis rate (P-sat) and its simultaneous acclimation of anatomy and nitrogen use patterns of current needles of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seedlings grown under factorial combinations of two nitrogen levels and irradiances. Although N supply resulted in a significant increase of N content in needles under both irradiances, the increase of P-sat tended to be suppressed only in shade (S). The significant increase of P-sat in full sunlight (0) was associated with the increase of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCO) and chlorophyll (Chl) contents. In contrast, small increase of Chl content and no increase of RuBPCO content were found in S (90 % cut of full irradiance), which would result in a small increase Of P-sat. This result suggests that extra N is stocked in needles under shade for the growth in next season. With N supply, a significant decrease of specific leaf area (SLA) was detected only in O. This decrease of SLA was due to the increase of density of needle. Furthermore, the increase of needle density was not due to the increased number and size of mesophyll cells, but the increased density of each mesophyll cell. Therefore, although SLA changed in O, the change did not involve anatomical adaptation to use increased N effectively, at least observable by light microscopy. Hence, even though the SLA would change, N deposition will improve the photosynthetic capacity of Korean pine seedlings, not through the development of needle anatomy but through improvement of the allocation of N in both irradiances.

書籍

  • 森の根の生態学
    平野, 恭弘, 野口, 享太郎, 大橋, 瑞江 (範囲:2.3 根の季節動態 / 4.2 温度上昇に対する樹木根の応答)
    2020年12月
  • 小池, 孝良, 北尾, 光俊, 市栄, 智明, 渡辺, 誠(農学) (範囲:10.3 樹木と土壌動物の関係 / コラム11.3 山火事と落葉のかたち)
    共立出版 2020年11月 (ISBN: 9784320058125) xvi, 235p, 図版 [8] p
  • 生態系生態学(第2版)
    小林真 (担当:共訳範囲:第11章 生態系プロセスへの種の影響)
    森北出版株式会社. 2018年08月
  • 生物学者、地球を行く
    小林真, 工藤岳 (担当:共編者(共編著者))
    文一総合出版 2018年03月
  • 北海道の森林
    小林真 (担当:共著範囲:木炭の利用)
    北海道新聞出版部 2011年12月
  • Permafrost Ecosystems: Siberian Larch Forests
    Qu, L, Makoto, K, Choi, D.S, Quoreshi, A.M, Koike T (担当:共著範囲:The role of ectomycorrhiza in boreal forest ecosystem)
    Springer 2010年
  • 北の森づくりQ&A
    小林真 (担当:共著範囲:山火事の功罪は?)
    北方林業会 2009年

その他活動・業績

  • Kobayashi Makoto, Elizaveta Susloparova, Ikutaro Tsuyama, Takuya Shimase, Satoshi Nakaba, Naoki Takahashi, Toshiya Yoshida JOURNAL OF WOOD SCIENCE 67 (1) 2021年12月
  • マッドボイルの植生が語ること
    小林真 極地 57 42 -46 2021年 [査読有り][招待有り]
  • 山火事でつくられる炭の自然界での役割
    小林真 グリーンエイジ 591 9 -12 2020年 [査読無し][招待有り]
  • 和歌山県固有植物キイシモツケの蛇紋岩土壌への適応と分子系統学によるイワシモツケおよびトサシモツケとの比較
    明渡絵里朱, 平田智子, 上井和幸, 髙木祐子, 水野隆文, 水野直治, 小林真, 小池孝良, 大和勝幸, 秋田求, 泉井桂 近畿大学先端技術総合研究所紀要 21 33 -47 2016年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 冬の温暖化と北国の森
    小林真 森林科学 50 50 -51 2014年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 窒素負荷に対するグイマツ雑種F1幼木の生理生態学的応答は立地環境により異なるか?—リンの利用可能量に注目して—
    小林真, 毛 巧芝, 渡辺誠, 来田和人, 小池孝良 森林遺伝育種 2 149 -153 2013年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • バイオ炭の効能
    小林真 森林技術 383 238 2011年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 土壌中の放射性セシウムを木炭・竹炭で浄化する
    小林真 森林技術 385 23 -27 2011年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 佐藤香織, 小林真, 斎藤秀之, 澁谷正人, 小池孝良 日本森林学会大会学術講演集(CD−ROM) 121st ROMBUNNO.PA2-16 2010年04月02日 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • Allometric relationships and carbon and nitrogen contents for three major tree species (Quercus crispula, Betula ermanii, and Abies sachalinensis) in northern Hokkaido, Japan
    Takagi, K, Kotsuka, C, Fukuzawa, K, Kayama, M, Makoto, K, Nomura, M, Fukazawa, T, Takahashi, H, Hoyo, H, Ashiya, D, Naniwa, A, Sugata, S, Kamiura, T, Sugishita, Y, Sakai, R, Ito, K, Kobayashi, M, Maebayashi, M, Mizuno, M, Murayama, T, Kinoshita, K, Fujiwara, D, Hashida, S, Shibata, H, Yoshida, T, Sasa, K, Saigusa, N, Fujinuma, Y, Akibayashi, Y Eurasian Journal of Forest Research 13 1 -7 2010年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • The structure and biodiversity after fire disturbance in Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr forests, Northern Asia
    Zyryanova, O.A, Yaborov, V.T, Tchikhacheva, T.L, Koike, T, Makoto, K, Matsuura, Y, Satoh, F, Zryanov, V Eurasian Journal of Forest Research 10 19 -29 2007年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • Regeneration after forest fires in mixed conifer broad-leaved forests of the Amur region of Far Eastern Russia: the relationship between species specific traits against fire and recent fire regimes
    Makoto, K, Nemilostiv, Y.P, Zyryanova, O.A, Kajimoto, T, Matsuura, Y, Yoshida, T, Satoh, F, Sasa, K, Koike T Eurasian Journal of Forest Research 10 51 -58 2007年 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 小林 真, Zyranova O.A, Yaborov V.T, Nemilostiv Y.P, Masyagina O.V, 鷹西 俊和, 上浦 達哉, 吉田 俊也, 佐藤 冬樹, 笹 賀一郎, 小池 孝良 日本森林学会大会発表データベース 117 (0) 627 -627 2006年 [査読無し][通常論文]

受賞

  • 2018年03月 日本森林学会 奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 小林真
  • 2018年03月 日本生態学会 宮地賞
     
    受賞者: 小林真
  • 2016年11月 信州山の環境研究センター 信州フィールド科学賞
     
    受賞者: 小林真
  • 2011年03月 日本森林学会 学生奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 小林真

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • 山腹崩壊後の植生遷移の制限要因の解明と多様な窒素固定植物による植林技術の開発
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助(基盤B)
    研究期間 : 2019年04月 -2024年04月 
    代表者 : 小林真
  • 生物群集における共進化過程に着目した生態系復元の実証研究
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 (基盤B)
    研究期間 : 2019年04月 -2024年03月 
    代表者 : 内海俊介
  • 病虫害による大量枯死が森林生態系のCO2放出におよぼす影響の解明
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助(基盤B)
    研究期間 : 2017年04月 -2022年03月 
    代表者 : 深澤遊
  • 衛星観測データの解析技術等を活用したロシア極東における総合的かつ持続可能な森林情報システムの開発
    農林水産省:国際共同研究パイロット事業
    研究期間 : 2017年 -2019年 
    代表者 : 松浦陽次郎
  • 寒冷環境における樹木の地上部—地下部の物質の伝達
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 挑戦的萌芽研究
    研究期間 : 2016年04月 -2018年03月 
    代表者 : 高木健太郎
  • The differential influence of nutrient availability along two arctic successional gradients
    Umeå University, Climate Impact Research Center:CIRC platform
    研究期間 : 2017年07月 
    代表者 : 小林真
  • 雪解けの早まりが土壌動物を介して樹木に及ぼす影響
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 (若手B)
    研究期間 : 2015年04月 -2017年03月 
    代表者 : 小林真
  • 緯度の異なるN2O放出ホットスポットでの窒素循環要因の探査と環境修復生物資源調査
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 (基盤研究B, 海外学術)
    研究期間 : 2014年04月 -2017年03月 
    代表者 : 橋床泰之
  • 雪解けの早まりが森林の純一次生産および生物多様性に及ぼす影響の包括的解明
    旭硝子財団:学術助成金 近藤記念グラント
    研究期間 : 2014年04月 -2017年03月 
    代表者 : 小林真
  • ミミズの腸内細菌活性に注目した土壌改良指針の提案
    栗林育英財団助成金:助成金
    研究期間 : 2016年 -2017年 
    代表者 : 小林真
  • 水生生物がアミノ酸を飲む -見落とされていた窒素循環プロセスの解明-
    文部科学省:科学研究費補助金 挑戦的萌芽研究
    研究期間 : 2014年04月 -2015年03月 
    代表者 : 岸田治
  • 窒素を介した樹木-土壌のつながりが温度上昇によって受ける影響
    文部科学省:特別研究員研究奨励陽(PD)
    研究期間 : 2012年04月 -2014年06月 
    代表者 : 小林真
  • 極東ロシア高山生態系における地球温暖化の影響評価とモニタリング
    平和島財団:研究助成金
    研究期間 : 2012年 
    代表者 : 和田直也
  • 森林火災が森林土壌の炭素動態へ及ぼす影響
    日本林業技術協会:学術研究奨励金
    研究期間 : 2009年04月 -2010年03月 
    代表者 : 里村多香美
  • 変動環境下における炭-微生物関係を利用した緑化技術の高度化に関する研究
    文部科学省:特別研究員奨励費 (DC1)
    研究期間 : 2007年04月 -2010年03月 
    代表者 : 小林真
  • 山火事の発生が炭の生成を通じて北方林の物質循環へ与える影響の解明
    アサヒビール学術振興財団:研究助成金
    研究期間 : 2010年 
    代表者 : 小林真

教育活動情報

主要な担当授業

  • 大学院共通授業科目(一般科目):自然科学・応用科学
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 大学院共通科目
    キーワード : 生態学、北方生態系、北海道、植物、動物、昆虫、魚類、森林、山岳、ツンドラ、沿岸、河川、湿原、相互作用、外来種、野生作物、気候変動 ecology, northern ecosystem, Hokkaido, plants, animals, insects, fishes, forest, mountain, tundra, seacoast, river, wetland, interaction, invasive species, field crop, climate change
  • 北方生態系の生物多様性基礎論
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 環境科学院
    キーワード : 生態学、北方生態系、北海道、植物、動物、昆虫、魚類、森林、山岳、ツンドラ、沿岸、河川、湿原、相互作用、外来種、野生作物、気候変動 ecology, northern ecosystem, Hokkaido, plants, animals, insects, fishes, forest, mountain, tundra, seacoast, river, wetland, interaction, invasive species, field crop, climate change
  • 森林圏科学特論Ⅳ
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 修士課程
    開講学部 : 環境科学院
    キーワード : 地域資源、地域資源管理、森林管理、森林資源の多様な利用、リモートセンシング regional resources, regional resource management, forest management, diverse use of forest resources, remote-sensing
  • 森林動態実習
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 森林動態、攪乱、樹木、更新、森林再生
  • 森林空間機能学
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 森林、環境保全機能、生物多様性保全、野生生物保全、土地利用、流域保全、森林利用
  • 森林空間機能学演習
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 農学部
    キーワード : 森林の種類と分布、森林空間、環境保全機能、森林保全、資料作成方法、発表方法、ディスカッション
  • 一般教育演習(フレッシュマンセミナー)
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : 生態学、観察実験、進化、食う―食われる関係、温暖化、リモートセンシング、樹木、両生類、昆虫、土壌、グループワーク
  • 一般教育演習(フレッシュマンセミナー)
    開講年度 : 2021年
    課程区分 : 学士課程
    開講学部 : 全学教育
    キーワード : フィールド、体験型、環境科学、自然、産業

大学運営

委員歴

  • 2021年12月 - 現在   日本生態学会   代議員
  • 2016年04月 - 現在   Ecological Research誌   Editorial board
  • 2018年04月 - 2020年05月   Edaphologia誌   Editorial board
  • 2017年01月 - 2018年03月   日本生態学会   大会実行員
  • 2016年04月 - 2017年03月   Journal of Forest Research誌   Editorial board


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