研究者データベース

平 輝(ピン フイ)
工学研究院 建築都市空間デザイン部門 空間計画分野
助教

基本情報

所属

  • 工学研究院 建築都市空間デザイン部門 空間計画分野

職名

    助教

学位

  • 博士(工学) (東京工業大学)

メールアドレス

    eメール:    ph.pinghui@gmail.com

研究活動情報

その他活動・業績

  • 平 輝, 安田 幸一 日本建築学会計画系論文集 83 (750) 1415 -1424 2018年08月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 平 輝, 傅 藝 博, 安田 幸一 日本建築学会計画系論文集 82 (736) 1425 -1433 2017年 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
     Introduction:
     University campuses started to be built since the late 19th century in China, strongly influenced by the Beaux-Arts planning style, characterized by monumental buildings with strong axis and enclosed open space with regular shape. Such space became the spatial prototype in Chinese universities. Meanwhile, influenced by the traditional Chinese cultural elements such as Feng Shui and the image of Chinese Garden, it is very common to find rivers, ponds or mountains within campuses located in natural environments, creating distinctive campus spaces. Also, with great changes of the Chinese society, not only the educational system but also the campus environment has experienced a lot of changes. The rapid urbanization has transformed the fringe area into urban context around campuses, affecting campus spaces indirectly. Under such cultural and social background, this study aims to clarify the spatial characteristics and transformation of open spaces related to the site environment in universities in China.

     Methods:
     Open spaces faced by main buildings and enclosed by buildings or environmental elements on at least two sides are extracted as "campus open spaces (COS)" from 54 campuses built before 1949. The formation of COS is divided into four phases according to the Chinese historical background in China. By analyzing and categorizing the shape, number, arrangement of COS, and the environmental elements related to COS in each phase, 6 spatial composition patterns are found. Moreover, Composition of plan and environmental elements, distribution of cases by patterns and phases, inclination of change in each phase, and typical transformation were examined.

     Results:
     1) Under the influence of Beaux-Arts planning style, single regular-shaped COS were common in the early phase. However, many of them developed in an interrupted way afterwards, thus plural irregular-shaped COS became the majority today.
     2) Influenced by the traditional Chinese culture, many university campuses are located in the natural environments including mountains or bodies of water from the beginning. Most COS were also created relating to such natural elements. In the early phase, COS usually adopted only urban or natural elements, while in the background of the rapid urbanization in China, many COS were developed to combine the natural and urban environment.
     3) During the foundation phase of Chinese universities, most COS were created following the regular spatial prototype planned in Beaux-Arts style, in a relatively pure environment (Phase I). Immediately after the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, with the reorganization of universities, new COS units appeared in many campuses, representing the new era (Phase II). After 1978, more and more COS related to the urban road were created under the background of rapid urbanization (Phase III). And since 1999, with the increasing number of university students, most campuses keep developing in a urban-nature-combined environment (Phase IV).

     Conclusions:
     This study has clarified that the transformation of open spaces in universities in China, is related to the Chinese cultural and social background, and also the site environment. Under the same cultural and social background, the transformation of open spaces shares common characteristics in each phase, while according to different site environments, open spaces formed and developed in various ways, present distinctive spatial characteristics.
  • 平 輝, 安田 幸一 日本建築学会計画系論文集 82 (740) 2531 -2540 2017年 [査読無し][通常論文]
     
     Introduction:
     University campuses started to be built since the late 19th century in China, strongly influenced by the Beaux-Arts planning style, characterized by monumental buildings with strong axis and enclosed open space. Such open spaces become representive spaces in the uiniversities, and building elevations facing to the space create the scenery of universities by forming a continuous panorama. Meanwhile, campus constructions in each stage are greatly influenced by the distinctive cultural and social background in China. For example, in the foundation phase of Chinese universities, the collision and blend between Chinese and Western culture were experienced. However, nowadays with the rapid growth of student numbers and the rethink of the university tradition, new time issues are raised. Under such historical background, this study aims to clarify the characteristics of scenery formed by the elevation and arragement of buildings surrounding open spaces in universities in China.

     Methods:
     Open spaces faced by main buildings and enclosed by buildings or urban roads on at least two sides are extracted as "campus open spaces (COS)" from 54 campuses built before 1949, and elevations facing to COS are extracted as scenery forming elements. Based on such definitions, 54 groups of buildings, 183 main buildings and 996 building elevations are found.
     Firstly, by dividing the construction year of buildings into four phases according to the Chinese historical background, phases of buildings and building distribution in COS were examined as a brief overview.
     Secondly, in order to discuss the characteristics of building appearances, style and color of buildings were examined and compared in each campus.
     Thirdly, in order to discuss how tbuildings and open spaces are integrated, and how main buildings are emphasized, arrangement and volume comparison of buildings were examined.
     Fourthly, based on the results above, 12 scenery patterns categorized by the combination of comparison of building style and color, and the arrangement of buildings were discussed. Characteristics of each pattern, distribution of cases, relations and inclination of patterns were examined.

     Results:
     1) By the campus construction over the years, not only buildings but also main buildings facing the COS were built in various phases.
     2) Most buildings built in Phase I are in traditional Chinese/Western styles with corresponding materials in specific colors, and such stylish characteristics continued to be utilized in buildings built afterwards. In the comparison of building stlye and color, cases that are "partly similar" or "similar in majority" are similar only in color, and cases "almost similar" are in the same style and color.
     3) A multi-center arrangement can be observed in many campuses, where multiple axes formed by different main buildings have integrated different groups of buildings. Main buildings built after Phase II became in larger scale, emphasized by the standing-out volume.
     4) Harmony of building appearance and integration of building arrangement are both considered in the formation of campus scenery in about half of the cases. However, because of the overlying constructions in different phases, some campuses have maintained either harmonious appearance or integrated arrangement. Some even developed in a disorder way and buildings reflect different features of the time.

     Conclusions:
     This study has clarified that the characteristics of scenery formed by buildings surrounding open spaces in universities in China are related to the similarities of elevation appearance and the order of building arrangement. Under the Chinese cultural and social background, campus sceneries formed by these buildings reflect both the tradition of each university and trends of the time so that they contain various characteristics.
  • 平 輝, 傅 藝博, 安田 幸一 日本建築学会計画系論文集 82 (736) 1425 -1433 2017年06月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 藤原 紀沙, 佐藤 芙紀, 安田 幸一, 村田 涼, 川島 範久, 内藤 誠人, 平 輝, 唐木 研介 学術講演梗概集 2015 (0) 433 -434 2015年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 佐藤 芙紀, 藤原 紀沙, 安田 幸一, 村田 涼, 川島 範久, 内藤 誠人, 平 輝, 唐木 研介 学術講演梗概集 2015 (0) 435 -436 2015年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 西 慶三, 安田 幸一, 川島 範久, 伊藤 拓也, 早坂 駿, 内藤 誠人, 藤原 紀沙, 平 輝 学術講演梗概集 2015 (0) 437 -438 2015年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 岩田 翔太, 安田 幸一, 川島 範久, 児玉 理文, 内藤 誠人, 松島 潤平, 平 輝, 藤原 紀沙 学術講演梗概集 2015 (0) 807 -808 2015年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 伊藤 拓也, 内藤 誠人, 村田 涼, 飯塚 麻人, 平 輝, 藤原 紀沙, 松島 潤平, 安田 幸一 学術講演梗概集 2014 (0) 227 -228 2014年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 久保 順司, 村田 涼, 松島 潤平, 平 輝, 安田 幸一, 内藤 誠人, 藤原 紀沙, 佐藤 芙紀 学術講演梗概集 2014 (0) 365 -366 2014年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 正田 智樹, 松島 潤平, 安田 幸一, 藤原 紀沙, 村田 涼, 平 輝, 内藤 誠人, 萱野 貴大 学術講演梗概集 2014 (0) 415 -416 2014年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 高橋 なつみ, 平 輝, 村田 涼, 内藤 誠人, 松島 潤平, 藤原 紀沙, 安田 幸一 学術講演梗概集 2014 (0) 1009 -1010 2014年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]
  • 平 輝, 高橋 なつみ, 村田 涼, 内藤 誠人, 松島 潤平, 藤原 紀沙, 安田 幸一 学術講演梗概集 2014 (0) 1011 -1012 2014年09月 [査読無し][通常論文]


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