研究者データベース

前川 直也(マエカワ ナオヤ)
獣医学研究院
特任助教

基本情報

所属

  • 獣医学研究院

職名

  • 特任助教

学位

  • 博士(獣医学)(北海道大学)

J-Global ID

研究キーワード

  • 獣医免疫学   

研究分野

  • ライフサイエンス / 獣医学
  • ライフサイエンス / 獣医学
  • ライフサイエンス / 獣医学

職歴

  • 2018年07月 - 現在 北海道大学 大学院獣医学研究院 特任助教
  • 2018年01月 - 2018年06月 北海道大学 大学院獣医学研究院 博士研究員
  • 2015年04月 - 2017年12月 日本学術振興会 特別研究員(DC1)

学歴

  • 2014年04月 - 2017年12月   北海道大学   大学院獣医学研究科
  • 2008年04月 - 2014年03月   北海道大学   獣医学部

所属学協会

  • 日本獣医学会   

研究活動情報

論文

  • Naoya Maekawa, Satoru Konnai, Maki Nishimura, Yumiko Kagawa, Satoshi Takagi, Kenji Hosoya, Hiroshi Ohta, Sangho Kim, Tomohiro Okagawa, Yusuke Izumi, Tatsuya Deguchi, Yukinari Kato, Satoshi Yamamoto, Keiichi Yamamoto, Mikihiro Toda, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    NPJ precision oncology 5 1 10 - 10 2021年02月12日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Immunotherapy targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) represents promising treatments for human cancers. Our previous studies demonstrated PD-L1 overexpression in some canine cancers, and suggested the therapeutic potential of a canine chimeric anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (c4G12). However, such evidence is scarce, limiting the clinical application in dogs. In the present report, canine PD-L1 expression was assessed in various cancer types, using a new anti-PD-L1 mAb, 6C11-3A11, and the safety and efficacy of c4G12 were explored in 29 dogs with pulmonary metastatic oral malignant melanoma (OMM). PD-L1 expression was detected in most canine malignant cancers including OMM, and survival was significantly longer in the c4G12 treatment group (median 143 days) when compared to a historical control group (n = 15, median 54 days). In dogs with measurable disease (n = 13), one dog (7.7%) experienced a complete response. Treatment-related adverse events of any grade were observed in 15 dogs (51.7%). Here we show that PD-L1 is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy in dogs, and dogs could be a useful large animal model for human cancer research.
  • Takuma Ariizumi, Shiro Murata, Sotaro Fujisawa, Masayoshi Isezaki, Naoya Maekawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Takumi Sato, Eiji Oishi, Akira Taneno, Satoru Konnai, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    The Journal of veterinary medical science 2021年02月11日 
    Poultry red mites (PRMs, Dermanyssus gallinae) are harmful ectoparasites that affect farmed chickens and cause serious economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Acaricides are used for PRM control; however, some PRMs have developed acaricide-resistant properties, which have indicated the need for different approaches for PRM control. Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate the biological status of PRMs to develop alternative PRM control strategies. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) allows analysis of the biological status at the transcript level. However, reference genes are preferable for accurate comparison of expression level changes given the large variation in the quality of the PRM samples collected in each farm. This study aimed to identify candidate reference genes with stable expression levels in the different blood feeding states and life stages of PRMs. First, we selected candidates based on the following criteria: sufficient expression intensity and no significant expression difference between fed and starved states. We selected and characterized seven candidate reference genes. Among them, we evaluated the gene expression stability between the starved and fed states using RefFinder; moreover, we compared their expression levels in each life-stage and identified two reference genes, Elongation factor 1-alpha (ELF1A)-like and apolipophorins-like. Finally, we evaluated the utility of the candidates as reference genes, and the use of ELF1A-like and apolipophorins-like successfully normalized ATP synthase subunit g -like gene expression. Thus, ELF1A-like and apolipophorins-like could be suitable reference genes in PRMs.
  • Yukiko Taniguchi, Satoru Konnai, Shinichi Sakakibara, Ayano Yamamoto, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 69 1 51 - 55 2021年02月 
    Johne's disease (JD) is caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberulosis (MAP). We confirmed the intrauterine infection of MAP in 22 pregnant cattle diagnosed with JD in Hokkaido, Japan. MAP was isolated from the umbilical cord (3/22: 13.6%) or caruncle (6/22: 27.3%) derived from the pregnant dams. Furthermore, dams with MAP from which MAP was isolated were also found to have a high mount of MAP or detected bacterial load in their feces. Fetuses of the tested dams indicated positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for the MAP gene (17/22:77.3%) in several tissues. MAP was isolated from the PCR-positive sites of dams detected with high levels of bacteria (6/ 22: 27.3%). These results indicate that MAP infection in pregnant cattle must be prevented as it is important for JD control.
  • Marina Amaral Xavier, Satoru Konnai, Luis Fernando Parizi, Naftaly Wangombe Githaka, Masayoshi Isezaki, Shinya Goto, Sotaro Fujisawa, Shinji Yamada, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Carlos Logullo, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Jr, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF VETERINARY RESEARCH 69 1 57 - 65 2021年02月 
    There are several studies that confirm the possibility of developing a vaccine against tick infestations. An immuno-bioinformatics approach was used to identify conserved antigenic regions between Ixodes persulcatus and Rhipicephalus microplus ferritin 2 ( FER2) in order to compose a novel putative vaccine. In addition, R. microplus were fed on blood containing antibodies anti-recombinant FER2 from I. persulcatus (rIp-FER2). The results revealed that anti-ferritin antibodies led to a decrease in the engorgement weight of the R. microplus females. Conservation of the predicted antigenic regions in different tick species suggests that this protein could be useful to develop a vaccine for cross-species protection.
  • Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Kevin Christian Montecillo Gulay, Atsushi Kobayashi, Luís Fernando Parizi, Benvindo Capela João, Kei Watari, Sotaro Fujisawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Carlos Logullo, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Jr, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Scientific reports 11 1 1063 - 1063 2021年01月13日 
    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a harmful parasite of cattle that causes considerable economic losses to the cattle breeding industry. Although R. microplus saliva (Rm-saliva) contains several immunosuppressants, any association between Rm-saliva and the expression of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death (PD)-1 and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), has not been described. In this study, flow cytometric analyses revealed that Rm-saliva upregulated PD-1 expression in T cells and PD-L1 expression in CD14+ and CD11c+ cells in cattle. Additionally, Rm-saliva decreased CD69 expression in T cells and Th1 cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, PD-L1 blockade increased IFN-γ production in the presence of Rm-saliva, suggesting that Rm-saliva suppresses Th1 responses via the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. To reveal the upregulation mechanism of PD-1/PD-L1 by Rm-saliva, we analyzed the function of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is known as an inducer of PD-L1 expression, in Rm-saliva. We found that Rm-saliva contained a high concentration of PGE2, and PGE2 treatment induced PD-L1 expression in CD14+ cells in vitro. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that PGE2 and PD-L1 expression was upregulated in tick-attached skin in cattle. These data suggest that PGE2 in Rm-saliva has the potential to induce the expression of immunoinhibitory molecules in host immune cells.
  • Fumi Kayasaki, Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Junko Kohara, Yamato Sajiki, Kei Watari, Otgontuya Ganbaatar, Shinya Goto, Hayato Nakamura, Honami Shimakura, Erina Minato, Atsushi Kobayashi, Manabu Kubota, Nobuhiro Terasaki, Akira Takeda, Haruka Noda, Mitsuru Honma, Naoya Maekawa, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Veterinary microbiology 254 108976 - 108976 2021年01月05日 
    Diarrhea is a major cause of death in calves and this is linked directly to economic loss in the cattle industry. Fermented milk replacer (FMR) has been used widely in clinical settings for calf feeding to improve its health and growth. However, the protective efficacy of FMR on calf diarrhea remains unclear. In this study, we verified the preventive effects of FMR feeding on calf diarrhea using an experimental infection model of bovine rotavirus (BRV) in newborn calves and a field study in dairy farms with calf diarrhea. In addition, we evaluated the protective efficacy of lactic acid bacteria-supplemented milk replacer (LAB-MR) in an experimental infection model. In the experimental infection, calves fed FMR or high-concentrated LAB-MR had diarrhea, but the water content of feces was lower and more stable than that of calves fed normal milk replacer. The amount of milk intake also decreased temporarily, but recovered immediately in the FMR- and LAB-MR-fed calves. As compared with the control calves, FMR- or LAB-MR-fed calves showed less severe or reduced histopathological lesions of enteritis in the intestinal mucosa. In a field study using dairy calves, FMR feeding significantly reduced the incidence of enteritis, mortality from enteritis, duration of a series of treatment for enteritis, number of consultations, and cost of medical care for the disease. These results suggest that feeding milk replacer-based probiotics to calves reduces the severity of diarrhea and tissue damage to the intestinal tract caused by BRV infection and provides significant clinical benefits to the prevention and treatment of calf diarrhea.
  • Shiro Murata, Ayaka Taniguchi, Masayoshi Isezaki, Sotaro Fujisawa, Eishi Sakai, Akira Taneno, Osamu Ichii, Takuya Ito, Naoya Maekawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Parasite (Paris, France) 28 9 - 9 2021年 
    Poultry red mites (PRMs, Dermanyssus gallinae) are ectoparasites that negatively affect farmed chickens, leading to serious economic losses worldwide. Acaricides have been used to control PRMs in poultry houses. However, some PRMs have developed resistance to acaricides, and therefore different approaches are required to manage the problems caused by PRMs. Vaccination of chickens is one of the methods being considered to reduce the number of PRMs in poultry houses. In a previous study, a cysteine protease, Deg-CPR-1, was identified as a candidate vaccine against PRMs distributed in Europe. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of Deg-CPR-1. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Deg-CPR-1 is closely related to the digestive cysteine proteases of other mite species, and it was classified into a cluster different from that of chicken cathepsins. Deg-CPR-1 of PRMs in Japan has an amino acid substitution compared with that of PRMs in Europe, but it showed efficacy as a vaccine, consistent with previous findings. Deg-CPR-1 exhibited cathepsin L-like enzyme activity. In addition, the Deg-CPR-1 mRNA was expressed in the midgut and in all stages of PRMs that feed on blood. These results imply that Deg-CPR-1 in the midgut may have important functions in physiological processes, and the inhibition of its expression may contribute to the efficacy of a Deg-CPR-1-based vaccine. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms of vaccine efficacy.
  • Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Hayato Nakamura, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Developmental and comparative immunology 114 103847 - 103847 2021年01月 
    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is a bovine chronic infection caused by BLV, a member of the genus Deltaretrovirus. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of GS-9620, a toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonist, in cattle (Bos taurus) and its therapeutic potential for treating BLV infection. GS-9620 induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as CD80 expression in CD11c+ cells and increased CD69 and interferon (IFN)-γ expressions in T cells. Removing CD11c+ cells from PBMCs decreased CD69 expression in T cells in the presence of GS-9620. These results suggest that TLR7 agonism promotes T-cell activation via CD11c+ cells. Analyses using PBMCs from BLV-infected cattle revealed that TLR7 expression in CD11c+ cells was upregulated during late-stage BLV infection. Furthermore, GS-9620 increased IFN-γ and TNF-α production and inhibited syncytium formation in vitro, suggesting that GS-9620 may be used to treat BLV infection.
  • Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Zimeng Cai, Kensuke Takada, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Sotaro Fujisawa, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    ImmunoHorizons 4 12 837 - 850 2020年12月21日 
    Combination treatment approaches are increasingly considered to overcome resistance to immunotherapy targeting immunoinhibitory molecules such as programmed death (PD)-1 and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1). Previous studies have demonstrated that the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD-L1 Abs is enhanced by combination treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, through downregulation of the immunosuppressive eicosanoid PGE2, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we show that serum PGE2 levels are upregulated after anti-PD-L1 Ab administration in a bovine model of immunotherapy and that PGE2 directly inhibits T cell activation via its receptor E prostanoid (EP) 4. Additionally, anti-PD-L1 Ab induces TNF-α production and TNF-α blockade reduces PGE2 production in the presence of anti-PD-L1 Ab, suggesting that anti-PD-L1 Ab-induced TNF-α impairs T cell activation by PGE2 upregulation. Our studies examining the therapeutic potential of the dual blockade of PD-L1 and EP4 in bovine and murine immune cells reveal that the dual blockade of PD-L1 and EP4 significantly enhances Th1 cytokine production in vitro. Finally, we show that the dual blockade decreases tumor volume and prolongs survival in mice inoculated with the murine lymphoma cell line EG7. Altogether, these results suggest that TNF-α induced by anti-PD-L1 Ab treatment is associated with T cell dysfunction via PGE2/EP4 pathway and that the dual blockade of PD-L1 and EP4 should be considered as a novel immunotherapy for cancer.
  • Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Reiko Nagata, Satoko Kawaji, Hayato Nakamura, Sotaro Fujisawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Yasuyuki Mori, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    The Journal of veterinary medical science 2020年12月07日 
    Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic enteritis of ruminants. Previous studies have shown that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is associated with the disease progression, and PD-L1 blockade activates MAP-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Here, we performed anti-PD-L1 antibody administration using 2 MAP-infected cattle at the late subclinical stage of infection. After administration, bacterial shedding was reduced or maintained at a low level after administration. Additionally, MAP-specific Th1 cytokine production was upregulated, and CD69 expression was increased in T cells. Collectively, the treatment has a potential as a novel control method against Johne's disease.
  • Shiro Murata, Yuka Machida, Masayoshi Isezaki, Naoya Maekawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Virology journal 17 1 186 - 186 2020年11月23日 
    BACKGROUND: Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes malignant lymphomas in chickens (Marek's disease, MD). MD is currently controlled by vaccination; however, MDV strains have a tendency to develop increased virulence. Distinct diversity and point mutations are present in the Meq proteins, the oncoproteins of MDV, suggesting that changes in protein function induced by amino acid substitutions might affect MDV virulence. We previously reported that recent MDV isolates in Japan display distinct mutations in Meq proteins from those observed in traditional MDV isolates in Japan, but similar to those in MDV strains isolated from other countries. METHODS: To further investigate the genetic characteristics in Japanese field strains, we sequenced the whole genome of an MDV strain that was successfully isolated from a chicken with MD in Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the meq gene was also performed. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Meq proteins in most of the Japanese isolates were similar to those of Chinese and European strains, and the genomic sequence of the Japanese strain was classified into the Eurasian cluster. Comparison of coding region sequences among the Japanese strain and MDV strains from other countries revealed that the genetic characteristics of the Japanese strain were similar to those of Chinese and European strains. CONCLUSIONS: The MDV strains distributed in Asian and European countries including Japan seem to be genetically closer to each other than to MDV strains from North America. These findings indicate that the genetic diversities of MDV strains that emerged may have been dependent on the different vaccination-based control approaches.
  • Naftaly Wang'ombe Githaka, Satoru Konnai, Masayoshi Isezaki, Shinya Goto, Marina Amaral Xavier, Sotaro Fujisawa, Shinji Yamada, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Carlos Logullo, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Jr, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Ticks and tick-borne diseases 11 6 101547 - 101547 2020年11月 
    Ferritin 2 (FER2) is an iron storage protein, which has been shown to be critical for iron homeostasis during blood feeding and reproduction in ticks and is therefore suitable as a component for anti-tick vaccines. In this study, we identified the FER2 of Ixodes persulcatus, a major vector for zoonotic diseases such as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne relapsing fever in Japan, and investigated its functions. Ixodes persulcatus-derived ferritin 2 (Ip-FER2) showed concentration-dependent iron-binding ability and high amino acid conservation, consistent with FER2s of other tick species. Vaccines containing the recombinant Ip-FER2 elicited a significant reduction of the engorgement weight of adult I. persulcatus. Interestingly, the reduction of engorgement weight was also observed in Ixodes ovatus, a sympatric species of I. persulcatus. In silico analyses of FER2 sequences of I. persulcatus and other ticks showed a greater similarity with I. scapularis and I. ricinus and lesser similarity with Hyalomma anatolicum, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Rhipicephalus microplus, and R. appendiculatus. Moreover, it was observed that the tick FER2 sequences possess conserved regions within the primary structures, and in silico epitope mapping analysis revealed that antigenic regions were also conserved, particularly among Ixodes spp ticks. In conclusion, the data support further protective tick vaccination applications using the Ip-FER2 antigens identified herein.
  • Sotaro Fujisawa, Shiro Murata, Masayoshi Isezaki, Eiji Oishi, Akira Taneno, Naoya Maekawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Parasitology international 78 102156 - 102156 2020年10月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Akie Ochi, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naftaly Githaka, Masayoshi Isezaki, Shinji Yamada, Takuya Ito, Shuji Ando, Hiroki Kawabata, Carlos Logullo, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Jr, Naoya Maekawa, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Ticks and tick-borne diseases 11 2 101332 - 101332 2020年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Tick saliva contains immunosuppressants which are important to obtain a blood meal and enhance the infectivity of tick-borne pathogens. In Japan, Ixodes persulcatus is a major vector for Lyme borreliosis pathogens, such as Borrelia garinii, as well as for those causing relapsing fever, such as B. miyamotoi. To date, little information is available on bioactive salivary molecules, produced by this tick. Thus, in this study, we identified two proteins, I. persulcatus derived sialostatin L1 (Ip-sL1) and sL2 (Ip-sL2), as orthologs of I. scapularis derived sL1 and sL2. cDNA clones of Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 shared a high identity with sequences of sL1 and sL2 isolated from the salivary glands of I. scapularis. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed that Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 were expressed in the salivary glands throughout the life of the tick. In addition, Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 were expressed even before the ticks started feeding, and their expression continued during blood feeding. Recombinant Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 were developed to characterize the proteins via biological and immunological analyses. These analyses revealed that both Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 had inhibitory effects on cathepsins L and S. Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 inhibited the production of IP-10, TNFα, and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Additionally, Ip-sL1 significantly impaired BMDC maturation. Taken together, these results suggest that Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 confer immunosuppressive functions and appear to be involved in the transmission of pathogens by suppressing host immune responses, such as cytokine production and dendritic cell maturation. Therefore, further studies are warranted to investigate the immunosuppressive functions of Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 in detail to clarify their involvement in pathogen transmission via I. persulcatus.
  • Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Shinya Goto, Tomohiro Okagawa, Kosuke Ohira, Honami Shimakura, Naoya Maekawa, Satoshi Gondaira, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Motoshi Tajima, Yuki Hirano, Junko Kohara, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Frontiers in veterinary science 7 609443 - 609443 2020年 
    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) regulate immune responses and maintain host immune homeostasis. Tregs contribute to the disease progression of several chronic infections by oversuppressing immune responses via the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and interleukin-10. In the present study, we examined the association of Tregs with Mycoplasma bovis infection, in which immunosuppression is frequently observed. Compared with uninfected cattle, the percentage of Tregs, CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ T cells, was increased in M. bovis-infected cattle. Additionally, the plasma of M. bovis-infected cattle contained the high concentrations of TGF-β1, and M. bovis infection induced TGF-β1 production from bovine immune cells in in vitro cultures. Finally, we analyzed the immunosuppressive effects of TGF-β1 on bovine immune cells. Treatment with TGF-β1 significantly decreased the expression of CD69, an activation marker, in T cells, and Th1 cytokine production in vitro. These results suggest that the increase in Tregs and TGF-β1 secretion could be one of the immunosuppressive mechanisms and that lead to increased susceptibility to other infections in terms of exacerbation of disease during M. bovis infection.
  • Otgontuya Ganbaatar, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Yutaro Nojima, Naoya Maekawa, Erina Minato, Atsushi Kobayashi, Ryo Ando, Nobuya Sasaki, Daisuke Miyakoshi, Osamu Ichii, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    PloS one 15 11 e0234218  2020年 
    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed on lymphocytes. Interaction of PD-1 with its ligand PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) delivers inhibitory signals and impairs proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity of T cells. In our previous studies, we have developed anti-bovine PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and reported that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway was closely associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression in bovine chronic infections and canine tumors. Furthermore, we found that blocking antibodies that target PD-1 and PD-L1 restore T-cell functions and could be used in immunotherapy in cattle and dogs. However, the immunological role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway for chronic equine diseases, including tumors, remains unclear. In this study, we identified cDNA sequences of equine PD-1 (EqPD-1) and PD-L1 (EqPD-L1) and investigated the role of anti-bovine PD-L1 mAbs against EqPD-L1 using in vitro assays. In addition, we evaluated the expression of PD-L1 in tumor tissues of equine malignant melanoma (EMM). The amino acid sequences of EqPD-1 and EqPD-L1 share a considerable identity and similarity with homologs from non-primate species. Two clones of the anti-bovine PD-L1 mAbs recognized EqPD-L1 in flow cytometry, and one of these cross-reactive mAbs blocked the binding of equine PD-1/PD-L1. Of note, immunohistochemistry confirmed the PD-L1 expression in EMM tumor tissues. A cultivation assay revealed that PD-L1 blockade enhanced the production of Th1 cytokines in equine immune cells. These findings showed that our anti-PD-L1 mAbs would be useful for analyzing the equine PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. Further research is warranted to discover the immunological role of PD-1/PD-L1 in chronic equine diseases and elucidate a future application in immunotherapy for horses.
  • Hiroto Takeuchi, Satoru Konnai, Naoya Maekawa, Erina Minato, Yoshiki Ichikawa, Atsushi Kobayashi, Tomohiro Okagawa, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Frontiers in veterinary science 7 330 - 330 2020年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Cancer is one of the most significant causes of death in dogs. Antibody drugs targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis represent a promising immunotherapy for both human and canine cancers. However, the regulation mechanisms of PD-L1 expression in canine cancers require further investigation to better understand the resistance mechanisms to anti-PD-L1 therapy. Recent reports have shown that CMTM6 and CMTM4 are critical regulators of PD-L1 protein expression in human cancer cells. By preventing PD-L1 from lysosome-mediated degradation, CMTM6 maintains PD-L1 expression on the cell surface. However, the literature has not reported on CMTM6 and CMTM4 in dogs, and their functions are completely unknown. To reveal a regulation mechanism of PD-L1 in canine cancers, this study firstly identified the gene sequences of CMTM6 and CMTM4. Then, the expression analysis of these proteins was performed by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the functions of CMTM6 and CMTM4 in regulating PD-L1 expression were examined by gene knockdown of CMTM6 and CMTM4. Canine CMTM6 and CMTM4 displayed high amino acid sequence identities compared with those of humans and mice. An immunohistochemical analysis using cross-reactive antibodies revealed that canine malignant melanoma and osteosarcoma express CMTM6, CMTM4, and PD-L1 simultaneously. Gene knockdown of CMTM6 and CMTM4 with RNA interference significantly reduced the cell surface expression of PD-L1 in a canine cell line. These results suggest that CMTM6 and CMTM4 are regulators of PD-L1 expression in canine cancers and could serve as potential therapeutic targets to enhance antitumor immunity.
  • Goto S, Konnai S, Hirano Y, Kohara J, Okagawa T, Maekawa N, Sajiki Y, Watari K, Minato E, Kobayashi A, Gondaira S, Higuchi H, Koiwa M, Tajima M, Taguchi E, Uemura R, Yamada S, Kaneko M, Kato Y, Yamamoto K, Toda M, Suzuki Y, Murata S, Ohashi K
    Front Vet Sci 7 12 - 12 2020年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bovine mycoplasmosis caused by Mycoplasma bovis results in pneumonia and mastitis in cattle. We previously demonstrated that the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is involved in immune dysfunction during M. bovis infection and that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) suppressed immune responses and upregulated PD-L1 expression in Johne's disease, a bacterial infection in cattle. In this study, we investigated the role of PGE2 in immune dysfunction and the relationship between PGE2 and the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in M. bovis infection. In vitro stimulation with M. bovis upregulated the expressions of PGE2 and PD-L1 presumably via Toll-like receptor 2 in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PGE2 levels of peripheral blood in infected cattle were significantly increased compared with those in uninfected cattle. Remarkably, plasma PGE2 levels were positively correlated with the proportions of PD-L1+ monocytes in M. bovis-infected cattle. Additionally, plasma PGE2 production in infected cattle was negatively correlated with M. bovis-specific interferon (IFN)-γ production from PBMCs. These results suggest that PGE2 could be one of the inducers of PD-L1 expression and could be involved in immunosuppression during M. bovis infection. In vitro blockade assays using anti-bovine PD-L1 antibody and a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor significantly upregulated the M. bovis-specific IFN-γ response. Our study findings might contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for bovine mycoplasmosis that target PGE2 and the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.
  • Clinical efficacy of the combined treatment of anti-PD-L1 rat-bovine chimeric antibody with a COX-2 inhibitor in calves infected with Mycoplasma bovis
    Goto S, Konnai S, Hirano Y, Kohara J, Okagawa T, Maekawa N, Sajiki Y, Watari K, Minato E, Kobayashi A, Gondaira S, Higuchi H, Koiwa M, Tajima M, Taguchi E, Ishida M, Uemura R, Yamada S, Kaneko M, Kato Y, Yamamoto K, Toda M, Suzuki Y, Murata S, Ohashi K
    Jpn J Vet Res 2020年 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Watari K, Konnai S, Maekawa N, Okagawa T, Suzuki Y, Murata S, Ohashi K
    BMC Vet Res 15 1 380 - 380 2019年10月29日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is known as an immune inhibitory receptor that is expressed on activated effector T cells and regulatory T cells. When CTLA-4 binds to CD80 or CD86, immunoinhibitory signals are transmitted to retain a homeostasis of the immune response. Recent studies have reported that CTLA-4 is upregulated in chronic infections and malignant neoplasms, contributing to host immune dysfunction. On the other hand, the blockade of CTLA-4 and CD80 or CD86 binding by antibody restores the immune response against these diseases. In a previous report, we indicated that the expression of CTLA-4 was closely associated with disease progression in cattle infected with the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). In this study, we established an anti-bovine CTLA-4 antibody to confirm its immune enhancing effect. RESULTS: Bovine CTLA-4-Ig binds to bovine CD80 and CD86 expressing cells. Additionally, CD80 and CD86 bind to CTLA-4 expressing cells in an expression-dependent manner. Bovine CTLA-4-Ig significantly inhibited interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production from bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) activated by Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB). An established specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) for bovine CTLA-4 specifically recognized only with bovine CTLA-4, not CD28, and the antibody blocked the binding of CTLA-4-Ig to both CD80 and CD86 in a dose-dependent manner. The bovine CTLA-4 mAb significantly restored the inhibited IFN-γ production from the CTLA-4-Ig treated PBMCs. In addition, the CTLA-4 mAb significantly enhanced IFN-γ production from CTLA-4 expressing PBMCs activated by SEB. Finally, we examined whether a CTLA-4 blockade by CTLA-4 mAb could restore the immune reaction during chronic infection; the blockade assay was performed using PBMCs from BLV-infected cattle. The CTLA-4 blockade enhanced IFN-γ production from the PBMCs in response to BLV-antigens. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results suggest that anti-bovine CTLA-4 antibody can reactivate lymphocyte functions and could be applied for a new therapy against refractory chronic diseases. Further investigation is required for future clinical applications.
  • Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Kei Watari, Erina Minato, Atsushi Kobayashi, Junko Kohara, Shinji Yamada, Mika K Kaneko, Yukinari Kato, Hirofumi Takahashi, Nobuhiro Terasaki, Akira Takeda, Keiichi Yamamoto, Mikihiro Toda, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 203 5 1313 - 1324 2019年09月01日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is a chronic viral infection of cattle and endemic in many countries, including Japan. Our previous study demonstrated that PGE2, a product of cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, suppresses Th1 responses in cattle and contributes to the progression of Johne disease, a chronic bacterial infection in cattle. However, little information is available on the association of PGE2 with chronic viral infection. Thus, we analyzed the changes in plasma PGE2 concentration during BLV infection and its effects on proviral load, viral gene transcription, Th1 responses, and disease progression. Both COX2 expression by PBMCs and plasma PGE2 concentration were higher in the infected cattle compared with uninfected cattle, and plasma PGE2 concentration was positively correlated with the proviral load. BLV Ag exposure also directly enhanced PGE2 production by PBMCs. Transcription of BLV genes was activated via PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4, further suggesting that PGE2 contributes to disease progression. In contrast, inhibition of PGE2 production using a COX-2 inhibitor activated BLV-specific Th1 responses in vitro, as evidenced by enhanced T cell proliferation and Th1 cytokine production, and reduced BLV proviral load in vivo. Combined treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam and anti-programmed death-ligand 1 Ab significantly reduced the BLV proviral load, suggesting a potential as a novel control method against BLV infection. Further studies using a larger number of animals are required to support the efficacy of this treatment for clinical application.
  • Vector transmission of bovine leukemia virus during summer season in Northern Hokkaido
    Inagaki H, Konnai S, Kaburagi H, Murota H, Takabatake N, Watari K, Okagawa T, Maekawa N, Murata S, Ohashi K
    Jpn. J. Vet. Res 67 3 235 - 239 2019年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Masaki Takehara, Shiro Murata, Ken Katakura, Sotaro Fujisawa, Myint Myint Hmoon, Shwe Yee Win, Saw Bawm, Lat Lat Htun, Ye Htut Aung, Mar Mar Win, Masayoshi Isezaki, Naoya Maekawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Heliyon 5 4 e01544  2019年04月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Haematophagous ectoparasites of poultry, such as Ornithonyssus sylviarum, northern fowl mites (NFMs), Dermanyssus gallinae, poultry red mites (PRMs), and Ornithonyssus bursa, tropical fowl mites (TFMs) are prevalent worldwide. Although poultry farming is a major industry in Southeast Asia, there are only a few reports concerning the prevalence of avian mites in this region. In this study, we sampled twenty farms in four major poultry farming areas in Myanmar. We detected the mites on six farms, and they showed morphological similarities to NFMs and TFMs. The nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I indicated that some mites were NFMs. This is the first report confirming the presence of NFMs and TFMs among the hematophagous mites infesting chickens on Myanmar poultry farms.
  • Yukinari Kato, Tomokazu Ohishi, Manabu Kawada, Naoya Maekawa, Satoru Konnai, Shunsuke Itai, Shinji Yamada, Mika K Kaneko
    Biochemistry and biophysics reports 17 23 - 26 2019年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Podoplanin (PDPN) is a type I transmembrane heavily glycosylated sialoglycoprotein that is expressed in normal tissues such as pulmonary type I alveolar cells, renal podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells. PDPN overexpression in cancerous tissue is associated with hematogenous metastasis through interactions with the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Previously, we have reported the development of a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38 (IgG1, kappa) against dog PDPN (dPDPN). PMab-38 was found to strongly react with canine squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and melanomas; however, it showed no reaction with lymphatic endothelial cells. Recently, we have developed and produced the mouse-canine mAb of subclass B, P38B that showed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)/dPDPN cells. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor activity using mouse xenograft model. To induce ADCC activity by P38B, canine mononuclear cells were injected surrounding the tumors in a xenograft model. It was demonstrated that P38B exerted antitumor activity against the mouse xenograft model using CHO/dPDPN. These results suggest that P38B is useful for antibody therapy against dPDPN-expressing canine SCCs and melanomas.
  • Sotaro Fujisawa, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Akina Tanaka, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    BMC veterinary research 15 1 68 - 68 2019年02月28日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    BACKGROUND: Refractory diseases, including bacterial infections, are causing huge economic losses in dairy farming. Despite efforts to prevent and treat those diseases in cattle, including the use of antimicrobials, it is not well controlled in the field. Several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), play important roles in disease progression; thus, blocking these cytokines can attenuate the acute and sever inflammation and may be a novel strategy for treatment. However, biological drugs targeting inflammatory cytokines have not been used in cattle. Therefore, in this study, bovine sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 IgG1 Fc-fusion proteins (TNFR1-Ig and TNFR2-Ig) were produced, and their anti-inflammatory functions were analyzed in vitro, to develop decoy receptors for bovine TNF-α. RESULTS: Both TNFR1-Ig and TNFR2-Ig were shown to bind with TNF-α, and TNFR2-Ig showed higher affinity toward TNF-α than TNFR1-Ig. We next stimulated murine fibroblast-derived cells (L929 cells) with TNF-α to induce cell death and analyzed cell viability in the presence of TNFR-Ig proteins. Both TNFR1-Ig and TNFR2-Ig suppressed TNF-α-induced cell death, significantly improving cell viability. In addition, cell death induced by TNF-α was suppressed, even at low TNFR2-Ig concentrations, suggesting TNFR2-Ig has higher activity to suppress TNF-α functions than TNFR1-Ig. Finally, to examine TNFR2-Ig's anti-inflammatory, we cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cattle with TNF-α in the presence of TNFR2-Ig and analyzed the gene expression and protein production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. TNFR2-Ig significantly reduced the gene expression and protein production of these cytokines. Our results suggest that TNFR2-Ig inhibits inflammatory cytokine kinetics by blocking TNF-α to transmembrane TNFR, thereby attenuating excessive inflammation induced by TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the findings of this study demonstrated the potential of TNFR2-Ig as a novel therapeutic for inflammatory diseases, such as bovine clinical mastitis. Further investigation is required for future clinical application.
  • Identification of immuno-inhibitory molecules in Mongolian native cattle and yak
    Ochirkhuu N, Konnai S, Odbileg R, Okagawa T, Maekawa N, Murata S, Ohashi K
    Jpn J Vet Res 66 3 177 - 192 2018年08月 [査読有り][通常論文]
  • Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Junko Kohara, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shinji Yamada, Yukinari Kato, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Veterinary research 49 1 50 - 50 2018年06月19日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that infects B cells in cattle and causes bovine leukosis after a long latent period. Progressive exhaustion of T cell functions is considered to facilitate disease progression of BLV infection. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) are immunoinhibitory receptors that contribute to T-cell exhaustion caused by BLV infection in cattle. However, it is unclear whether the cooperation of PD-1 and LAG-3 accelerates disease progression of BLV infection. In this study, multi-color flow cytometric analyses of PD-1- and LAG-3-expressing T cells were performed in BLV-infected cattle at different stages of the disease. The frequencies of PD-1+LAG-3+ heavily exhausted T cells among CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was higher in the blood of cattle with B-cell lymphoma over that of BLV-uninfected and BLV-infected cattle without lymphoma. In addition, blockade assays of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were performed to examine whether inhibition of the interactions between PD-1 and LAG-3 and their ligands by blocking antibodies could restore T-cell function during BLV infection. Single or dual blockade of the PD-1 and LAG-3 pathways reactivated the production of Th1 cytokines, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, from BLV-specific T cells of the infected cattle. Taken together, these results indicate that PD-1 and LAG-3 cooperatively mediate the functional exhaustion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and are associated with the development of B-cell lymphoma in BLV-infected cattle.
  • Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Reiko Nagata, Satoko Kawaji, Yumiko Kagawa, Shinji Yamada, Yukinari Kato, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Yasuyuki Mori, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Infection and immunity 86 5 2018年05月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, is a bovine chronic infection that is endemic in Japan and many other countries. The expression of immunoinhibitory molecules is upregulated in cattle with Johne's disease, but the mechanism of immunosuppression is poorly understood. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is immunosuppressive in humans, but few veterinary data are available. In this study, functional and kinetic analyses of PGE2 were performed to investigate the immunosuppressive effect of PGE2 during Johne's disease. In vitro PGE2 treatment decreased T-cell proliferation and Th1 cytokine production and upregulated the expression of immunoinhibitory molecules such as interleukin-10 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy cattle. PGE2 was upregulated in sera and intestinal lesions of cattle with Johne's disease. In vitro stimulation with Johnin purified protein derivative (J-PPD) induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription, PGE2 production, and upregulation of PD-L1 and immunoinhibitory receptors in PBMCs from cattle infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis Therefore, Johnin-specific Th1 responses could be limited by the PGE2 pathway in cattle. In contrast, downregulation of PGE2 with a COX-2 inhibitor promoted J-PPD-stimulated CD8+ T-cell proliferation and Th1 cytokine production in PBMCs from the experimentally infected cattle. PD-L1 blockade induced J-PPD-stimulated CD8+ T-cell proliferation and interferon gamma production in vitro Combined treatment with a COX-2 inhibitor and anti-PD-L1 antibodies enhanced J-PPD-stimulated CD8+ T-cell proliferation in vitro, suggesting that the blockade of both pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy to control Johne's disease. The effects of COX-2 inhibition warrant further study as a novel treatment of Johne's disease.
  • Naoya Maekawa, Satoru Konnai, Michelle M Balbin, Claro N Mingala, Karlo R B Gicana, Francis A E M Bernando, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Ticks and tick-borne diseases 9 2 266 - 269 2018年02月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by a rickettsial bacterium, Ehrlichia canis, is distributed worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Transmission of E. canis is primarily mediated by the vector tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and the bacteria then infect and replicate in monocytes and macrophages. Many cases are seen in veterinary hospitals and treated routinely; however, the genetic variation of E. canis strains found in the Philippines has been poorly investigated to date. In this study, the 16S rRNA gene and the gp200 gene of E. canis were detected by polymerase chain reaction from an infected dog in the Philippines, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the gp200 gene was subjected to a phylogenetic analysis. The Philippine genotype formed a cluster with the Taiwan genotype, and was somewhat divergent from the USA and Brazil strains. This suggested that E. canis underwent evolution in East and Southeast Asia, confirming the utility of the gp200 gene for the assessment of genetic relationships among strains.
  • Michihito Tagawa, Chihiro Kurashima, Satoshi Takagi, Naoya Maekawa, Satoru Konnai, Genya Shimbo, Kotaro Matsumoto, Hisashi Inokuma, Keiko Kawamoto, Kazuro Miyahara
    PloS one 13 7 e0201222  2018年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    B cell high grade lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic malignancy in dogs. Although the immune checkpoint molecules, programmed death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been evaluated for the treatment of various human lymphoid malignancies, the expression of those molecules and their relationship with prognosis remain unknown in canine lymphoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of costimulatory molecules on peripheral blood lymphocytes and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, in addition to associated ligand expression in the lymph nodes of patients with B cell multicentric high grade lymphoma. Eighteen patients diagnosed with B cell high grade lymphoma and nine healthy control dogs were enrolled. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the expression of PD-1 on CD4+ peripheral and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and CTLA-4 on CD4+ peripheral lymphocytes was significantly higher in the lymphoma group than in the control group. The expression level of CD80 mRNA was significantly lower in the lymphoma group than in the control group. In contrast, there were no significant differences in PD-L1, PD-L2, and CD86 expression between the groups. Dogs with CTLA-4 levels below the cutoff values, which were determined based on receiver operating characteristic curves, on peripheral CD4+, CD8+, and tumor infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes had significantly longer survival than dogs with values above the cutoff. Although it is uncertain whether the expression of immune checkpoint molecules affect the biological behavior of canine lymphoma, one possible explanation is that PD-1 and CTLA-4 might be associated with the suppression of antitumor immunity in dogs with B cell high grade lymphoma, particularly through CD4+ T cells.
  • Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Asami Nishimori, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Masashi Nagano, Junko Kohara, Nana Kitano, Toshihiko Takahashi, Motoshi Tajima, Hirohisa Mekata, Yoichiro Horii, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    The Journal of veterinary medical science 79 12 2036 - 2039 2017年12月22日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Enzootic bovine leukemia is caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). BLV is transmitted vertically or horizontally through the transfer of infected cells via direct contact, through milk, insect bites and contaminated iatrogenic procedures. However, we lacked direct evidence of intrauterine infection. The purpose of this study was to confirm intrauterine BLV infection in two pregnant dams with high viral load by cesarean delivery. BLV was detected in cord and placental blood, and the BLV in the newborns showed 100% nucleotide identity with the BLV-env sequence from the dams. Notably, a newborn was seropositive for BLV but had no colostral antibodies. In this study, we presented a direct evidence of intrauterine BLV transmission in pregnant dam with a high proviral load. These results could aid the development of BLV control measures targeting viral load.
  • Goto S, Konnai S, Okagawa T, Nishimori A, Maekawa N, Gondaira S, Higuchi H, Koiwa M, Tajima M, Kohara J, Ogasawara S, Kato Y, Suzuki Y, Murata S, Ohashi K
    Immunity, inflammation and disease 5 3 355 - 363 2017年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    INTRODUCTION: Bovine mycoplasma, chiefly Mycoplasma bovis, is a pathogen that causes pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis, and otitis media in cattle. This pathogen exerts immunosuppressive effects, such as the inhibition of interferon production. However, the mechanisms involved in bovine mycoplasmosis have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway in immunosuppression in bovine mycoplasmosis. METHODS: In the initial experiments, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure interferon-γ (IFN-γ) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from cattle with mycoplasmosis. RESULTS: Expectedly, IFN-γ production significantly decreased in cattle with mycoplasmosis compared with that in clinically healthy cattle. Concomitantly, flow cytometric analysis revealed that the proportions of PD-1+ CD4+ and PD-L1+ CD14+ cells significantly increased in peripheral blood of the infected cattle. Interestingly, the number of PD-1+ CD4+ and PD-1+ CD8+ T cells were negatively correlated with IFN-γ production from PBMCs in bovine mycoplasmosis. Additionally, blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in vitro by anti-bovine PD-1- and anti-bovine PD-L1 antibodies significantly upregulated the production of IFN-γ from anti-mycoplasma-specific cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway could be involved in immune exhaustion of bovine mycoplasma-specific T cells. In conclusion, our study opens up a new perspective in the therapeutic strategy for bovine mycoplasmosis by targeting the immunoinhibitory receptor pathways.
  • Asami Nishimori, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Ayako Nakahara, Yuzumi Chiba, Masaho Ikeda, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI 24 9 2017年09月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Bovine leukemia is classified into two types: enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) and sporadic bovine leukosis (SBL). EBL is caused by infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which induces persistent lymphocytosis and B-cell lymphoma in cattle after a long latent period. Although it has been demonstrated that BLV-associated lymphoma occurs predominantly in adult cattle of >3 to 5 years, suspicious cases of EBL onset in juvenile cattle were recently reported in Japan. To investigate the current status of bovine leukemia in Japan, we performed immunophenotypic analysis of samples from 50 cattle that were clinically diagnosed as having bovine leukemia. We classified the samples into five groups on the basis of the analysis and found two different types of EBL: classic EBL (cEBL), which has the familiar phenotype commonly known as EBL, and polyclonal EBL (pEBL), which exhibited neoplastic proliferation of polyclonal B cells. Moreover, there were several atypical EBL cases even in cEBL, including an early onset of EBL in juvenile cattle. A comparison of the cell marker expressions among cEBL, pEBL, and B-cell-type SBL (B-SBL) revealed characteristic patterns in B-cell leukemia, and these patterns could be clearly differentiated from those of healthy phenotypes, whereas it was difficult to discriminate between cEBL, pEBL, and B-SBL only by the expression patterns of cell markers. This study identified novel characteristics of bovine leukemia that should contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor development in BLV infection.
  • Naoya Maekawa, Satoru Konnai, Satoshi Takagi, Yumiko Kagawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Asami Nishimori, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Yusuke Izumi, Tatsuya Deguchi, Chie Nakajima, Yukinari Kato, Keiichi Yamamoto, Hidetoshi Uemura, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Scientific reports 7 1 8951 - 8951 2017年08月21日 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoint molecules, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), using therapeutic antibodies has been widely used for some human malignancies in the last 5 years. A costimulatory receptor, PD-1, is expressed on T cells and suppresses effector functions when it binds to its ligand, PD-L1. Aberrant PD-L1 expression is reported in various human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism. Antibodies blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 axis induce antitumour responses in patients with malignant melanoma and other cancers. In dogs, no such clinical studies have been performed to date because of the lack of therapeutic antibodies that can be used in dogs. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of c4G12, a canine-chimerised anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, were evaluated in vitro, demonstrating significantly enhanced cytokine production and proliferation of dog peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A pilot clinical study was performed on seven dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and two with undifferentiated sarcoma. Objective antitumour responses were observed in one dog with OMM (14.3%, 1/7) and one with undifferentiated sarcoma (50.0%, 1/2) when c4G12 was given at 2 or 5 mg/kg, every 2 weeks. c4G12 could be a safe and effective treatment option for canine cancers.
  • Asami Nishimori, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Shinya Goto, Yamato Sajiki, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Junko Kohara, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yukinari Kato, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    PloS one 12 4 e0174916  2017年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Programmed death-1 (PD-1), an immunoinhibitory receptor on T cells, is known to be involved in immune evasion through its binding to PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in many chronic diseases. We previously found that PD-L1 expression was upregulated in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and that an antibody that blocked the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction reactivated T-cell function in vitro. Therefore, this study assessed its antivirus activities in vivo. First, we inoculated the anti-bovine PD-L1 rat monoclonal antibody 4G12 into a BLV-infected cow. However, this did not induce T-cell proliferation or reduction of BLV provirus loads during the test period, and only bound to circulating IgM+ B cells until one week post-inoculation. We hypothesized that this lack of in vivo effects was due to its lower stability in cattle and so established an anti-PD-L1 rat-bovine chimeric antibody (Boch4G12). Boch4G12 was able to bind specifically with bovine PD-L1, interrupt the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, and activate the immune response in both healthy and BLV-infected cattle in vitro. Therefore, we experimentally infected a healthy calf with BLV and inoculated it intravenously with 1 mg/kg of Boch4G12 once it reached the aleukemic (AL) stage. Cultivation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from the tested calf indicated that the proliferation of CD4+ T cells was increased by Boch4G12 inoculation, while BLV provirus loads were significantly reduced, clearly demonstrating that this treatment induced antivirus activities. Therefore, further studies using a large number of animals are required to support its efficacy for clinical application.
  • Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Shinya Goto, Chie Nakajima, Junko Kohara, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    Frontiers in immunology 8 650 - 650 2017年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.
  • Ohira K, Nakahara A, Konnai S, Okagawa T, Nishimori A, Maekawa N, Ikebuchi R, Kohara J, Murata S, Ohashi K
    Immunity, inflammation and disease 4 1 52 - 63 2016年03月 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cells suppress excess immune responses that lead to autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases, and maintain host immune homeostasis. However, CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cells reportedly contribute to disease progression by over suppressing immune responses in some chronic infections. In this study, kinetic and functional analyses of CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cells were performed in cattle with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infections, which have reported immunosuppressive characteristics. In initial experiments, production of the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α was reduced in BLV-infected cattle compared with uninfected cattle, and numbers of IFN-γ or TNF-α producing CD4(+) T cells decreased with disease progression. In contrast, IFN-γ production by NK cells was inversely correlated with BLV proviral loads in infected cattle. Additionally, during persistent lymphocytosis disease stages, NK cytotoxicity was depressed as indicated by low expression of the cytolytic protein perforin. Concomitantly, total CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cell numbers and percentages of TGF-β(+) cells were increased, suggesting that TGF-β plays a role in the functional declines of CD4(+) T cells and NK cells. In further experiments, recombinant bovine TGF-β suppressed IFN-γ and TNF-α production by CD4(+) T cells and NK cytotoxicity in cultured cells. These data suggest that TGF-β from CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) T cells is immunosuppressive and contributes to disease progression and the development of opportunistic infections during BLV infection.
  • Michihito Tagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Satoru Konnai, Satoshi Takagi
    PloS one 11 2 e0150030  2016年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Histiocytic sarcoma is a rapidly progressive and fatal neoplastic disease in dogs. It is unclear whether costimulatory molecules, including CD28, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and programmed death-1 (PD-1), are expressed on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of canine patients with histiocytic sarcoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of CD28, CTLA-4, and PD-1 molecules on PBLs of patients with histiocytic sarcoma, patients with other tumors, and healthy controls. Twenty-six dogs were included in the study, with eight, ten, and eight dogs in the histiocytic sarcoma, other tumor, and healthy control groups, respectively. PBLs and serum were prospectively obtained from patients diagnosed histopathologically with histiocytic sarcoma, other tumors and healthy controls. The surface expression of CTLA-4, CD28, and PD-1 on T lymphocytes was examined using flow cytometric analysis. Serum samples were frozen at -30°C until serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression level of CTLA-4 on CD4+ lymphocytes was significantly higher in the histiocytic sarcoma group than in the control group. The expression of CTLA-4 on CD8+ lymphocytes was significantly higher in the histiocytic sarcoma group than in the other two groups. In addition, the expression of PD-1 on CD8+ lymphocytes was significantly higher in the histiocytic sarcoma group than in the control group. However, no significant differences in CD28 expressions and serum IFN-γ levels were observed. The present results provided evidence showing that the expression levels of CTLA-4 on both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and PD-1 on CD8+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood obtained from dogs with histiocytic sarcoma were upregulated. The overexpressions of CTLA 4 and PD-1 suggested that antitumor immunity may be suppressed in dogs with histiocytic sarcoma.
  • Naoya Maekawa, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Asami Nishimori, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Yusuke Izumi, Satoshi Takagi, Yumiko Kagawa, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Yukinari Kato, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
    PloS one 11 6 e0157176  2016年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.
  • Maekawa N, Konnai S, Ikebuchi R, Okagawa T, Adachi M, Takagi S, Kagawa Y, Nakajima C, Suzuki Y, Murata S, Ohashi K
    PloS one 9 6 e98415  2014年 [査読有り][通常論文]
     
    Programmed death 1 (PD-1), an immunoinhibitory receptor, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), its ligand, together induce the "exhausted" status in antigen-specific lymphocytes and are thus involved in the immune evasion of tumor cells. In this study, canine PD-1 and PD-L1 were molecularly characterized, and their potential as therapeutic targets for canine tumors was discussed. The canine PD-1 and PD-L1 genes were conserved among canine breeds. Based on the sequence information obtained, the recombinant canine PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins were constructed; they were confirmed to bind each other. Antibovine PD-L1 monoclonal antibody effectively blocked the binding of recombinant PD-1 with PD-L1-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner. Canine melanoma, mastocytoma, renal cell carcinoma, and other types of tumors examined expressed PD-L1, whereas some did not. Interestingly, anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment enhanced IFN-γ production from tumor-infiltrating cells. These results showed that the canine PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is also associated with T-cell exhaustion in canine tumors and that its blockade with antibody could be a new therapeutic strategy for canine tumors. Further investigations are needed to confirm the ability of anti-PD-L1 antibody to reactivate canine antitumor immunity in vivo, and its therapeutic potential has to be further discussed.

講演・口頭発表等

  • 動物のがん免疫療法  [招待講演]
    前川直也
    第19回日本再生医療学会総会 2020年05月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 免疫チェックポイント阻害抗体を用いた免疫療法  [招待講演]
    前川直也
    第3回獣医がん分子生物研究会 2019年09月 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 腫瘍免疫の基礎と応用-免疫チェックポイント阻害剤を用いたイヌ腫瘍治療の試み-  [招待講演]
    前川直也
    第14回日本獣医再生医療学会年次大会 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • 免疫抑制因子PD-1およびPD-L1を標的としたイヌ腫瘍に対する新規免疫療法の検討  [招待講演]
    前川直也, 今内覚, 村田史郎, 大橋和彦
    第161回日本獣医学会学術集会 臨床分科会(小動物)シンポジウム 口頭発表(招待・特別)
  • イヌ腫瘍における免疫チェックポイント分子の解析と新規免疫療法樹立への応用研究  [招待講演]
    前川直也
    第161回日本獣医学会学術集会 日本獣医学会企画(奨励賞) 口頭発表(招待・特別)

その他活動・業績

受賞

  • 2018年09月 日本獣医学会 獣医学奨励賞
     
    受賞者: 前川 直也
  • 2016年08月 The 11th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium IUIS VIC/EVIG Travel Award
     
    受賞者: 前川 直也
  • 2014年03月 北海道獣医師会 北海道獣医師会長賞
     
    受賞者: 前川 直也

共同研究・競争的資金等の研究課題

  • イヌ腫瘍に対する次世代型免疫チェックポイント阻害抗体薬の創出とその応用研究
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 若手研究
    研究期間 : 2021年04月 -2023年03月 
    代表者 : 前川 直也
  • 家畜悪性感染症における免疫破綻の分子機序の解明および新規制御法の開発
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 国際共同研究加速基金(国際共同研究強化(B))
    研究期間 : 2019年10月 -2023年03月 
    代表者 : 今内 覚, 前川 直也, 岡川 朋弘
  • 免疫チェックポイント分子などに対するエフェクター活性を有するイヌ用抗体医薬の創出
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 若手研究
    研究期間 : 2019年04月 -2021年03月 
    代表者 : 前川 直也
  • 伴侶動物の腫瘍における免疫抑制因子を標的とした新規免疫療法の開発
    日本学術振興会:科学研究費助成事業 特別研究員奨励費
    研究期間 : 2015年04月 -2018年03月 
    代表者 : 前川 直也
     
    本研究では、イヌの腫瘍治療を目的として免疫抑制因子Programmed death-1(PD-1)およびPD-ligand 1(PD-L1)の発現解析・機能解析を行う。さらに治療用抗PD-L1抗体を作成し、腫瘍罹患犬を用いた臨床研究を行い、その治療効果を評価することが最終目標である。 前年度までにPD-L1発現解析による対象腫瘍の決定、必要な量の治療用抗体の準備を終え、臨床研究を開始した。本年度は臨床試験を継続することとし、腫瘍罹患犬に治療用抗PD-L1抗体を投与し、安全性や治療効果を評価したところ、悪性黒色腫または未分化肉腫罹患犬の一部で腫瘍が明確に縮小したほか、肺転移のある悪性黒色腫罹患犬では生存期間が延長された可能性が示された。この臨床試験では延べ9頭の腫瘍罹患犬に対し各々複数回の抗体投与を行ったが(総数63回)、タンパク質製剤を投与したことに起因するアレルギー反応等の有害事象は観察されなかった。また治療に起因すると考えられる自己免疫疾患等の免疫関連有害事象も観察されなかった。上記臨床研究の成果を原著論文にまとめ、Scientific Reports誌に誌上発表並びにプレスリリースを行った。さらにマウス腫瘍モデルにおいて抗PD-1/PD-L1治療と相乗効果を示し、イヌでの安全性がこれまでに確認されていた低分子医薬品2種類について併用治療を各2頭ずつ実施したが、明確な効果の増強は観察されなかった。本研究成果は抗PD-L1抗体がイヌ難治性腫瘍の治療薬として有用であることを明らかとし、さらなる評価の実施を強く後押しするものである。


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